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Bibliography on Sociocybernetics


A bibliography of social cybernetics


compiled by

Felix Geyer
SISWO (Netherlands Universities' Institute for Co-ordination of Research in Social Sciences),
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

and

Johannes van der Zouwen
Department of Social Research Methodology, Vrije Universiteit,
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

third edition, July 1998

Free copies of this third edition (July 1998) are obtainable from:
SISWO. Plantage Muidergracht 4.1018 TV Amsterdam.The Netherlands.
Phone: X31.20.5270600 Fax: X31.20.6229430



Prefaces

Preface to the first edition
When we were asked by professor Brian H. Rudall, the editor of Kybernetes, to write a review article about the developments in social cybernetics over the past twenty years, we felt the need to make an inventory of the literature about this subject, published in journals and books in the area of cybernetics as well as in the domain of the social sciences.
Social cybernetics can be defined as the application of concepts, insights and methods of cybernetics to the study of society and any of its subdivisions. To the extent that the cybernetics applied has to be characterized as 'second-order' cybernetics, we prefer to use the term 'sociocybernetics'. For a short discussion on this terminology we refer to our article "Cybernetics and Social Science: Theories and Research in Sociocybernetics", in the special (November 1991) issue of Kybernetes.
We started the compilation of the bibliography with a (DIALOG) computer search in the databases of Sociological Abstracts (SA), US Political Science Documents (PSD), Dissertation Abstracts (DA), and the Library of Congress (LCCN), using as keywords all combinations and permutations of the terms 'cybernetics' and 'systems'. From the files that were produced, we selected those publications which clearly belong to the domain of social cybernetics, are written in a language, more or less, understandable by us (i.e., English, German, French, Dutch, Italian and Spanish) and which are in principle obtainable through normal library exchange traffic. We excluded unpublished conference papers and most unpublished PhD.-dissertations.
At the same time we started a systematic search for social cybernetics literature published in recent volumes of the General Systems Yearbook, Systems Research, and Kybernetes, and in recently published volumes on social cybernetics. The material collected through both procedures formed the point of departure of a 'snowball procedure', in which we scanned the references in the selected publications, for publications that had to be added to the list. Up till now, the result of this effort is a draft version of the bibliography, containing over 300 items.
However, we are convinced that there are still relevant publications lacking. We therefore strongly invite the reader to mention these missing publications to the editors, at the address of SISWO mentioned below. We hope that, with your help, the next version of this bibliography will be as complete as possible. Finally, we gratefully mention the assistance to the editors given by dr. Willem Verloren van Themaat of SISWO.

Felix Geyer & Johannes van der Zouwen


Preface to the second edition
Papers and books on social cybernetics published over the last three years, are added to this bibliography. Suggestions leading to a more complete bibliography are most welcome.

The editors


Preface to the third edition
Again, paper and books on social cybernetics published over the last four years, are added to this bibliography.Again, paper and books on sociocybernetics published over the last four years are added to this bibliography. As a result of recent developments, not least of all the recent growth of the ISA Working Group on Sociocybernetics which deals with both first-order and second-order cybernetics - as do developments in autopoiesis studies, chaos theory, complexity studies, etc. - we have decided not to keep up the distinction between social cybernetics and sociocybernetics made in the preface to the first edition, and consequently rename this third edition "Bibliography on Sociocybernetics". Again, suggestions leading to a more complete bibliography are most welcome..

The Editors



A list by alphabetical order


A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M -N - Ñ - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z


A
Ackoff, R. L. (1974), Redesigning the Future. A Systems Approach to Societal Problems. John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Ackoff, R.L. (1996), On pairs and trios: The smallest social systems. Systems Research 13(4), 435-446.

Ackoff, R.L. & J. Gharajedaghi (1996), Reflections on systems and their models. Systems Research 13(1), 13-23.

Adams, D., A. Ahmad, D. Haynes & J. Sheehan (1993), Embodiments of Beer's Educational Model. Kybernetes, 22(6), 44-59.

Aggarwal, R. & J.K. Weekly (1982),Determinants of Nutrition Levels in Mexico: Application of an Inter-national Multidimensional Model. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1982, 135-146.

Ahlemeyer, H.W. (1997), Observing observations empirically: methodological innovations in applied sociocybernetics. Kybernetes 26(6/7), 641-660.

Alfeld, L. & D. Meadows (1972), A systems approach to urban revival. In: Mesarovic & Reisman, 1972, 43-67.

Alker, H. R. Jr. (1981), From Political Cybernetics to Global Modeling. In: R.C. Merritt & B.M. Russett (eds.), From National Development to Global Community. George Allen & Unwin, London, 1981, 353-378.

Anderson, B. (1990), Frames and dynamic models of political systems. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1990, 69-83.

Archer, M. (1985), Structuration versus morphogenesis. In: S.N. Eisenstadt & H.J. Helle (eds.), Macro Sociological Theory: Perspectives on Sociological Theory. Sage, London, 1985, 59-68.

Arnopoulos, P. (1993), Ideal-Real Links: A study of the act-fact interface. Kybernetes 22(3), 20-34.

Artigiani, R. (1991), Social Change: Insights and Implications from Contemporary Science, In: Geyer (ed.) 1991, 187-197.

Arvidsson, A. (1997), Reconstructing the public sphere: AST and the observation of postmodernity. Kybernetes 26(6/7), 661-673.

Atkin, R.H. (1977), Combinatorial Connectivities in Social Systems; An Application of Simplicial Complex Structures to the Study of Large Organizations. Birkhäuser, Basel & Stuttgart, 1977.

Atkin, R. H. (1982), The Methodology of Q-Analysis Applied to Social Systems. In: Cavallo, 1982, 45-74.

Aulin-Ahmavaara, A.Y. (1977), A General Theory of Acts, with Application to the Distinction between Rational and Irrational 'Social Cognition'. Zeitschrift für allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 8(2), 195-220.

Aulin-Ahmavaara, A.Y. (1979a), Notes on regulation and control. Kybernetes 8(3), 213-215.

Aulin-Ahmavaraa, A.Y. (1979b), The Law of Requisite Hierarchy. Kybernetes 8(4), 259-266.

Aulin-Ahmavaara, A.Y. (1979c), A cybernetic social theory: Part I. Application to a re-evaluation of production relations and the class notion. Quality and Quantity 13(3), 267-274.

Aulin-Ahmavaraa, A.Y. (1981), The impossibility of genuinely self-steering machines: A fundamental theorem on actor-systems. Kybernetes 10(2), 113-121.

Aulin, A. (1982), The Cybernetic Laws of Social Progress; Towards a Critical Social Philosophy and a Criticism of Marxism. Pergamon Press, Oxford.

Aulin, A. (1984), Sociocybernetics as the science of self-steering human action. Kybernetes 13(3), 147-155.
.
Aulin, A. (1985), Cybernetic causality: A unitary theory of causal recursion in natural and social systems. Mathematical Social Sciences 10, 103-130.

Aulin, A. (1986a), Notes on the concept of self-steering. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1986, 100-118.

Aulin, A.Y. (1986b), Cybernetic causality II: Causal recursion in goal-directed systems, with applications to evolution dynamics and economics. Mathematical Social Sciences 12, 227-264.

Aulin, A.Y. (1987), Cybernetic causality III: The qualitative theory of self-steering and social development. Mathematical Social Sciences, 13, 101-140.

Aulin, A. (1990), Foundations of Mathematical System Dynamics; The Fundamental Theory of Causal Recursion and its Application to Social Science and Economics. Pergamon, Oxford.

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B
Babüroglu, O.N. (1982), Towards a theory of stalemated social systems: The Turkish case. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1982, 89-103.

Babüroglu, O.N. (1991), Is the end of free fall free fall? The focus of adaptation in vortical environments. In: Geyer (ed.) 1991, 209-221.

Baert, P. & de Schampheleire, J. (1988), Autopoiesis, self-organisation and symbolic interactionism: Some convergences. Kybernetes 17(1), 60-69.

Bahm, A. (1983), Five Systems Concepts of Society. Reprinted from Behavioral Science (1983, 204-218) in General Systems 28, 1983/84, 43-57.

Bailey, K. D. (1983), Sociological Entropy Theory. Toward a statistical and verbal congruence. Quality and Quantity 18, 113-133.

Bailey, K. D. (1985), Systems as clusters. Behavioral Science 30(2), 98-107.

Bailey, K. D. (1987), Postfunctional social systems theory. General Systems 30, 41-45.

Bailey, K.D. (1990), Social Entropy Theory. State University of New York Press, Albany.

Bailey, K.D. (1994), Sociology and the New Systems Theory: Toward a Theoretical Synthesis. State University of New York Press, Albany.

Bailey, K.D. (1997), System entropy analysis. Kybernetes 26(6/7), 674-688.

Bailey, K.D. (1997a), The autopoiesis of social systems: Assessing Luhmann's theory of self-reference. Systems Research and Behavioral Science 14(2), 83-100.

Barbesino, P. (1997), Towards a post-foundational understanding of community. Kybernetes 26(6/7), 689-702.

Bates, F. L. & C. C. Harvey (1975), The Structure of Social Systems. Gardner Press, New York.

Baumgartner, T. (1978), An actor-oriented systems model for the analysis of industrial democracy measures. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1978, Vol. 1, 55-77.

Baumgartner, T. (1984) Limits to societal self-steering: Lessons from an actor-oriented systems approach to inflation in the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Kybernetes 13(3), 179-184.

Baumgartner, T. (1986), Actors, models and limits to societal self-steering. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1986, 9-25.

Baumgartner, T. & T.R. Burns (1982), Wealth and Poverty Among Nations; A Social Systems Perspective on Inequality, Uneven Development and Dependence in the World Economy. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1982, 3-22.

Baumgartner, T., T. R. Burns & Ph. DeVillé (1978), Actors, games, and systems: the dialectics of social action and system structuring. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1978, Vol. 1, 27-54.

Baumgartner, T., T.R. Burns, P. DeVillé & B. Gauci (1982), Inflation, Politics , and Social Change; Actor-oriented Systems Analysis Applied to Explain the Roots of Inflation in Modern Society. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1982, 59-88.

Baumgartner, T., T. R. Burns & Ph. DeVillé (1986), The shaping of socio-economic systems; the application of the theory of actor-system dynamics to conflict, social power, and institutional innovation in economic life. Gordon and Breach, New York.

Baumgartner, T., T. R. Burns & L. D. Meeker (1977), The description and analysis of system stability and change: Multi-level concepts and methodology. Quality and Quantity 11, 287-328.

Baumgartner, T. & B. Gauci (1991), Are Economists Xaxosians? A Sociocybernetic Inquiry into Economic Theorizing, Policymaking and Behavior. In: Geyer (ed.) 1991, 199-208.

Bausch, K.C. (1997), The Habermas/Luhmann debate and subsequent Habermasian perspectives on systems theory. Systems Research and Behavioral Science 14(5), 315-330.

Beer, S. (1974), Designing freedom. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, Ontario.

Beer, S. (1993), World in torment: A time whose idea must come. Kybernetes 22(6), 15-43

Beishon, J. & G. Peters (eds.)(1972), Systems Behaviour. Harper & Row, London.

Beniger, J. R. (1978), Control theory and social change: toward a synthesis of the system and action approaches. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1978, Vol. 2, 15-27.

Beniger, J.R. (1982), Stratification and Control in Social Exchange Networks: Toward a Systems Analysis Based on Survey Methods. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1982, 251-266.

Beniger, J.R. & C.I. Nass (1984), Preprocessing and societal control: Neglected component of sociocybernetics. Kybernetes 13(3) 173-177. Also in Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1986, 119-130.

Benseler, F., P. M. Hejl & W. K. Köck (eds.)(1980), Autopoiesis, Communication, and Society. The Theory of Autopoietic System in the Social Sciences. Campus Verlag, Frankfurt & New York.

Benton, C.F. & K. Kijima (1996), Maintaining foreign subsidiaries' ability to self-organize in the Japanese market. Systems Research 13(4), 447-456.

Bergmann, W. (1981), Die Zeitstrukturen sozialer Systeme: Eine systemtheoretische Analyse. Duncker und Humblot, Berlin.

Berlinski, D. (1978), Adverse Notes on Systems Theory. In: Klir, 1978, 949-960.

Berrien, F. K. (1968), General and Social Systems. Rutgers University Press, New Brunswick NJ.

Berrien, F.K. (1971), A General Systems Approach to Human Groups. In: M.D. Rubin (ed.) Man in Systems. Gordon and Breach, New York, 119-137.

Blanning, R.W., J.R. Marsden, D.E. Pingry & A.C. Seror (1992), Intelligent Models of Economic and Social Systems. In: C.V. Negoita (ed.), Cybernetics and Applied Systems. Marcel Dekker, New York, 163-171.

Blumstein, A. (1972), Systems analysis of crime control and the criminal justice system. In: Mesarovic & Reisman, 253-273.

Booker, D.M.M. (1978), Are societies Turing machines? Some implications of the cyclical majority problem, an NP complete problem, for cybernetic models of social systems. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1978, Vol. 1, 105-127.

Bosk, Ch. (1974), Cybernetic Hasidism: An Essay on Social and Religious Change. Sociological Inquiry 44(2), 131-144.

Bossel, H. (1976), Information processing, cognitive dissonance, and basic needs: the modelling of behavior. In: Bossel et al., 1976, 423-472.

Bossel, H., S. Klaczko & N. Müller (eds.)(1976), Systems Theory in the Social Sciences. Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel & Stuttgart.

Braga, G. (1962), Prospettive cibernetiche in sociologia. Rassegna di Sociologia 3(4), 537-557.

Bråten, S. (1973), Model Monopoly and Communication: Systems Theoretical Notes on Democratization. Acta Sociologica 16(2), 98-107.

Bråten, S. (1978), Systems Research and Social Sciences. In: Klir, 1978, 655-685.

Bråten, S. (1981), Quality of Interaction and Participation: On model power in industrial democracy and computer networks. In: G. Lasker (ed.) Applied Systems and Cybernetics, Vol. 1, 1981, 191-200. Reprinted in General Systems 27, 1982, 241-250.

Braten, S. (1984), The Third Position - Beyond artificial and autopoietic reduction. Kybernetes 13(3), 157-163. Also in Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1986, 193-205.

Bråten, S., E. Jahren & A. Jansen (1982), Social Networks and Multilevel Structure: System Description and Simulations. In: Cavallo, 1982, 113-141.

Brix, V.H. (1982a), Current social problems analysed by control and systems theory (Part A. The theory of interdependence). Kybernetes 11(2), 87-95.

Brix, V.H. (1982b), Current social problems analysed by control and systems theory (Part B. Bureaucracy and politics). Kybernetes 11(3), 167-174.

Broderick, C & J. Smith (1979), The General Systems Approach to the Family. In: W. Burr, et al (eds.), Contemporary Theories about the Family, Vol. 2. The Free Press, New York, 112-129.

Broekstra, G. (1979), Probabilistic Constraint Analysis for structure identification: an overview and some social science applications. In: B.P. Zeigler et al (eds.), Methodology in Systems Modelling and Simulation. North Holland, Amsterdam, 1979.

Brozyna, J. (1997), Absolute limit in the development of civilization. Kybernetes 26(2/3), 207-216.

Buchanan, B. (1997), Assessing human values. Kybernetes, 26(6/7), 703-715.

Buck, G., Friedrich, J., Sens, E., Wagner, W. (1970), Kybernetische Systemtheorie. Ein Instrument zur Analyse Revolutionären Sozialen Wandels. Politische Vierteljahresschrift Sonderheft 2, 40-51.

Buckley, W. (1967), Sociology and Modern Systems Theory. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs NJ.

Buckley, W. (ed.)(1968), Modern Systems Research for the Behavioral Scientist: A Sourcebook. Aldine, Chicago.

Buckley, W. (1968), Society as a Complex Adaptive System. In: Buckley, 1968, 490-513.

Buckley, W. (1978), Social System Evolution and Sociobiology. In: Klir, 1978, 687-693.

Bühl, W. L. (1986), Kultur als System. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 1986 Supplement, 118-144.

Bühl, W. L. (1987), Grenzen der Autopoiesis. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 39, 221-254.

Bunge, M. (1979), A Systems Concept of Society: Beyond Individualism and Holism. Theory and Decision 10, 13-30. Reprinted in General Systems 24, 1979, 27-44.

Burns, T. R. (1988), Actors, Transactions and Social Structure. General Systems 31, 83-95.

Burns, T.R., T. Baumgartner & Ph. DeVillé (1982), Power, Conflict, and Exchange in Social Life. Uppsala University: Institute of Sociology, Uppsala.

Burns, Tom R., T. Baumgartner & Ph. DeVillé (1985), Man, Decisions, Society; The Theory of Actor-System Dynamics for Social Scientists. Gordon & Breach, New York.

Burns, T. R. & W. Buckley (eds.)(1976), Power and Control; Social Structures and Their Transformation. Sage, London.

Burns, T. R. & H. Flam (1987), The Shaping of Social Organization. Social rule system theory with applications. Sage, London.

Busch, J. A. & G. M. Busch (1981), Cybernetics IV: A System-Type Applicable to Human Groups. In: G.E. Lasker (ed.), Applied Systems and Cybernetics. New York, 1981, 1238-1243.

Busch, J. A. & G. M. Busch (1987), Sociocybernetics and Social Systems Theory. General Systems 30, 47-55.

Busch, J.A. & G.M. Busch (1988), Sociocybernetics: Rethinking Social Organization. Intersystems Publications, Salinas CA.

Byron, M.P. (1997), Crisis-driven evolutionary learning: conceptual foundations and systemic modelling - a summary abstract. Kybernetes 26(6/7), 716-724.

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C
Cadwallader, M. L. (1959), The Cybernetic Analysis of Change in Complex Social Organizations. American Journal of Sociology 65, 154-157. Reprinted in Buckley, 1968, 437-440.

Cavallo, R. & M, Conklin (1977), Systems methodology in sociology. International Journal of Systems Science 8(1), 65-80.

Cavallo, R. E. (1979), The Role of Systems Methodology in Social Science Research. Martinus Nijhoff, Boston.

Cavallo, R. (ed.)(1982), Systems Methodology in Social Science Research; Recent Developments. Kluwer Nijhoff, Boston.

Cavallo, R. & E. Ziegenhagen (1978), General Systems Methodology and Political Science. In: Klir, 1978, 695-700

Cavallo, R. & E. Ziegenhagen (1982), General Systems Modeling of Conflict within Nations. In: Cavallo, 1982, 75-93.

Charvat, F. (1972), On Philosophical Aspects of the System Conception in Contemporary Sociological Knowledge. Quality and Quantity 6, 3-16.

Choudhury, M.A. (1995), A mathematical formalization of the principle of ethical endogeneity. Kybernetes 24(5), 11- 30.

Choudury, M.A. (1996), A theory of social systems: family and ecology as examples. Kybernetes 25(5), 21-37.

Churchman, C. W. (1968), The systems approach. Dell, New York.

Cortés, F., A. Przeworski & J. Sprague (1974), Systems Analysis for Social Scientists. Wiley, New York.

Counelis, J.S. (1993), The case study: Its systemic metatheory and the social/behavioural sciences. Kybernetes 22(5), 22-34.

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D
Davydov, A.A. (1992), Theory of Harmony of Proportions and Functions in Social Systems. Systems Research 9(2), 19-25.

Degen, U., J. Friedrich, E. Sens & W. Wagner (1972), Zur Anwendung der kybernetischen Systemtheorie in den Sozialwissenschaften. In: G. Fehl, M. Fester & N. Kuhnert (eds.), Planung und Information. Gütersloh, 1972, 10ff.

Deutsch, K. W. (1963), The Nerves of Government: Models of Political Communication and Control. The Free Press of Glencoe, New York.

Deutsch, K. W. (1968), Toward a Cybernetic Model of Man and Society. In: Buckley, 1968, 387-400.

DeVillé, P.R. (1982), Dependent Development: A Multi-level System Approach with Reference to Mexico's Development. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1982, 165-184.

DeVillé, Ph. (1990), Equilibrium versus reproduction: some queries about dynamics in social systems theory. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1990, 155-173.

Diamantides, N.D. (1994), International migration as a dynamic process. Kybernetes 23 (5), 37-55.

Dijkstra, W. & J. van der Zouwen (1977), Testing auxiliary hypotheses behind the interview. Annals of Systems Research 6, 49-63.

Dijkstra, W. & J. van der Zouwen (1978), Role playing in the interview: towards a theory of artifacts in the survey-interview. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1978, Vol. 2, 59-83.

van Dijkum, C. (1996), The Methodology of Interdisciplinary Handling of Problems. In: D.J. DeTombe & C. van Dijkum (eds.), Analyzing Complex Societal Problems: A Methodological Approach. Hampp, München, 29-41.

van Dijkum, C. (1997), From cybernetics to the science of complexity. Kybernetes 26 (6/7), 725-737.

Dimitrov, V.D. (1977), Social choice and self-organization under fuzzy management. Kybernetes 6(3), 153-156.

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E
Easton, D. (1953), The Political System. New York.

Easton, D. (1965), A Framework for Political Analysis. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs.

Easton, D. (1965/68), A Systems Analysis of Political Life. Wiley, New York, 1965. Chapter 2 reprinted in Buckley, 1968, 428-436.

Emery, F.E. (ed.)(1969), Systems Thinking. Penguin Books, Harmondsworth.

Emery, F.E. & E.L. Trist (1969), Socio-technical systems. In: Emery, 1969, 281-296.

Emshoff, J. R. (1971), Analysis of Behavioral Systems. Macmillan, New York.

Epstein, S.L. (1991), Learning to Play Two-Person Games. In: Geyer (ed.) 1991, 149-162.

Etzioni, A. (1967), Toward a Theory of Societal Guidance. American Journal of Sociology 73(2), 173-187.

Etzioni, A. (1968a), The Active Society. A Theory of Societal and Political Processes. Collier-Macmillan, London.

Etzioni, A. (1968b), Toward a Theory of Guided Societal Change. Social Casework 49 (6), 335-338.

Etzioni, A. (1975), On Changing Societies. Current Sociology 23(1), 39-47.

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F
Fararo, T. J.& J. Skvoretz (1986), Action and Institution, Network and Function: The Cybernetic Concept of Social Structure. Sociological Forum 1(2), 219-250.

Forrester, J.W. (1969), Urban dynamics. MIT-Press, Cambridge (Mass.).

Forrester, J. W. (1971), Understanding the Counterintuitive Behavior of Social Systems. Technology Review, 73 (3), 52-68. Reprinted in Beishon & Peters, 1972. Translated in German and reprinted in Kade & Hujer, 1974, 201-239.

Friedriech, J. & E. Sens (1976), Systemtheorie und Theorie der Gesellschaft: Zur Gegenwartigen Kybernetik-Rezeption in den Sozialwissenschaften. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie 28(1), 27-47.

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G
Garciá-Olivares, A. (1993), Self-organisation and intermittency in social systems: Towards a science of complexity. Kybernetes 22(3), 9-19.

Garson, G.D. (1994), Social science computer simulation: Its history, design, and future. Social Science Computer Review 12(1), 55-82.

Geurts, J.L.A. (1974)., Systeemleer, model en methode in de sociologie. Sociologische Gids 21(4), 209-224.

Geyer, F. (1974), Alienation and General Systems Theory. Sociologia Neerlandica 10, 18-40.

Geyer, F. (1978), Two separate realities: dyadic communication problems resulting from interpersonal differences in internal complexity. In: Klir, 1978, 873-890.

Geyer, R.F. (1980), Alienation Theories: A General Systems Approach. Pergamon, Oxford.

Geyer, F. (1990), Political alienation and environmental complexity reduction. Kybernetes 19(2), 11-31.

Geyer, F. (1991a), Modern forms of alienation in high-complexity environments; A systems approach. Kybernetes 20(2), 10-28.

Geyer, F. (ed.)(1991b), The Cybernetics of Complex Systems; Self-Organisation, Evolution, and Social Change. Intersystems Publications, Salinas, CA.

Geyer, F. (1992a), Alienation in community and society: Effects of increasing environmental complexity. Kybernetes 21 (2), 33-49.

Geyer, F. (1992b), Autopoiesis and Social Systems. International Journal of General Systems 21(2), 175-184 and 259-260.

Geyer, F. (1994), Alienation, participation and increasing societal complexity. Kybernetes 23(2), 10-34.

Geyer, F. (1995), The challenge of sociocybernetics. Kybernetes 24(4), 6-32.

Geyer, F. (1996), "Virtual Communities in Cyberspace". Kybernetes 25(4), 60-66.

Geyer, F. (1997), "The promise of sociocybernetics: Solving problems in
social science", Kybernetes 26(6-7), 634-638.

Geyer, F. (1997a) (guest ed.) "Sociocybernetics: Complexity, Dynamics
and Emergence in Social Science", Kybernetes 26(6-7), 634-858.

Geyer, R. F. & J. van der Zouwen (eds.)(1978), Sociocybernetics; an actor-oriented social systems approach. Nijhoff, Leiden.

Geyer, R. F. & J. van der Zouwen (eds.)(1982), Dependence and Inequality; A Systems Approach to the Problems of Mexico and Other Developing Countries. Pergamon, Oxford.

Geyer, F. & J. van der Zouwen (eds.)(1986), Sociocybernetic Paradoxes; Observation, Control, and Evolution of Self-steering Systems. Sage, London.

Geyer, F. & J. van der Zouwen (eds.)(1990), Self-Referencing in Social Systems. Intersystems, Salinas CA.

Geyer, F. & J. van der Zouwen (1990a), Self-Referencing in Social Systems. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1990, 1-29.

Geyer, F. & J. van der Zouwen (1991), Cybernetics and social science: Theories and research in sociocybernetics. Kybernetes 20(6), 81-92.

Geyer, F. & J. van der Zouwen (1992), Sociocybernetics. In: C.V. Negoita (ed.), Cybernetics and Applied Systems. Marcel Dekker, New York, 1992, 95-124.

Geyer, F. & J. van der Zouwen (1994), Norbert Wiener and the social sciences. Kybernetes 23(6/7), 46-61.

Gharajedaghi, J, (1983), Social Dynamics: Dichotomy or dialectic. Human Systems Management 4, 1983. Reprinted in General Systems 29, 1985/86, 143-153.

Gierer, A. (1982), Systems Aspects of Socio-economic Inequalities in Relation to Developmental Strategies. In: Geyer & Van der Zouwen, 1982, 23-34.

van Gigch, J. P. (1974), Applied General Systems Theory. Harper & Row, New York.

Gilles, E.-D. (1974), Struktur und Dynamik soziologischer Systeme. Oldenbourg, München.

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