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Martes 30 de septiembre de 2014


Este periódico sobre mi propia temática se publica en, un sitio de Amazon según creo. En esta versión limitada es gratuito... y automático también. Más vale, que si no me faltarían manos para actualizarlo. Espero que también le proporcionen lectores automáticos, robotillos sufridos. Esto de aquí es sólo el widget; pinchen el título para llegar a la sustancia de la cosa.


'Metaphysical' Religious Poetry: Herbert, Crashaw, and Vaughan

From The Short Oxford History of English Literature, by Andrew Sanders:

The picturesque emotionalism of continental baroque art was a central feature of the Counter-Reformation crusade to win back the hearts and souls of those lost to the Roman Church by the fissures of the Reformation. Protestant England remained largely untouched by the more heady pictorial and architectural styles sponsored by the Pope's main agents in the campaign, the Jesuits, but, despite gestures of resistance and disapproval, a degree of Jesuit spirituality left its mark on English literature. The martyred missionary priest, Robert Southwell (?1561-95, canonized in 1970), managed to work secretly for nine perilous years in England before his execution; his books circulated far less secretly. The prose meditation, Marie Magdalens Funeral Teares, which was published in 1591, ran through some seven further editions by 1636, and the two collections of verse, Saint Peters complaynt, with other Poems  and Moeoniae: or, Certaine excellent Poems and Spiritual Hymnes, both of which contain poems written during his three-year imprisonment, were printed in London in the year of his death. Southwell's poems were respected both by Roman Catholics and byAnglicans, the extraordinarily contrived Christmas meditation, 'The Burning Babe', being particularly admired by Ben Jonson. Donne, the author of the scurrilous anti-Jesuit tract Ignatius His Conclave of 1611 and who eight years later feared for his safety at the hands of 'such adversaries, as I cannot blame for hating me' when he travelled across Germany, was none the less influenced by the kind of meditative religious exercises recommended to the faithful by the founder of the Society of Jesus. St. Ignatius Loyola's Spiritual Exercises had been approved by the Pope in 1648 as a manual of systematic devotion which employed sense impressions, the imagination, and the understanding as a means of prompting the spirit to consider the lapsed human and the glorious divine condition. The Ignatian method was not unique (it drew on late medieval precedents and it was developed by later Spanish and French churchmen) but its currency was assured by the missionary and educational work undertaken by the Jesuits. The fact that such regulated guides to meditation could be used privately meant that they appealed, with varying degrees of excision, to secluded Recusants, devout Anglicans, and soul-searching Puritans alike.

A similar spiritual cross-fertilization is evident in the popularity of emblem books in seventeenth-century England. The emblem consisted of three interrelated parts—a motto, a symbolic picture, and an exposition—each of which suggested a different means of vconsidering and apprehending a moral or religious idea. The form had had a certain currency as a learned, and generally secular, educational device in the sixteenth century, but its renewed applivation to private relisious study and its intermixture of Latin motto, biblical quotation, engraved and ostensibly enigmatic picture, and English poem made for a widespread influence which readily cut across confessional barriers. Francis Quarles's Emblemes, Divine and Morall (1635) proved to be the most popular book of verse of its age. Quarles (1592-1644) and his engraver took and, where Protestant occassion demanded, adapted plates from Jesuit emblem books; only the disappointingly pedestrian accompanying poems were original. Emblemes and its successor Hieroglyphicks of the Life of Man (1638) demand that the reader interpret and gradually unwind an idea which is expressed epigrammatically, visually, and poetically. 'The embleme is but a silent parable', quarles insisted in his address to the user of his books, and he goes on to suggest the importance of the linkage of word and picture: 'Before the knowledge of letters, God was knowne by Hieroglyphicks; And indeed, what are the Heavens, the Earth, nay every Creature, but Hieroglyphicks and Emblemes of his Glory?' The moral message is, however, predominantly one which stresses a conventionally Christian contempt for the world ('O what a crocodilian world is this / Compos'd of treach'ries, and insnaring wiles', 'O whither will this mad-brain world at last / Be driven? Where will her restless wheels arrive?'), and the pictures variously show children confusing a wasps' nest for a beehive in a globe, fools sucking at a huge earth-shaped breast, and a figure of vanity smoking a pipe while perched perilously on a tilting orb.

The intellectual demands made on a reader by an emblem book were paralleled by the wit, the imaginative picturing, the compression, the often crytic expression, the play of paradoxes, and the juxtapositions of metaphor in the work of Donne and his immediate followers, the so-called 'metaphysical poets'. The use of the term 'metaphysical' in this context was first given critical currency by Samuel Johnson in the eighteenth century and it sprang from an unease, determined by 'classical' canons of taste, with the supposed contortions of the style and imagery of Donne and Cowley. Johnson had a particular distaste for the far-fetched strained 'conceits' (witty and ingenious ideas) in which Donne's poetry abounds. This prejudice against the distinct 'metaphysical' style had earlier been shared by Quarles, who in 1629 complained of 'the tyranny of strong lines, which . . . are the meere itch of wit; under the colour of which many have ventured . . . to write non-sense'. The work of Donne's friend, admirer, and fellow-priest, George Herbert (1593-1633), possesses a restrained and contemplative rapture which is paralleled less by the extravagances of southern European baroque art than by the often enigmatic paintings of his French contemporary, Georges de la Tour. Herbert's own 'itch of wit' can none the less find its expression in playing with the shapes and sounds of words: he puns in his title to 'The Collar' and with the name 'Jesu' in the poem of that name he teases letters in his 'Anagram of the Virgin Marie'; in 'Heaven' he exploits echo-effects as delightedly as did his Venetian musical contemporaries, and he gradually reduces words to form new ones in 'Paradise'. His relationship to the emblem book tradition is evident in his printing of certain of his poems as visual designs (the shapes of 'The Altar' and the sideways printed 'Easter Wings' make patterns which suggest their subjects). If he is a less frenetic and startling poet than Donne, he is a far more searching and inventive one than Quarles. The two poems called 'Jordan' (from the fount of their inspiration' describe the act of writing a sacred poetry which eschews a structural 'winding stair' and the 'curling with metaphors' of a 'plain intention'. As with his most influential models, the parables of Jesus, Herbert's illustrations of the central mysteries of God and his creation take the form of sharply observed but 'plain' stories drawn from, and illuminated by, everyday experience.

The elegance of Herbert's poetry is as much the result of art as it is an expression of a cultivated, but not forced, spiritual humility. He had been nborn into a distinguished and cultured noble family but his decision to take deacon's orders in 1626, and his ordination to the priesthood and appointment as rector of a country parish in 1630 struck many of his grand contemporaries as a deliberate turning of his back on secular ambition. According to Izaak Walton, Herbert responded to a friend who taxed him with taking 'too mean an employment, and too much below his birth' that 'the Domestick Servants of the King of Heaven, should be of the noblest Families on Earth'. He would, he insisted, make 'Humility lovely in the eyes of all men'. Herbert's work is permeated with reference to service and to Christ as the type of the suffering servant, but his poetry is equally informed by a gentlemanly grasp of the chivalric code of obligation. Society, as we glimpse it in this world and the next, is hierarchical and ordered, and the human response to God's love can be expressed in terms of an almost feudal obligation. In 'The Pearl', for example, the poet insists that he knows 'the wayes of Honour, what maintains / The quick returns of courtesie and wit'. In the first of the poems called 'Affliction' he describes a changing understanding of service to a liege-lord, a service which at first gives rich satisfaction ('Thy glorious household-stuffe did me entwine') and brings rewards('thou gav'st me milk and sweetness; I had my wish and way'); as a process of disillusion sets in, the poem allows a sense of betrayal to surface, but this in turn is transformed by the final  insistence on an obligation shaped not by duty but by the more pressing demands of love ('Ah my deare God! though I am clean forgot, / Let me not love thee, if I love thee not'). 'Redemption' describes a tenant's search for his 'rich Lord' only to find him mortally wounded amid 'a ragged noise and mirth / Of theeves and murderers'; the magnanimity of the Lord is proved in a dying gesture of assent to the tenant's request. In 'The Collar' the remarkable evocation of impatient resistance to service ens as the 'raving' protests subside in response to the steady call of Christ. The call to the 'Child' (perhaps here both the disciple and a youth of gentle birth) evokes the willing reply 'My Lord'.

Herbert's vocation as a priest of the Church of England, and his loyalty to its rituals, calendar, and discipline is central both to his prose study of the ideal country parson, A Priest to the Temple (published in The Remaines of that Sweet Singer of the Temple George Herbert in 1652), and to his Latin sequence Musae Responsariae (1633) (poems which assert the propriety of Anglican ceremonial and orders in the face of Puritan criticism). It is however, in The Temple, the influential collection of his English poems published posthumously in 1633, that Herbert most fully expresses his aspirations, failures, and triumphs as a priest and as a believer. Sections of The Temple are shaped according to the spiritual rhythms and the ups and downs of religious experience. More significantly, the volume as a whole possesses both an architectonic and a ritual patterning which derives from the shape of an English parish church and from the festivals and feasts celebrated within its walls. The whole work is prefaced by a gnomic poetic expression of conventional moral advice to a young man. The title of this preliminary poem, 'The Church-Porch', serves as a reminder not only of a preparatory exercise before worship but also of the physical importance of the porch itself (once the setting of important sections of certain church services). The titles of poems in the body of the volume ('The Church') imply both a movement through the building noting its features ('The Altar', 'Chruch Monuments', 'Church-lock and key', 'The Church-floore', 'The Windows') and the significance of its liturgical commemorations ('Good Friday', 'Easter', 'H. Baptisme', 'The H. Communion', 'Whitsunday', 'Sunday', 'Christma'). Interspersed are meditations on Christian belief and the varied expeerience of the Christian life. The 'sacramental' poems have a particular importance. By means of repeated words and phrases 'Aaron' establishes a balanced contrast between the ceremonially vested Jewish priest and his spiritually defective modern Christian counterpart. The poem's debate is determined by an exploration of the import of the words 'Holiness to the Lord' engraved on Aaron's ceremonial mitre. It is only when Christ himself is recognized as the true sanctifier of the parish priest that all unworthiness falls away and the vested minister can properly present himself to his congregation, ready to celebrate the Holy Communion: 'Come people; Aaron's drest'. The theology and typology of eucharistic celebration are also explored in 'The Agonie' and the concluding poem of the volume, 'Love III'. 'The Agonie' takes as its central issue the human study of Sin and Love. The effect of Sin is revealed in an agonized Christ 'so wrung with pains, that all his hair, / His skinne, his garments bloudie be'. The very hyperbole here allows for the conceit on which the poem turnes; Sin is a wine-press painfully proving the worth of Love and when in the concluding stanza the crucified Christ's blood flows from his side it is mystically perceived as sacramental wine: 'Love is that liquour sweet and most divine, / Which my God feels as bloud; but I, as wine'. Bitterness is transubstantiated into sweetness. 'Love' takes the form of a colloquy in which the Lord, personified as Love, welcomes the sinner to his feast, insistently answering each protest of unworthiness with a gentle assertion of his grace:

And know you not, sayes Love, who bore the blame?
      My deare, then I will serve.
You must sit downe, sayes Love, and taste my meat:
      So I did sit and eat.

The uneasy guest and the would-be servant are entertained as equals.

Throughout The Temple the quekings of fear, the doubts, and the attempts at rebellion are subsumed in a quiet loyalty inspired by the love of a generous God. Restlessness, as seen in the deftly argued parrable of free will, 'The Pulley', prompts the soul to seek heavenly comfort. In 'Affliction III' the very utterance of the heaved sigh 'O God!' is interpreted as a barely recognized sign of redemption and as an admission of shared sorrow ('Thy life on earth was grief, and thou art still / Constant unto it'). Even the figure of Death, in the poem of that name, loses its skeletal terrors by being transformed by the sacrifice of Christ into something 'fair and full of grace, / much in request, much sought for as a good'. Herbert's 'Prayer before Sermon', appended to A Priest to the Temple, addresses a God who embodies 'patience, and pity, and sweetness, and love', one who has exalted his mercy above all things and who has made salvation, not punishment, his glory.

According to Izaac Walton's account, the dying Herbert entrusted the manuscript of his poems to his pious friend Nicholas Ferrar (1592-1637) who in 1625 had retired to his estate at Little Gidding in Huntingdonshire to establish a 'Little Colledge', or religious community of men and women, dedicated to the 'constant and methodical service of God'. Ferrar was instructed that he would find in The Temple 'a picture of the many Conflicts that have past betwixt God and my Soul' and he was allowed to choose whether to publish or burn the manuscript. As his short preface of 1633 indicates, he clearly recognized both the quality of the poems and their significance to the increasingly beleaguered discipline of the Church of England. Although his community impressed Charles I, it steadily provoked the hostility of those Puritans who criticized it as an 'Arminian Nunnery' and who in 1646 finally succeeded in breaking it up.

Richard Crashaw (1613-49) was, through his friendship with Ferrar, a regular visitor and keeper of vigils at Little Gidding. He was the son of a particularly zealous Puritan 'Preacher of Gods worde' who had made himself conspicuous as an anti-Papist. Crashaw's own religious pilgrimage was to take him in an opposite direction to his father. As a student of Cambridge and later as a fellow of Peterhouse he closely associated himself with the extreme Laudian party in the University. Deprived of his fellowship after the college chapel, to which he had contributed fittings, was desecrated by Parliamentary Commissionners in 1643 he travelled abroad, eked out a precarious existence on the fringes of Queen Henrietta Maria's court in exile, and ended his short life as the holder of a small benefice at the Holy House at Loreto in Italy. His English poetry—collected as Steps to the Temple: Sacred Poems, with other Delights of the Muses (1646, considerably expanded 1648) and later as Carmen Deo Nostro (published in Paris in 1652)—clearly shows the nature of his religious inclinations, both Anglican and Roman. The Preface to his earlier volumes proclaims his allegiance to the English Church through reference to Lancelot Andrewes and through the claim that the poems were written as 'Stepps for happy soules to climbe heaven by' under a 'roofe of Angels' at Little St Mary's Church in Cambridge; the 1652 volume more assiduously advertises the Catholic piety which had been only implicit before, and offers an apology, probably not Crashaw's own, for the 'Hymn to Saint Teresa' as 'having been writ when the author was yet among the protestants'. The frontispice to the 1648 volume showed the faithful mounting steps to a chastely decorous English church; the 1652 edition is decorated throughout with lushly Catholic devotional images.

Although the title Steps to the Temple nods back to Herbert, and though the volume contains a particularly fulsome tribute to 'the Temple of Sacred Poems, sent to a Gentlewoman', Crashaw's stylistic and structural debt to his model is limited. Crashaw is the most decoratively baroque of the English seventeenth-century poets, both in the extravagance of his subject-matter and in his choice of metaphor. Where Donne is ingenious and paradoxical, or Herbert delicately and aptly novel, Crashaw propels traditional Christian images until they soar and explode like sky-rockets or inflates them until they burst like plump confections. His verse exhibits a fixation with the human body and with bodily fluids: tears gush from eyes, milk from breasts, blood from wounds, and at times the emissions become intermixed expressions of passionate emotion. The series of 'Divine Epigrams' suggests a particular fondness for miraculous or alchemical changes of substance: not only does water become wine, or wine blood, but tears are pearls and drops of blood rubies; the water of Christ's baptism 'is washt it selfe, in washing hm'; the water with which Pilate washes his hands is 'Nothing but Teares; Each drop's a teare that weeps for her own wast'; the naked Lord on the cross is clothed by 'opening the purple wardrobe of thy side'; and the blood of the Holy Innocents is both blended with milk and translated heavenwards. A similar, surreal vision informs the triumphantly hyperbolic meditation on the Magdalen, 'The Weeper'. The tears of the penitent flow unceasingly; transformed into stars they form not simply a Milky Way in the heavens but a stream of cream from which 'a briske Cherub something sips / Whose soft influence / Adds sweetnesse to his sweetest lips'.

Crashaw's attraction to the history and the writings of the great Spanish mystic, Teresa of Avila, who was canonized in 1622, is a further reflection of his interest in highly charged religious emotion.



Le Cœur de la Rose

Le Coeur de la Rose


MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

Me avisa un compañero de que aparezco en la séptima edición del MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers: "Estaba ojeando la séptima edición del MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (...) y me encuentro que en la pág. 185 ponen tu bibliografía como ejemplo para citar material de Internet. No sólo la mencionan, sino que hay una gran ilustración de la página inicial e indicaciones para efectuar citas y referencias." ¡Albricias y otras palabras alegres!

He encontrado un PDF de este manual aquí: MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 7th ed.

Y el pantallazo es inevitable.

Doctor Faustus at the Globe


Lunes 29 de septiembre de 2014

Notas sobre Verdad y Método de H.-G. Gadamer

Reaparecidas por Scribd:

SSRN-id2364913 by sebastianmunozt


Castilla la Vieja 2

Castilla la Vieja 2


Lord Edward Herbert of Cherbury

From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.

HERBERT of Cherbury, Edward, Lord (1582-1648), elder brother of G. *Herbert, born at Eyton-on-Severn, Shropshire, into one of the foremost families of the Welsh border. In 1596, aged 14, he was enrolled as gentleman commoner at University College, Oxford. That year his father died, and Herbert became ward of Sir George Moore (later *Donne's father-in-law). At 16 he was married to his cousin Mary, daughter of Sir William Herbert of St Julians, five years Edward's senior and heiress to her father's estates in England, Wales and Ireland. By the time he was 21 the couple had had, he reports, 'divers children', of whom none survived him. He was created Knight of the Bath in 1603. His adventures are recounted by Herbert in his Life, a remarkable document, not least for its unabashed presentation of its author's martial valour, success with women, truthfulness, sweetness of breath, and other virtues. Herbert aspired to a career in public service and spent much of the time from 1608 to 1618 in France, getting to know the French aristocracy and court. He also travelled in Italy and the Low Countries, fighting at the siege of Juliers (1610).

In 1619 he became ambassador to France, on *Buckingham's recommendation. His most famous philosophical work, De Veritate, was published in Paris in 1624. He was recalled to London in 1624, where he unsuccessfully petitioned for high office. Although he joined Charles's council of war in 1629, becoming Baron Herbert of Cherbury, recognition still eluded him. To attract royal notice he wrote, in 1630, The Expedition to the Isle of Rhé, which tries to justify Buckingham's calamitous generalship, and in 1632 he began a detailed 'official' history of *Henry VIII's reign, assisted by Thomas Masters, which was published in 1649. At the outbreak of the Civil War he retired to Montgomery Castle and declined to become involved. The castle was threatened by Royalists in 1644, and he admitted a parliamentary garrison, under Sir Thomas Myddleton, in exchange for the return of his books, which had been seized. He moved to his London house in Queen Street, St Giles, and dedicated himself to philosophy, supplementing his De Veritate with De Causis Errorum and De Religione Laici, both published in 1645, and writing besides De Religione Gentilium and his autobiography (begun in 1643). In 1647 he visited Gassendi in Paris.

Herbert's De Veritate postulates that religion is common to all men and that, stripped of superfluous priestly accretions, it can be reduced to five universal innate ideas: that there is a God; that he should be worshipped; that virtue and piety are essential to worship; that man should repent of his sins; and that there are rewards and punishments after this life. It gained Herbert the title of father of English *Deism. It was widely read in the 17th cent., earning the attention and disagreement of Mersenne, Gassendi, *Descartes, and *Locke. Herbert also wrote poetry which is obscure and metrically contorted, evidently influenced by his friend Donne, but he also wrote some tender and musical love lyrics. (See also METAPHYSICAL POETS.)

Life, ed. S. Lee (1886, rev. 1906), and ed. J. M. Shuttleworth (1976); Poems English and Latin, ed. G. C. Moore Smith (1923); De Veritate, ed. and trans. M. H. Carré (1937); De Religione Laici, ed. and trans. H. R. Hutcheson (1944); R. D. Bedford, The Defence of Truth (1979).

Deism (Wikipedia)


George Herbert

From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble:

Herbert, George (1593-1633), fifth son of Sir Richard and Magdalen Herbert and younger brother of Lord *Herbert of Cherbury, born in Montgomery into a prominent family. His father died when he was 3, and in 1608 his mother, the patron of Donne, remarried Sir John Danvers, who was 20 years her junior. Educated at Westminster School where he was named king's scholar, and Trinity College, Cambridge, George published his first poems (two sets of memorial verses in Latin) in a volume mourning Prince Henry's death in 1612. But he had already, according to his earliest biographer, I. *Walton, sent his mother at the start of 1610 a New Year's letter dedicating his poetic powers to God and enclosing two sonnets ('My God, where is that ancient heat towards thee?' and 'Sure, Lord, there is enough in thee to dry'). In 1616 he was elected a major fellow of Trinity, and in 1618 appointed reader in rhetoric. In 1620 he became public orator at the university (holding this distinguished position until his resignation in 1627). He seems at this period to have been rather pushing, keen on making the acquaintance of the great and conscious of his distinction of birth. F. *Bacon and Donne were among his friends, and the public oratorship introduced him to men of influence at court. Although he was obliged, by the terms of his fellowship, to take orders within seven years, he seems to have gravitated towards a secular career, leaving his university duties to be performed by proxies. In 1624, and again in 1625, he represented Montgomery in Parliament. This fairly brief experience of worldly ambition seems, however, to have disillusioned him. He was ordained deacon, probably before the end of 1624, and installedin 1616 as a canon of Lincoln Cathedral and prebendary of Leighton Bromswold in Huntingdonshire, near *Little Gidding, where *Ferrar, whom Herbert had known at Cambridge, had recently established a religious community. Once installed, Herbert set about restoring the the ruined church at Leighton. His mother died in 1627, and his Memoriae Matris Sacrum waas published in the volume containing Donne's commemoration sermon. In March 1629 Herbert married his stepfather's cousin, Jane Danvers, and they adopted two orphaned nieces of Herbert's. He became rector of Bemerton, near Salisbury, in April 1630, being ordained priest the following September. In his short priesthood he gained a reputation for humility, energy, and charity. He was also a keen musician, and would go twice a week to hear the singing in Salisbury Cathedral which was, he said, 'Heaven upon earth'. He died of consumption shortly before his 40th birthday. When he realized he was dying he sent his English poems to his friend Ferrar with instructions to publish them, if he though they might 'turn to the advantage of any dejected soul', and otherwise to burn them. The Temple, containing nearly all his surviving English poems, was published in 1633. Outlandish Proverbs (a collection of foreign proverbs in translation) in 1640, and Herbert's prose picture of the model country parson, A Priest to the Temple, in 1652, as part of Herbert's Remains. His translation of Luigi Cornaro's Trattato de la vita sobria appeared in 1634, and his 'Brief Notes' on Juan de Valdes's Hundred and Ten Considerations in 1638. He told Ferrar that his poems represented 'a picture of the many spiritual conflicts that have passed betwixt God and my soul'. They were much admired in the 17th cent. and 13 editions of The Temple came out between 1633 and 1679. In the 18th cent. Herbert went out of fashion, though J. *Wesley adapted some of his poems. The Romantic age saw a revival, and the appreciative note in Coleridge's Biographia Literaria (1817) enhanced Herbert's reputation. Modern critics have noted the subtlety rather than the simplicity of his poems, seeing them as an attempt to express the ultimately ineffable complications of the spiritual life. The precise nature of Herbert's relationship to Calvinism has also generated debate. See Works (ed. F. E. Hutchinson, 1941); Amy M. Charles, Life (1977).


Six Centuries of Verse: Metaphysical and Devotional Poets


David Daiches - The Anglo-Saxon Elegiac Poems

From the chapter on Anglo-Saxon literature in A Critical History of English Literature, by David Daiches.

Though some of the Anglo-Saxon religious poems, especially some of those by Cynewulf and his school, express a personal devotional feeling, none of them can be said to be really lyrical in character or to have been written primarily for the purpose of exploring personal emotion. Neither the heroic nor the religious poetry of the Anglo-Saxon tends toward the lyric, and though a note of somber elegy is sometimes struck, it is rarely developed for its own sake. There is, however, a group of Anglo-Saxon poems in which a mood of lyrical elegy predominates, and these stand somewhat apart from the poetry we have already discussed. Of these The Wanderer and The Seafarer are the most similar to each other. The Wanderer is the lament of a solitary man who had once been happy in the service of a loved lord but who now, long after his lord's death and the passing away of that earlier time of happiness and friendship, has become a wanderer journeying in the paths of exile across the icy sea. The poem ends with some conventional moralizing, but the main part of the elegy is an impressive lament for departed joys, done with a plangent tone of reminiscence and an effective use of the ubi sunt? theme—"where are the snows of yesteryear?"—that was to become such a favorite in medieval literature. The Seafarer, which has the same melancholy tone, the same mingling of regret and self-pity, is the monologue of an old sailor who recalls the loneliness and hardships of a life at sea while at the same time aware of its fascination. Some critics take it to be a dialogue, in which the old sailor urges the hardships of the seafaring life against the argument of an eager young man anxious to take to the sea and attracted by the difficulties, and the poem can indeed be read in this way; but the fluctuating moods of the poem seem more impressive if taken as the alternation of weariness and fascination in the same person. Whichever way we read it, however, it is the elegiac element that stands out from among the sometimes obscure sequence of moods, which ends, like The Wanderer, with a conventional religious sentiment. The date of both these poems is uncertain: they may be almost as old as Beowulf. Both are found in the Exeter Book.

Another poem in the Exeter Book, which is generally given the title of The Wife's Lament, can also be considered as belonging to this group of elegiac monologues. It is difficult to follow the precise situation the speaker is describing, but apparently the wife has been separated from her husband and forced to dwell in a cave in the forest by the plottings of his kinsmen. In spate of the comparative obscurity of the situation, the central emotion comes through strongly, and the note of personal passion—the love and longing for the absent husband, the curse on the enemy responsible for her present plight—rings out with remarkable clarity. Similar in many ways to this poem is The Husband's Message. Here the speaker is the piece of wood on which the letter is carved: it first tells the wife its own life story and then goes on to speak the message now carved on it. The husband reminds the wife of her earlier vows, tells her that he has been driven from her by a feud, and bids her join him across the sea. Wulf and Eadwacer is another dramatic monologue, existing only in a fragment of nineteen lines in the Exeeer Book, which, for all the obscurity of the situation described, expresses and intense romantic passion in a way quite uncharacteristic of Anglo-Saxon poetry as it has come down to us. Wulf is the woman's outlawed lover and Eadwacer her hated husband, or at least the man with whom, against her will, she is forced to live. The passionate cry of

Wulf, min Wulf,     wena me þine
seoce gedydon,      þine seldcymas
murnende mod,     nales meteliste—

Wulf, my Wulf, my longings for thee
Have made me sick, thy rare visits,
It was my sorrowful heart, not want of food—

might be Iseult calling for Tristan as conceived by some nineteenth-century romantic poet. The Wife's Lament, The Husband's Message, and Wulf and Eadwacer represent all we have of Anglo-Saxon love poetry. They have not been tampered with by cleric anxious to give a moral and religious twist to the end, but have survived in all the intensity of their original utternace. How many poems in a similar style may have been lost it is impossible to tell, nor is it esasy to see for what kind of an audience this kind of poetry was written. We know to what taste the Anglo-Saxon heroic poet catered, and we can understand the appeal of the religious poetry of the age; but these passionate renderings of personal emotion, devoid of either heroic atmosphere or religious teaching, must have appealed to a taste one is not accustomed to thinking of as at all prevalent in the Anglo-Saxon period of English culture.

There is one other interesting Anglo-Saxon poem with an elegiac tone; it is a description of a ruined city (perhaps Bath) in about fifty lines, found in the Exeter Book. It is a sad picture of desolation and decay set against an account of the earlier prosperity of the place, and, though the text is imperfect, the sense of passionate regret at the passing away of what was once lively and beautiful is conveyed with impressive eloquence. No clerical improve has tagged a religious moral on to it (or, if he has, it has not survived in the incomplete version which alone is extant) and the mood is somberly fatalistic. The Ruin is not incompatible in feeling with much of Beowulf, which has its own stern sense of fate, and we can see from it how in Anglo-Saxon poetry one kind of elegiac mood was the reverse of the medal whose obverse was heroic.

The Exeter book contains nearly a hundred Anglo-Saxon riddles, some of which seem to have been translated from Latin originals comoposed in England by clerics of the seventh and eighth century and some derived from the fourth- to fifth- century Latin writer Symphosius. This from of literary amusement has little appeal for the modern reader, though many of The Riddles—which are in regular Anglo-Saxon verse form—show considerable literary skill, particularly in descriptive passages. Their chief interest today lies in the incidental glimpses they give us of the daily life of Anglo-Saxon England and the folk beliefs of the time. Similarly, the so-called "Gnomic Verses," some of which are also in the Exeter Book, and some in a British museum manuscript, with their generalizations about morals and experience and the properties of objects encountered in daily living, are of interest to the social historian as the only group of existing Anglo-Saxon poems which are not on the whole aristocratic in origin; they reflect the manners and opinions of the peasantry of the period.

Toward the end of the Anglo-Saxon period the old heroic note, so long unheard, re-emerges finely in two poems dealing with contemporary history. The Battle of Brunanburh appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicleunder the date 937: it celebrates the victory of Aethelstan of Wessex and Eadmund, his brother, against the combined forces of Olaf the Norseman, Constantine, king of Scots, and the Britons of Strathclyde. There is an important difference, however, between the heroic tone of this poem and that of the older Anglo-Saxon poetry. In the older heroic poetry, emphasis was laid on the individual hero, and his national origins were of little importance—he was one of the heroes of Germania and as such claimed the admiration of all the germanic peoples without any national prejudice. But The Battle of Brunanburh shows strong patriotic sentiment. The victory is regarded as a victory of the English forces against Norse, Scots, and Welsh enemies, and though the heroism of Æthelstan and Eadmund is celebrated, the two princes appear not as heroes in their own right so much as champions of their nation. The Battle of Maldon appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle under the date 991. It deals in the older epic manner with one of the many clashes between English and Danes that resulted from the latter's attacks on England, which culminated in the conquest of the country by Cnut (Canute) in 1012. The older heroic poems did not, of course, deal with historical events that had only just occurred, nor, as we have noted, did they show any trace of national patriotic feeling. Yet The Battle of Maldon is remarkably similar in spirit to the older heroic poetry. It is the story of a disastrous English defeat: Byrhtnoth, ealdorman of Essex, who led the English forces, fought and died in a recklessly courageous attempt to stem the Danes. The poem contains nine speeches, mostly of exhortation and encouragement to the English forces, delivered by seven different speakers; many of the English warriors are mentioned by name (though not one of the Danes is so singled out); the passionate loyalty of retainers to their chief is eloquently presented; and the tone of desperate courage against hopeless odds becomes more and more intense as the poem proceeds, to culminate after the death of Byrhtnoth in the final words of his old retainer Byrhtwold.

Hige sceal þe heardra,     heorte þe cenre,
mod sceal þe mare,     þe ure mægen lytlað.
Her lið ure ealdor     eall forheawen,
god on greote;     a mæg gnornian
seðe nu fram þis wigplegan     wendan þenceð,
Ic eom frod feores;      fram ic ne wille,
ac ic me be healfe     minum hlaforde,
be swa leofan men,     licgan þence.

Thought shall be the harder, heart the keener,
Courage shall be the more, as our might lessens.
Here lies our lord, all hewn down,
The good man in the dust; ever may he lament
Who now from this war-play thinks to turn.
I am old in years; from here I will not go,
But I by the side of my lord,
By the man so dear, purpose to lie.

And, in this high strain, Anglo-Saxon heroic poetry comes to an end.

In Search of the Dark Ages (Michael Wood)


Domingo 28 de septiembre de 2014

La Bohème (2)

Y tres: veo que tenía el micrófono con reducción de sonido.


La Grajera

La Grajera

Descenso al Buraco do Inferno de la isla de Ons

Estuvimos allí el verano pasado. No abajo del todo, claro—es la primera vez que descienden así en rappel.


Juliette Gréco a los 85 - Sous les ponts de Paris

Aquí cantando con Melody Gardot:


Ignacio Martínez de Pisón, Veinticinco años después


Sábado 27 de septiembre de 2014

Presentación de Comunicación y poder (Manuel Castells)


El Evangelio de Judas y la batalla por la realidad

Este artículo mío (que ahora reaparece por Scribd) lo escribí poco después de la publicación del desaparecido y reaparecido Evangelio de Judas, todavía no leído por más de un cristiano:

INPRO--2009-089 by Jose Ignacio Acuña

Sobre esta cuestión de la ideología como una construcción social de la realidad debería habar citado a Berger y Luckmann. Bueno, aquí los cito: ¿Quién define la realidad? —para quien no los conozca, Berger y Luckmann son lectura más esencial todavía que el Evangelio de Judas.

Terror metafísico y otros problemas con la realidad


Rajoy, Groucho de sí

Beowulf TV animation (1998)


El Pilar con la luna detrás

El Pilar con la luna detrás


Habanera (4)

Volvemos con la serie de "Nuestras Canciones Más Desconocidas" recuperando un éxito de 2010, la Habanera de Carmen:


Viernes 26 de septiembre de 2014

Chaucer - The Canterbury Tales  audiboook


Andando San Miguel 3

Andando San Miguel 3


Geoffrey Chaucer, 1: Historical Context for the Canterbury Tales


Geoffrey Chaucer - The Founder of Our Language


Javier Krahe - Cábalas y cicatrices

Reading the Monster

Jueves 25 de septiembre de 2014

Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (BBC documentary)


Donde la frontera

Donde la frontera


Miércoles 24 de septiembre de 2014

CFP Ecocriticism and Narrative Theory

Call for Submissions
Ecocriticism and Narrative Theory: Essays at a Critical Confluence

We seek submissions for a volume that asks what connections exist between material environments and narrative forms of understanding. Scholars are increasingly drawing our attention to the importance of the stories we tell each other about the environment, such that narratives have become an implicit touchstone for the emerging field of the environmental humanities. This work positions narratives as important occasions and repositories for the values, political and religious ideas, and sets of behaviors that determine how we perceive and interact with our ecological homes. Changing the way we interact with the environment, scholars such as Val Plumwood and Ursula Heise suggest, requires new stories about the world in which we live.

Yet despite this connection, scholarship that puts into dialogue two of the relevant schools of literary criticism—narrative theory and ecocriticism—is scant. Despite the fact that both of these approaches to the study of literature and culture are well established, they appear to have said little to one another; Narrative, the flagship journal of narrative theory, has never featured a special issue focusing on the environment in narratives, and ISLE, the flagship journal of ecocriticism, has never featured a special issue exploring the role that narrative structures play in representations of the environment. After organizing well-attended and generative panels on possible intersections at the Association for the Study of Literature and the Environment (ASLE) 2013 and the International Society for the Study of Narrative (ISSN) 2014, the co-editors for this volume feel confident that interest abounds for a collection that bridges the work done by scholars in these subfields of literary study.

If these conversations remain in their infancy, is not because the two approaches lack overlapping interests. On the contrary, opportunities for cross-pollination abound. The vocabulary developed by narratologists could benefit certain ecocritical studies, especially in helping ecocritical scholars better account for the formal aspects of representations of environment in various types of narratives (novels, short stories, films, etc). Ecocritical insights could help to broaden narrative theory, particularly in strengthening the connection between text and extratextual world of interest to many postclassical narratologists and expanding the repertoire of questions narrative theorists ask of narratives. Also, both of these approaches have complicated the disciplinary or methodological line(s) between science and humanistic inquiry; can they learn from one another’s attempts? More broadly, how might an approach to reading that combines ecocritical and narratological lenses sophisticate the way we think about narratives within the environmental humanities? What new insights might ecocritical and narratological lenses provide to conversations within the environmental humanities? The co-editors are confident that both approaches can learn from the other but feel this multi-voiced collection would give momentum to questions of how.

Possible topics under consideration in this collection include but are not limited to:
-Access to nature alongside/versus access to narrative
-Animals as characters
-Evolutionary approaches to narrative/“evocriticism”
-Gendered/ecofeminist approaches to narrating natural experience
-Heteroglossia and the natural sciences
-Lyric narrative and forms of nature writing
-Mimesis and diegesis
-Narration, expectation, and natural experience
-Narrative and/as environmental rhetoric
-Narrative and ecocentrism
-Narrative and/of space or place
-Narrative as mediator of natural events (journalism, nature, and narrative)
-“Natural” and “Unnatural” narrative
-Natural disaster as plot device, deus ex machina
-New environmental narratives
-Pathetic fallacy as narratorial strategy
-Person and narration (first, third; omniscient, restricted) and nonhuman narrators and focalizers
-Referentiality and political context
-Role of nature in indigenous forms of narrative
-Spatialization and temporality in narrative
-Storyworlds as virtual environments

Please submit a 250-300 word abstract of your proposed chapter contribution and a short bio-blurb by e-mail to Erin James ( and Eric Morel ( by January 15, 2015. Also include the working title of your chapter, 3–5 keywords, and the names and contact details for all authors.  

Final chapters of 6,000 – 7,000 words will be due September 30, 2015.


Theorizing Narrativity eBook


El Gran Teatro del Mundo - Bobadilla de Campo


La Lupe - Puro teatro


Martes 23 de septiembre de 2014

Murano en un día claro

Murano en un día claro


La interfaz


Mi bibliografía sobre el auto

Aquí reencuentro mi bibliografía sobre el auto- —sobre el autoconocimiento, autocontrol, autoengaño, etc. etc. Sobre automóviles también debo tener alguna. Pero si lo que buscan es una bibliografía sobre el self en el sentido de el yo personal, el sujeto que somos, etc., también está aquí, en mi Bibliografía de Teoría Literaria, Crítica, y Filología. ¿Y qué hace ahí? Es que hay quien dice que somos mucha literatura—y poca autocrítica.

Self-... by emankcin


David Daiches - Around Cynewulf

From the chapter on "Anglo-Saxon Literature" in David Daiches's Critical History of English Literature:
ruthwell cross
In the same manuscript that contains the two Genesis poems, Exodus and Daniel, there is found also an untitled religious poem which is now generally called Christ and Satan. This shows an Anglo-Saxon poet working not directly from biblical sources but from a variety of Christian traditions. Here we get a picture of Satan in Hell which represents him not as the defiant spirit of Genesis B but as a lost soul lamenting bitterly his exclusion from the joys of Heaven. He is given several speeches, each with considerable elegiac eloquence; the author is clearly concerned to emphasize the difference between Heaven and Hell and the different results of following Christ and following Satan. The latter part of the poem concentrates on Christ, though at the very end, after an account of Satan's temptation of Christ in the wilderness, we return to Satan in his frustration.

Christ and Satan seems to have been influenced by the school of Cynewulf, a poet who may have flourished early in the ninth century and who is the first Anglo-Saxon poet to sign his work (by means of runic letters woven into the poem). Four of Cynewulf's poems are extant, all showing a more self-conscious craftsmanship than is found in the Caedmonian poems and suggesting in style and structure the influence of classical models. The heroic strain, so successfully transplanted from the older poetry in such a poem as Exodus, is lacking in Cynewulf, and in its place we find a more meditative and contemplative tone. The four Anglo-Saxon Christian poems which have the name of Cynewulf worked into them in acrostic form are Christ, Juliana, Elene, and The Fates of the Apostles. All these poems possess both a high degree of literary craftsmanship and a note of mystical contemplation which sometimes rises to a high level of religious passion. The story of Christ as told in the poem of that title draws on a variety of ecclesiastical and patristic sources, but it handles its subject—the Advent, the Ascension, and the Last Judgment (5) —with an intensity all its own. The dialogue between Mary and Joseph in the first part, brief though it is, shows a real feeling for the dramatic situation, and is, besides, the earliest extant dramatic passage in English literature. Juliana is a more conventional work, a typical saint's life, following its Latin prose source without any significant deviation, while Elene is the story of the discovery of the true cross by St. Helena, mother of Constantine, told with a keen sense of the wonder of it all and a relish for the romantic suggestions of distant scenes and places. The Fates of the Apostles is a short poem of one hundred and twenty-two lines (and may be the concluding part of Andreas,  which it follows in the manuscript: if so, then Andreas, too, is by Cynewulf, for The Fates of the Apostles contains the runic signature). The author is here meditating on the adventures of the various apostles after they dispersed to spread the Gospel, but its interest for the modern reader lies largely in the personal passages. Its opening shows an interesting mutation of the heroic into the personal elegiac strain: "Lo, weary of wandering, sad in spirit, I made this song, gathered it from far and wide, of how the bright and glorious heroes showed forth their courage."

With Cynewulf, Anglo-Saxon religious poetry moves beyond biblical paraphrase into the didactic, the devotional, and the mystical. These qualities are also exhibited by many of the religious poems which seem to have been written under his influence. The most remarkable of these is The Dream of the Rood, fragments of which are to be found inscribed in runic letters on the Ruthwell Cross in Dumfriesshire, Scotland (probably an early eighth century version, pre-Cynewulf), while the complete poem exists in the Vercelli Book, in a much later version (probably late ninth century). The tone of the complete version as we have it suggests that the earlier version had been afterward adapted by a poet of the school of Cynewulf, perhaps even by Cynewulf himself. It is the oldest surviving English poem in the form of a dream or vision—a form which was later to be used for such a variety of purposes. The dreamer tells how he saw a vision of the bright cross, brilliantly adorned with gems, and goes on to tell the speech that he heard it utter. The speech of the cross, in which it tells of its origin in the forest, its removal to be made into a cross for "The Master of mankind," its horror at the role it had to play but its determination to stand fast because that was God's command, the suffering of "the young Hero" who ascends the cross resolutely in order to redeem mankind—all this is done in verse charged with a simple eloquence and sustaining a high note of religious passion and wonder. The speech ends with an exhortation to each soul to "seek through the cross the kingdom which is far from earth," and the poem then concludes with the dreamer's account of his own religious hopes. Other poems associated with the school of Cynewulf are Andreas, which tells of the adventures, sufferings, and evangelical successes of St. Andrew, with deliberate emphasis on the wonderful and the picturesque, and a perhaps excessive exploitation of the rhetorical devices of Anglo-Saxon poetry (the source of the poem is a Latin rendering of the apocryphal Greek Acts of Andrew and Matthew); two poems on the life of the English hermit St. Guthlac; The Phoenix, of which the first part, deriving from the Latin poem De Ave Phoenice, attributed to Lactantius, describes an earthly paradise in the East, the beauty of the phoenix, its flight to Syria after it has lived for a thousand years to build its nest, die, and be reborn, while the second half takes the phoenix as an allegory both of the life of the virtuous in this world and the next and as a symbol of Christ; and following The Phoenix in the Exeter Book—a poem entitled Physiologus or Bestiary which belongs to the popular medieval literary form of beast allegories, where real or (more often) imaginary qualities of animals are given a moral application. Physiologus, which derives ultimately from a Greek original, is incomplete, and deals with the panther, the whale and, incompletely, the partridge. It has the same lushness of descriptive style that is found in The Phoenix, and its natural history is equally fabulous. The whale is given the charming name of Fastitocalon—a corruption of Aspidochelone, originally applied to the turtle.

Finally, there falls to be mentioned among significant Anglo-Saxon religious poems the fragmentary Judith, of which only the concluding sections survive, in the same manuscript that contains Beowulf. The poem is a version of the Vulgate text of the apocryphal book of Judith, and the extant portion tells in vigorous and rapidly moving verse of Judith's beheading of the drunken Holofernes after his confident feasting, her rallying of the Hebrews to attack the Assyrians, the consternation of the Assyrians on discovering Holofernes' headless body, the rout of the Assyrians by the Hebrews, and Judith's triumph and praise to God. Judith possesses a fierce energy in describing the death of Holofernes and the defeat of the Assyrians, a note of positive jubilation, which is quite different from anything in the older heroic poetry. In fluidity of movement the verse form shows itself to be fairly late, and the poem may date from the end of the ninth century or possibly even later.

(5). Some scholars maintain that only the second part, to which they give the title of The Ascension (or Christ B) is by Cynewulf, for only this part contains Cynewulf's name in runic characters. The other two parts they consider to be seaparate poems, giving one the title of The Advent (or Natitivy, or Christ A) and the other the title of Doomsday C (or Christ C), grouping it together with two other poems on the Last Judgment which they call Doomsday A and Doomsday B respectively.

The Fates of Men


Lunes 22 de septiembre de 2014

Adiós a Venecia

Adiós a Venecia


Lucy Worsley: Fit to Rule: Gods to Men - Tudors to Stuarts


L'homme à la moto 2


Naomi Wolf - The End of America Revisited


The Changing Axis of Economic Power in the Early Modern Period (1550-1750) with Victoria Bateman



From The Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics:

GENRE. The term "genre"is often used interchangeably with "type," "kind," and "form." Western theory on the subject of whether works of literature can be classified into distinct kinds appears at the beginning of literary study and has sustained active controversies in every stage of literary history. Alternately extolled and condemned, praised for its potential for order and ingnored as, finally, irrelevant, the concept takes its tone, in every age, from the particular theory that surrounds it. Theorists approached it prescriptively until about the end of the 18th century, descriptively thereafter; and it retains its viability (if not always its honor) through the plethora of modern comments about the nature of possibilities of literature. But built into its ways of working are difficulties that have ultimately to do with a version of the hermeneutic circle: how can we choose specific works to draw a definition of, say, epic (q.v.) unless we already know what an epic is? Though answered in various ways, the question continues to insinuate itself.

Classical poetics (q.v.) had no systematic theory about the concept of genre. What thinking there is at the beginning of western poetics originates from a distinction made by Plato between two possible modes of reproducing an object or person: (1) by description (i.e. by portraying it by means of words) or (2) by mimicry or impersonation (i.e. by imitating it). Since poetry according to the mimetic theory (see IMITATION; REPRESENTATION AND MIMESIS; POETRY, THEORIES OF) was conceived as such a reproduction of external objects, these two modes became the main division of poetry: dramatic poetry (q.v.) or the theatre was direct imitation or miming of persons, and narrative poetry (q.v.) or the epic was the portrayal of descriptions of human actions.

But since this simple division obviously left out too much, a third division was inserted between the two others (Republic 3.392-94): the so-called mixed mode, in which narrative alternates with dialogue (q.v.), as is usually the case in epic poetry (which is rarely pure narrative). But no new principle of classification was thereby introduced, so no room was left for the genre of self-expression or the lyric (q.v.), in whicvh the poet expresses directly her or his own thoughts or feelings. The extensive use of Homer as a model gave clear if implicit preference to the epic, a point echoed in Laws, which comments effectually mark the beginning of the hierarchy of genres. The classification is as much moral as it is literary. Plato says subsequently that the guardians should imitate only the most suitable characters (395) but that there are impersonators who will imitate anything (397).

Prior to Plato, during the Attic age, we find a wide variety of terms for specific genres: the epic or recited poetry; the drama or acted poetry, subdivided into tragedy and comedy (qq.v.); then iambic or satirical poetry, so called because written in iambic meter (see IAMBIC; INVECTIVE; CHOLIAMBUS); and elegiac poetry (see ELEGY), also written in a distinctive meter, the elegiac couplet (see ELEGIAC DISTYCH), with its offshoots the epitaph and the epigram (qq.v.), all classed together because composed in the same meter. Then there was choral or melic poetry (q.v.), as it was later called, poetry sung by a chorus to the accompaniment of a flute or stringed instrument. Melic poverty comes closest to our concept of the lyric, but it is not divorced from music and it excludes what we consider the essentially lyric genres of the elegy and epigram. In addition, there was the hymn (q.v.), the dirge (q.v.) or threnos, and the dithyram (q.v.), a composition in honor of Dionysius which could be anything from a hymn to a miniature play. Songs of triumph or of celebration included the paean, the encomium, the epinikion, and the epithalamium (qq.v.) There was certainly plenty of material in Greek poetry to make up a concept of lyric poetry, but the early Greeks apparently contented themselves with classifying by such criteria as metrical form.

The purely extrinsic scheme used for the nonce by Plato is taken up by Aristotle in Poetics ch. 3, where it becomes the foundation of his main classification of poetic genres. Aristotle gives no express recognition of the lyric there, much less in his statement that in the second of these genres the poet "speaks in his own person": that is merely Aristotle's way of saying that the narrative is the poet's own discourse and not a speech by a fictitious character of drama. So the traditional tripartite division of poetic genres or kinds into epic, dramatic, and lyric, far from being a "natural" division first discovered by the Greek genius, is not to be found in either Plato or Aristotle. It was, rather, the result of a long and tedious process of compilation or adjustment, through the repetition with slight variations of certain traditional lists of poetic genres, which did not reach the modern formula of the three divisions until the 16th century.

Nevertheless, Aristotle's classifications of kind in the Poetics make him the source and arbiter of genre study (though often at only second or even third hand, and frequently warped) for nearly two millennia. Like Plato, Aristotle argues that poetry is a species of imitation. The medium of imitation concerns the instrumentality through which the various kinds are presented. The object of imitation, men in action, has both contentual and moral aspects, tragedy and comedy dealing with men as better or worse than they are; but the package is not nearly so neat because Cleophon, though a tragic poet, represents a middle way, men as they are—a significant point which shows how Aristotle's examples can complicate the issue appropriately. On the manner of imitation, Aristotle continues the general Platonic divisions according to the status of the speaker.

All of this supports the view that Aristotle is arguably the first formalist, the first exponent of organic unity (see ORGANICISM); for him, mode, object, and manner, working together, not only make for the "character" of the kind but affect (and effect) all that each aspect does and is. Yet he is a formalist and a good deal more, for his connection of genre with tone and moral stance led not only to later quarrels about decorum (q.v.) and mixed modes but also, and more profitably, about the ways in which texts seek to conceive and appropriate tha world—that is, the difficult business of representation, including his implicit debate with Plato over its possibilities and value.

After Aristotle, it was Alexandrian scholarship that undertook the first comprehensive stock-taking of Greek poetry and began the process of grouping, grading, and classifying genres. Lists or "canons" of the best writers of each kind were made, which led to a sharper awareness of genre. The first extant grammarian to mention the lyric as a genre was Dionysius Thrax (2d c. B.C.), in a list which comprises, in all, the following: "Tragedy, Comedy, Elegy, Epos, Lyric, and Threnos," lyric meaning for him, still, poetry sung to the lyre. In Alexandrian literature, other genres were added to the list, especially the idyll and pastoral (qq.v.).

The Greek conceptions of genre were themselves radically generic in the sense of putting the issues in their elemental forms. What followed—adulation, elaboration, correction, rejection—built on those ways of working. Yet it was clear to later Classicism (q.v.) that these treatises needded supplementary detail, their nearly exclusive emphases on epic and tragedy being insufficient to cover the complex topography of genre. Futher, with the model of the Greeks so potent that there was no thought of undoing their principles, it seemed best not only to elaborate but to clarify and purify, to establish principles of tact which were not only matters of taste (q.v.) but, ultimately, of the appropriate. The Middle Ages, and later, the 17th c., was a time for codification, which could slip easily into rules (q.v.). Quintilian's Institutio oratoria argued for such practices, but most important was Horace's Ars poetica (a name given by Quintilian to the Epistula ad Pisones), a text of extraordinary influence bevcause so many later students read the Greeks through Horace's letter (see CLASSICAL POETICS). The attitudes of Horace were often taken as the classical ways.

Party of the irony is that his letter is not particularly original: its outstanding contribution is the principle of decorum. Aristotle had referred to the interrelation of style with theme, but in Horace this combined with the demands of urbanity and propriety to become the principal emphasis. Tragedy does not babble light verses. Plays ought to be in five acts, no more and no less, with all bloodiness offstage. Plunge into epics in medias res (q.v.), but echo the categories of the strong predecessors either by telling those events or have them acted out. At this distance, Horace comes through mainly as the exponent of a set of mind, one who shourely had much to do with later equations of social and literary decorum. Given his emphasis on "the labor of the file," he is probably best seen as the ultimate craftsman, completer of the Classical triumvirate on which genre study built for most of the rest of Western literary history.

Schlolars are generally agreed that the Middle Ages offered little if any commentary of permanent value on the theory of genre, and they usually cite Dante's remarks in De vulgari eloquentia (ca. 1305) as the major points of interest. In fact though, Dante's account shows a curious transformation of tradition, especially in his insistence that his poem is a comedy because it has a happy ending and is written in a middle style; this sense of "comedy" Dante found in Donatus, De comoedia, and Euanthius, De fabula. Dante argued for a quasi-Horatian decorum of genre and style. In a sense the Commedia culminates medieval mixtures of the grotesque and the sublime (qq.v.), as in the mystery plays (see LITURGICAL DRAMA), but it also suggests, if unwittingly, an undoing of generic norms that was to cause much bitter controversy in subsequent approaches.

As though to counter such implicit subversion, the theorists of the Italian Renaissance focused intensely on genre (see RENAISSANCE POETICS); the rediscovery of the Poetics around 1500 became an impetus to codifications such as had never been conceived even in the most rigorous late Classical formulations. Part of the intensity came from the wide variety of genres and mixed modes such as the prosimetrum (q.v.) practiced in the Middle Ages, leading to the blend of medieval romance (q.v.) and epic in figures such as Ariosto and Tasso. If there were 16th-c. defenders of these "mixed" works—among which tragicomedy (q.v.) was surely the most notorious (Guarini argued in his own defense, but the greatest of the kind were written in England)—there were codifiers such as Scaliger and Castelvetro who had considerable influence well into the 18th century.

Out of these theorists came that ultimate codification, the "unities" of time, place, and action (see UNITY), which was finally put to rest only in the 18th. c. by critics such as Samuel Johnson (see NEOCLASSICAL POETICS). Though they were claimed to have their sources in Aristotle's categories, in fact these arguments distorted Aristotle and carried Horatian conservatism to reactionary lengths. French Neoclassicism continued the codification, quite brilliantly in Boileau's Art poétique, more ambivalently in Corneille's Discours, the latter an apologia for his dramatic practice which is, at the same time, an act of support for the unities. Suggestions that Neoclassical generic hierarchies and standards of decorum have sociopolitical and philosophical implications are, for the most part, convincing: the potential analogies among these favorite subjects ensured their mutual support and offer still another instance of the relations of literature and power. Yet as both literature and society worked their way into romanticism (q.v.), most of those hierarchies shifted: in literature the lyric ascended to the top of the hierarchy, signaling the confirmation of the triad of lyric, epic (i.e. narrative), and drama which is set forth by Hegel and still dominates genre theory. Friedrich Schlegel (in his Dialogue on Poetry [1800] and essay on Goethe [1828]) artued for the abolition of generic classifications, which would in efffect eliminate genre. Schlegel and others had in mind the example of Cervantes, expanding the concept of the novel to speak of it as a package that could carry all other genres within itself, e.g. ballads and romances within tales as in Matthew Gregory Lewis's The Monk and, memorably, Poe's Fall of the House of Usher. International romanticism explored such issues routinely. But when 19th-c. Darwinian biology found application to literature, it produced a rigidly evolutionary theory of genre in Brunetière and others., a dead-end whose main value is that it annoyed theorists like Croce, who considered genres as mere abstractions, useful in the construction of classifications for practical convenience, but of no value as aesthetic categories. Thereby it stimulated interest in grenre theory in the 20th century, one of the great ages of speculation on the subject.

Croce became the case against which theorists tested themselves for much of the early 20th century (see EXPRESSION). If genre classifications have a certain convenience, they nevertheless conflict with Croce's conception of the individual work of art as the product of a unique intuition (q.v.). Genre, in this view, has a merely nominalist existence, a position echoed in varying ways by later theorists as significant and different as Jameson and, in one of his moods, the unclassifiable Frye—though the latter set up an elaborate system of classification which all commentators have taken as another way of talking about genre. Todorov's structuralist attack on Frye resulted in a controversial proposal concerning historical and theoretical genres, but Frye remains the most important theorist of the subject since Croce. Scholars like Fowler have argued eloquently for looser, more historically based readings, recognizing the fact of change and the necessity for flexibility, while concepts like intertextuality (q.v.) obviously have much of importance to say about the workings of genre. Formalists of various persuasions have worried about genre in terms of form-content relations (see ORGANICISM). Drawing on the work of Karl Viëtor, Claudio Guillén distinguishes persuasively between universal modes of experience (lyric, epic, drama) and genres proper (tragedy or the sonnet). Other recent theorists argue for the institutional nature of genre for its functions as a series of codes, and (less convincingly) as an element in a langue-parole relationship, while Fowler and others, working out of Frye, stress the significance of the concept of "mode." Still, Jameson's argument that genre theory has been discredited by modern thinking about literature seems now largely convincing. Recognition of the embodiment of literature in the necessary shifting conditions of culture has led a number of theorists to argue that a genre is whatever a particular text or time claims it to be. Skepticism about universals has clearly taken its toll, as have, in other ways, the arguments of Croce. Such skepticism has appeared among contemporary artists as well, e.g. the performance artist Laurie Anderson and the composer-writer-performer John Cage, who pull down all walls of distinction among genres and media as well as what has been called "high art" and "low art" (Here as elsewhere sociocultural elements cannot be separated from other facets of the work.) Terms like "multimedia" and "intermedia" can be complemented by others such as "intergeneric," such practices denying, in varying degree, the validity of absolute distinctions, categories, and hierarchies. Theorizing about genre has not been so vigorous since the 16th century. The suggestiveness of the 20th century's quite variegated work makes it a period of extraordinary achievement in the history of this stubborn, dubious, always controversial concept. For further discussion of mode and genre see VERSE AND PROSE; see also CANON; CONVENTION; FORM; ORGANICISM; RULES.

JOURNAL: Genre 1— (1968-).
STUDIES:  F. Brunetière, L'Evolution des genres. 7th ed. (1922); B. Croce,  Aesthetic, tr. D. Ainslie, 2nd ed. (1922); J. Petersen, "Zur Lehre von den Dichtungsgattungen," Festschrift Aug. Sauer (1925); K. Viëtor, "Probleme der literarische Gattungsgeschichte," DVLG 9 (1931), "Die Geschichte der literarischen Gattungen," Geist und Form (1952); R. Bray, Des Genres littéraires (1937); K. Burke, "Poetic Categories." Attitudes toward History (1937); I. Behrens, Die Lehre von der Einteilung der Dichtkunst (1940)—best account of development of genre classification  in Western literature; J. J. Donohue, The Theory of Literary Kinds, 2 v. (1943-49)—ancient Greek genre classifications; I. Ehrenpreis, The "Types Approach" to Literature. (1945); C. Vincent, Théorie des genres littéraires, 21st ed. (1951); Abrams, chs. 1, 4. 6; E. Olson, "An Outline of Poetic Theory," in Crane; A. E. Harvey, "The Classification of Greek Lyric Poetry." ClassQ n.s. 5 (1955); Wellek and Warren, ch. 17; Frye; Wimsatt and Brooks; Weinberg, ch. 13; C. F. P. Stutterheim, "Prolegomena to a Theory of Literary Genres." ZRL 6 (1964); B. K. Lewalski, Milton's Brief Epic (1966), Paradise Lost and the Rhetoric of Literary Forms (1985), ed., Renaissance Genres (1986); F. Séngle, Die literarische Formenlehre (1967); W. V. Ruttkowski, Die literarischen Gattungen (1968)—bibl. with trilingual indices, Bibliographie der Gattungspoetik (1973); E. Staiger, Grundbegriffe der Poetik (1968), tr. J. C. Hudson and L. T. Frank as Basic Concepts of Poetics (1991); K. R. Scherpe, Gattungspoetik im 18 Jh. (1968); E. Vivas, "Literary Classes: Some Problems," Genre 1 (1968); H.-R. Jauss, "Littérature médiévale et théorie des genres," Poétique 1 (1970); T. Todorov, Introduction à la littérature fantastique (1970); Genres in Discourse (tr. 1990); M. Fubini, Entstehung und Geschichte der literarischen Gattungen (1971); C. Guillén, Literature as System (1971), chs. 4-5; P. Hernadi, Beyond Genre (1972); F. Cairns, Generic Composition in Greek and Roman Literature (1972); R. L. Colie, The Resources of Kind: Genre Theory in the Renaissance (1973); K. W. Hempfer, Gattungstheorie (1973); R. Cohen, "On the Interrelations of 18th-c. Literary Forms," and R. W. Rader, "The Concept of Genre and 18th-C. Studies," New Approaches to 18th-C. Literature, ed. P. Harth (1974); A. Jolles, Einfache Formen, 5th ed. (1974); G. W. F. Hegel, Aesthetics, tr. T. M. Knox (1975); G. Genette, "Genres, 'types,' modes," Poétique 32 (1977); K. Müller-Dyes, Literarische Gattungen (1978); "Theories of Literary Genre," ed. J. Strelka, special issue of YCC 8 (1978); Special Issue on Genre, Glyph 7 (1980); Special Issue on Genre Theory, Poetics 10, 2-3 (1981); F. Jameson, The Political Unconscious (1981); Fowler—the major modern study; H. Dubrow, Genre (1982); W. E. Rogers, The Three Genres and the Interpretation of Lyric (1983); B. J. Bond, Literary Transvaluation from Vergilian Epic to Shakespearean Tragicomedy (1984); Canons, ed. R. von Hallberg (1984); Discourse and Literature: New Appproaches to the Analysis of Literary Genres, ed. T. A. van Dijk (1984); T. G. Rosenmeyer, "Ancient Literary Genres: A Mirage?" YCGL 34 (1985); Postmodern Genres, ed. M. Perloff (1989).

[By Frederick Garber, T. V. F. Brogan et al.]


Domingo 21 de septiembre de 2014

History 5 - The Seventeenth Century

Kings and Queens of England (4): The Stuarts


18. Street Wars of Religion: Puritans and Arminians

From Keith E. Wrightson's Yale course on Early Modern England. Puritans can usefully be thought of as Protestant fundamentalists, the equivalent of today's extremist Muslim popular movements, advocating the permeation of a 17th-c. Christian sharia throughout all aspects of social and political life. They were revolutionaries all right, but rather in the line of Christian Ayatollahs. And revolutions, not to forget, are usually led by an elite seeking power, in this case a middle-class elite.

With the triumph of the Revolution, much of the everyday life of the English came to be dominated by this Puritan mixture of Thought Police and Sin Police, and it is perhaps a negative reaction to this tyrannical invasion of privacy and everyday life, rather than an active passion for the monarchy, that explains the widespread relief at the Restoration of the Stuarts.


Acción, Relato, Discurso 1.2


Leaving San Sèrvolo

Leaving San Sèrvolo


Sábado 20 de septiembre de 2014

Education and Literacy in Early Modern England


Le cimitière marin 2

Le cimitière marin 2


Todo a StatCounter

Mis visitas en StatCounter

Añado hoy la Bibliografía, al dejar de funcionar su contador tras diez años. 117.727 visitas, más otras tantas aproximadamente en los diez años anteriores, en que usé otro contador. Empezamos ahora de cero, y en temporada de pocas visitas, pues esto está yendo a menos. Al menos las que pasan por la puerta principal; quizá me vengan ahora más visitas a través de los archivos pirateados a Scribd. Pero a esos no les voy a poner contador.

Quince años juntos


Discovery Channel Sea Wings: The Falkland Surprise


Viernes 19 de septiembre de 2014

Escocia dice NO

—y algunas reacciones al resultado, antes de la dimisión de Salmond.


Jueves 18 de septiembre de 2014

Nella Laguna Veneta

Nella Laguna Veneta


Michael Wood - In Search of Beowulf


Beowulf, lesson 2: The History of the Beowulf Poem

The language of the Beowulf poem


From the Narrative-L:
Dear narrative theory colleagues,

You might be interested to hear about the U of Chicago's job ad for a position that (excitingly and progressively, in my opinion) conceives narrative theory at the intersection of fiction studies, narrative across media, and creative writing:

Here's hoping that it's a Dream-Come-True Job (instead of just a Dream Job) for a talented young member of the community!

Best wishes,

PS--the ad, in full:

Creative Writing: The Department of English invites applications for a tenure-track Assistant Professor of English specializing in 20th and 21st-century fiction, with an emphasis on narrative theory. We seek an outstanding scholar whose teaching will provide a critical and theoretical complement to recent fiction appointments in Creative Writing. There will be an opportunity to contribute to a high profile research group in contemporary cultural forms including scholars working on Comics and Video Games, as well as to engage with scholars working in earlier periods of Anglo-American and Anglophone fiction. This appointment is expected to begin Fall 2015. Conferral of Ph.D. by June 30, 2015 is highly preferred and Ph.D. degree must be conferred within one year of start date. Candidates must submit a cover letter, CV, and dissertation abstract online at the University of Chicago's Academic Career Opportunities website, for Posting number 02348: Online applications must be completed before midnight Central Time on Monday, November 3, 2014. Position contingent upon final budgetary approval. All qualified applicants will receive consideration for employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, protected veteran status or status as an individual with disability.The University of Chicago is an Affirmative Action / Equal Opportunity / Disabled / Veterans Employer.

Dr. Sarah Copland
Assistant Professor
Department of English
MacEwan University
6-229 City Centre Campus
10700-104 Avenue
Edmonton, AB
T5J 4S2
Tel.: (780) 497-5486


Miércoles 17 de septiembre de 2014

Gran buque desde la reja

Gran buque desde la reja

—del manicomio de Venecia.


Todo listo para el referéndum escocés


La rebelión de Atlas—Ayn Rand


Martes 16 de septiembre de 2014

¡¡¡En el Top 0,1 % !!!!

Hace poco anunciaba que estaba en el Top 1% de usuarios de la red social académica ACADEMIA—medidos en visitas a las publicaciones.  Pues nos hemos superado, o se han superado nuestros visitantes y lectores. Según figura en el contador (automático) de arriba a la derecha, estoy este mes en el 1 por mil superior, entre los usuarios de Academia. Por visitas, no por IQ. tiene 11 millones de usuarios. Eso quiere decir (quizá) que estoy entre los once mil universitarios más leídos : ) —o más vistos— del mundo.éAngelGarcíaLanda/

¡¡¡En el top 0.1% !!!


Federico sobre el aborto de la ley del PP


Tesis doctoral de Raquel Herrera: Érase unas veces (Filiaciones en obras narrativas digitales)


Early Modern England 24: Refashioning the State, 1688-1714


Máscara de arlequín equilibrista

Máscara de Arlequín equilibrista 


The Works of William Drummond


Redeem Time Past

REDEEM. (ri'di:m). v.t. 1. to buy or pay off; clear by payment: to redeem a mortgage. 2. to buy back, as after a tax sale or a mortgage foreclosure. 3. to recover (something pledged or mortgaged) by payment or other satisfaction: to redeem a pawned watch. 4. to convert (paper money) into specie. 5. to discharge or fulfill (a pledge, promise, etc.). 6. to make up for; make amends for; offset (some fault, shortcoming, etc.): His bravery redeemed his youthful idleness. 7. to obtain the release or restoration of, as from captivity, by paying a ransom. 8. Theol. to deliver from sin and its consequences by means of a sacrifice offered for the sinner. [ME redem(en) < MF redim(er) < L redimere, equiv. to red- RE + imere to buy, var. of emere to purchase]
—Syn. 1, 2, 7, 8, repurchase; free, liberate, rescue, save. REDEEM, RANSOM mean literally to buy back. REDEEM is wider in its application than RANSOM, and means to buy back, regain possession, or improve the condition of anything; as by money, endeavor, devotion, sacrifice, or the like: to redeem one's property. To RANSOM is to redeem a person from captivity by paying a stipulated price, or to redeem from sin by sacrifice: to ransom a kidnapped child. —Ant. 1. abandon.

Redeem Time Past by William Drummond.

(From Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English Language).

Lunes 15 de septiembre de 2014

Máscara enmascarada

Máscara enmascarada


El pelotazo de los Pujol con el Santander


Critical Theory —by Wikipedians

Me citan (a mí o a mi bibliografía, p. 56), en este libro automático generado por el Cíborg colectivo:


Domingo 14 de septiembre de 2014

Being Photographed

Being Photographed 2

   Being Photographed


Escalando el Author Rank

El Social Science Research Network es, con diferencia, el repositorio académico más importante del mundo en las áreas de ciencias sociales y humanidades. Hace cuatro meses tenía yo este posicionamiento en el Author Rank del SSRN:

Jose Angel Garcia Landa Author Rank is 2,552 out of 253,618

—viene a ser un 0,99 o un 10 por mil—o sea, estoy en el puesto uno entre cien, el 1% superior, de entre los 250.000 autores del SSRN. Y hoy, copio:

Jose Angel Garcia Landa Author Rank is 2,327 out of 262,151

—he subido al 0,88 por mil, o sea el 0,9 por mil. Ya vamos subiendo puestos (no serán muchos) dentro de este uno por mil.

Aquí en el pantallazo de los Top 30,000 de esta semana, aparezco en el puesto 2.324—aún subiendo un poco.

Este puesto de clasificación general que se refiere a 8.871 descargas totales de artículos. Pero la tabla está ordenada por otro criterio, por número de artículos, y según este parámetro he llegado hace unas semanas, y me mantengo de momento, en el puesto número 29. Que, entre 250.000 académicos de todo el mundo, no está nada mal. Aunque algún tiquismiquis me dirá que si soy el 29 más productivo, por qué no soy el 29 más leído también...  O que por número de contribuciones recientes, llegó un momento en que estuve en el puesto 28, y ya no lo estoy. Si es que maneras siempre hay de retorcer las estadísticas a favor de uno, o en contra.


—de entre los españoles sólo veo por encima a Pablo Fernández, que es quizá el número uno absoluto según se le mire.

Vanity Fea: 100 posts de temática Ego


Carte Postale 2

Aquí haciendo pruebas de sonido... pero ha perdido calidad el micrófono. O eso, o mis cuerdas, las vocales y las otras.


David Hare on Playwriting

Me suscribo al canal del National Theatre.


Los tres engaños del PP con la ley del aborto

—¿contradecir su propia doctrina el Tribunal Constitucional, si llega el caso? Pues claro. Con toda la tranquilidad del mundo. Pero hay una solución más fácil y menos esforzada—mantener el recurso en el cajón hasta el día del Juicio. Y así se hace carrera en la Justicia, y en la Política: por sus cargos los conocerán.


Retroprospecciones intertextuales: Una retrospectiva

Subido hoy este artículo a Academia:

A propósito de Pierre Bayard y el plagio por anticipado

— y también a ResearchGate.

En el SSRN lo aceptaron en estas revistas:

eJournal Classifications Message
LSN Subject Matter eJournals
Distributed in Law & Literature eJournal
Vol 7, Issue 22, August 07, 2013
LIT Subject Matter eJournals
Distributed in Literary Theory & Criticism eJournal
Vol 3, Issue 8, August 13, 2013

—buscar en los enlaces de la columna izda. con fecha de 24 de julio de 2013.

 Este artículo apareció en esta versión en Enthymema.
Es versión revisada: en una versión anterior, apareció en el Literary Theory and Criticism eJournal ("Tomorrow will have been written", Oct. 8, 2008) y en Academia, "Mañana habrá sido escrito".


English: General

De mi bibliografía, , procede ésta— una de las bibliografías básicas sobre el inglés.

1.English.general by 8aso


Sábado 13 de septiembre de 2014

Candados de parejas en Venecia

Candados de parejas en Venecia


Los límites de la ficción

Conferencia de Antonio Muñoz Molina en la Universidad Complutense (2010):

Mirando fotos en La noche de los tiempos


Penser la narrativité

Un site web d'un groupe de narratologues québecois (René Audet, Nicolas Xanthos), Penser la narrativité. On ne trouve pas tellement de webs narratologiques, et elles ont une certaine tendance à mourir jeunes. Il y a une série d'audios récentes à l'occasion d'un collouque sur le personnage contemporain.

Dans ce recueil bibliographique on fait référence à ma bibliographie de théorie littéraire, critique et philologie. Et il y a bien longtemps, on y annonçait la parution du livre que j'ai coédité sur la narrativité, Theorizing Narrativity.


Interpretar la lengua - Conferencia de Albert Boadella


La teoría de la literatura y la literatura comparada en Internet

Este artículo de Arturo Casas, de la Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, "La teoría de la literatura y la literatura comparada en Internet", no es reciente, pues apareció en el Boletín de la Asociación Internacional de Hispanistas, no. 10 (2003).

El interés viene precisamente porque recoge los sitios importantes para literatura en Internet en la primera décadad de la Web, en la Antigüedad, vamos

Ahora reaparece en Scribd, y aquí lo inserto. Aparece una referencia a mi bibliografía con la dirección antigua, previa a 2004, en que me libré por fin del inmanejable espacio web de la Facultad de Filosofía, y me pasé a un sitio que podía gestionar yo en el Servicio de Informática de la Universidad. Y ójala lo hubiera hecho diez años antes...

Casas. Teoria Lit. Comparada by PamelaAlonso


Colores de Venecia

Colores de Venecia


Viernes 12 septiembre 2014

Ubú President

Esta obra es de hace treinta años, pero Boadella tenía una presciencia certera—además de muy mala baba y un ingenio satírico imparable. Bromas aparte, el interés metateatral del asunto tampoco decae; la obra merecería una reposición en Barcelona, pero ya puede esperar. Esta función se grabó en el Teatro Principal de Zaragoza en 1997:


Victoria y vergüenza

Ayer, durante el alarde independentista catalán, la million men march de Mas y Pujol, se reunían unos centenares de melancólicos intelectuales Madrid, como parte de la escasa respuesta al baño de masas por parte de la supuesta mayoría. Decía Cayetana Álvarez de Toledo en su alocución, "A estas horas desfilan las masas en Barcelona formando una V gigantesca. Victoria, dicen. Vergüenza, decimos." Fue en efecto una ocasión bastante propicia para la vergüenza, propia y ajena. Un montaje digno de la China de Mao, con los capos y Grandes Timoneles contemplando (sin asistir a él) y viendo por la tele cómo sus masas teledirigidas y uniformadas hacen figuritas de colores, movidas a distancia, con el cerebro perfectamente lavado. Bien, siempre llega un día después, y hay que aterrizar en la realidad cotidiana, y Cataluña  no ha despegado del suelo en una apoteosis de autoidentidad, ni se ha ido flotando por el aire.

Pero también da vergüenza, y algo de pena, la nula reacción, la indiferencia total, de quienes ven que pasan estas cosas y se creen que no pasa nada, y que piensan que con ignorarlas está todo arreglado. Semejantes patologías sociales son señales de que algo va muy mal, y de que puede acabar peor aún.



Roberto Mangabeira Unger 2013 Interview


Jueves 11 de septiembre de 2014

Genealogía de la literatura. Nacimiento de la literatura

—según Jesús G. Maestro:



Aquí salgo en Top Like

No me lo invento, sino que de hecho salgo aquí, en Top Like: Top Video Likes en compañía de Serge Gainsbourg, Juliette Gréco, etc., —o al menos junto a ellos— con una canción que ellos cantaban, y yo también.



Stationary stationery

Stationary stationery


Miércoles 10 de septiembre de 2014

El autor implícito y el narrador no fiable—según nuestro punto de vista

García Landa, José Ángel - El Autor Implícito y El Narrador No Fiable _según Nuestro Punto de Vista by ElNegroLiterario


First Feminists


—A volume edited and with an Introduction by Moira Ferguson (Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1985).


from Translation by Tyler of The First Part of the Mirrour of Princely Deedes and Knyghthood: Dedication and the Epistle to the Reader, 1578

JANE ANGER, fl. 1589
Jane Anger her Protection for Women, 1589

from Ester Hath Hang'd Haman: Address; From Chapter 7, 1617

JOANE SHARP, fl. 1617
"A Defence of Women": Poem concluding Ester Sowernam's Ester Hath Hang'd Haman, 1617

from Philosophical and Physical Opinions: Preface "To the Two Most Famous Universities of England," 1655
from The Convent of Pleasure, 1668

from Poems by the Most Deservedly Admired Mrs. Katherine Philips, The Matchless Orinda . . . , 1667

from Womens Speaking Justified, . . . , 1667

from An Essay to Revive the Antient Education of Gentlewomen, . . . , 1673

APHRA BEHN, 1640-1689
from The Dutch Lover: Preface, 1673
from Sir Patient Fancy: Epilogue, 1678
from Lycidus; or, The Lover in Fashion, 1688
from Translation by Behn of La Pluralite des Deux Mondes (The Theory or System of Several New Inhabited Worlds): "The Author's Preface," 1700

from The Female Advocate, 1686
from Poems on Several Occasions, 1703

JANE BARKER, fl. 1688 and 1723
from Poetical Recreations . . . , 1688
from A Patch-Work Screen for the Ladies, . . . , 1723

MARY ASTELL, 1666-1731
from A Serious Proposal to the Ladies, . . . , Parts 1 and 2, 1694, 1697
from Some Reflections Upon Marriage . . . , 1700
from The Complete Letters of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, Vol. 1: Mary Astell's Preface to the Embassy Letters

JUDITH DRAKE, fl. 1696
from An Essay in Defence of the Female Sex, 1696

The Ladies Defence, Including Prefatory Material, 1701
from Poems on Several Occasions, 1703

from An English-Saxon Homily, . . . : Preface, 1709

from Miscellany Poems, on Several Occasions, 1713
from The Poems of Anne, Countess of Winchilsea, 1903

MARY COLLIER, 1689/90-after 1759
The Woman's Labour, 1739
from Poems, on Several Occasions, Including "Some Remarks of the Author's Life Drawn by Herself," 1762

SOPHIA, fl. 1739-1741
from Woman, Not Inferior to Man, . . . , 1739
from Woman's Superior Excellence Over Man, . . . , 1740

from A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Charlotte Charke, Including "The Author To Herself," 1755

from A Description of Milleniun Hall . . . , 1762

from A Series of Letters Between Mrs. Elizabeth Carter and Miss Catherine Talbot, Vols. 1 and 2, 1809

MARY SCOTT (TAYLOR), 1752?-1793
from The Female Advocate, 1774

from The Hamwood Papers of the Ladies of Llangollen . . . , 1785-1821

from Poems on Various Subjects: "Autobiographical Narrative," 1787
A Poem on the Inhumanity of the Slave-Trade, 1788

from Letters on Education, 1790

MARY HAYS, 1759/60-1843
from Monthly Magazine: July 2, 1796; March 2, 1797

from A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792
from The Wrongs of Woman, or Maria, 1798

MARY ANNE RADCLIFFE, 1746?-after 1810
from The Female Advocate, 1799

On ne naît pas femme, on le devient


Notes on Metafiction, en Cognition & the Arts eJournal

Notes on Metafiction, en Cognition & the Arts eJournal


Las torpezas y falacias de la independencia escocesa

Con el principio de curso y sus jaleos no tengo tiempo para pensar y redactar un análisis sobre el tema de la independencia escocesa, pero ahí van cuatro líneas a vuelatecla. Aparece la cuestión del referéndum sumamente reñida, después de creerse el gobierno británico que iba as ser un paseíllo triunfal a favor de la unión.  Alguien ha metido la pata, obviamente, pues sus cálculos de ganar el referéndum de calle no se van a cumplir, y ganará el independentismo, o a lo menos logrará un empate virtual que asegurará años y años años de matraca nacionalista y de de tratamiento especial a Escocia. Aquí están las torpezas cometidas por quienes no contaban con estos factores:

-Vota SÍ. Un referéndum que quieras ganar lo tienes que plantear de modo que la pregunta favorecida por la autoridad convocante, o la que se supone representa el estado de cosas mayoritariamente deseable, sea una a la que hay que responder SÏ. En el caso que nos  ocupa, la pregunta debería haber sido: ¿Desea Vd. que siga existiendo el Reino Unido en Gran Bretaña? Abreviando, sólo los cenizos y descontentos contestan que no. Las autoridades unionistas que piden votar a la independencia, o son tontas, o se lo hacen.

- Trata a los ciudadanos igual.
Esta desigualdad ya se arrastra desde la famosa devolution, porque el referéndum éste es sólo un paso más en un camino sembrado de errores desde hace años. Los nacionalistas escoceses se quejaban de que no tenían parlamento, y les dan uno. Craso error— porque sí que tienen un parlamento, el del Reino Unido. Ahora son los ingleses quienes no tienen parlamento, ni esperanzas de tenerlo. El error es darles un parlamento a los escoceses sin darles otro igualito a los ingleses. Es un planteamiento que lleva las semillas de su propia destrucción, el conceder el Reino Unido a los escoceses, o a los irlandeses del norte, una autonomía o status especial dentro del Reino Unido, frente a una Inglaterra y Gales que aparentemente no lo tienen—y que pasan a ser así, por la vía de los hechos, a revelarse como el auténtico cogollito que los otros venían denunciando, y un poder colonial y centralista donde no lo había, o no debía haberlo. Es señalarles que deben seguir el camino de Canadá y de Australia, porque eso es lo que son—periferias coloniales, para quien acepta ese razonamiento en lugar de luchar por la igualdad.

- No desprecies las Profecías Autocumplidas, ni la fascinación de la Máquina Narrativa.
Si partimos de un estado actual en el que hay un status quo, y un deseo de cambiarlo, ese deseo no puede sino crecer desproporcionadamente, con cada concesión que hagas y cada minuto que concedas a la cuestión, hasta que se cumpla, y se produzca una Dramática Transformación. Los argumentos pueden ser muy buenos o muy malos a favor de la Unión, pero argumentalmente, en términos cinematográficos, la Unión no vale nada, es una historia que nace muerta. Nadie va a celebrar nada si gana el no a la independencia—en caso contrario, será la Apoteosis y el Retorno de William Wallace. Si Escocia quiere ser independiente, entonces los independentistas tienen una "narrativa", que se dice ahora, más interesante que la de los unionistas, y tiene mucho más tirón. La mayoría de la gente, o al menos una enorme masa de simplistas, vota como borregos, y son llevados por este tipo de dinámicas y de consignas cuanto más simples mejor. Cada error de cálculo que les conceda más atención a los dueños de la Falacia Argumental, vale por dos errores. Y por tres, si ni siquiera conoces este tipo de dinámicas.

- ¿Por qué no votan los demás británicos? Si es una nación lo que se supone que tienen en Gran Bretaña, bien tendrán algo que decir al respecto. Aceptar un referéndum sólo para escoceses, es admitir de entrada que ahí no hay una nación—en Gran Bretaña, digo. Que los sujetos políticos eran ya, para empezar, los escoceses frente a los ingleses: nunca los británicos, que no tienen soberanía común ni compartida. Es darles a los nacionalistas el resultado ya escrito en punteado, por adelantado. Esto lo ha asesorado algún asesor, pero hay un gobierno que lo ha aceptado. Hay que ser TORPE. Parece mentira que estemos hablando de políticos británicos; los hemos visto más inteligentes normalmente. Como no sea todo un plan de la quinta columna escocesa, que es realmente lo que parece.

- El que no llora no mama. No he oído quejas (o no muchas) de los ingleses, galeses, etc., diciendo que por qué los escoceses tienen derecho a autonomía y ellos no. Es darles la razón por anticipado a los que van a aplicar chantajes y ventajismos—demasiado lo sabemos en España por navarros, vascos y catalanes. Aún podríamos darles a los ingleses clases de Realpolitik, pues han resultado ser unos pardillos frente a estos ventajismos localistas que aquí conocemos tan bien. Pero para darle clases a alguien estamos—con todos los ventajistas y quejicas del mundo subidos a las barbas aquí en España, con fueros especiales y Estatuts a la carta, y con el gobierno cargándolos de favores y procurando comprarlos con trato especial, con vista gorda a los abusos, y con carretadas de dinero y de deuda. Los escoceses sí que parecen haber aprendido algo de las nacionalidades oprimidas (pobrecicos) de aquí. Que les aproveche, porque les aseguro van por buen camino.  Ahora, se van a volver auténticamente insoportables. Incluso si gana el sí a la independencia, les meterán los Plañideros del Norte la pala de cristiano al resto del vecindario, para mantener la unión virtual monetaria, y la Corona que no falte. Que es algo de lo más necesario, la Corona... para estas cosas. En fin, una peste, el nacionalismo victimista—que corrompe tanto al quejica subvencionado, como al que se deja parasitar por quien debería exigir que se le trate como un igual. Como lo que es.

Epidemia tribal


Parking de góndolas

Parking de góndolas


Scottish Independence Referendum Debates

at Edinburgh University:

—at BBC Scotland:

—and, in Glasgow, Salmond vs. Darling


Martes 9 de septiembre de 2014

The Nether

VIRTUAL AND REAL: Exposing the underbelly of cyberspace
—a theater review by Lawrence Goodman (Brown Alumni Magazine Jul.-Aug. 2014), 38. japonesa

A review of The Nether by Jennifer Haley '05 MFA (The Royal Court Theatre, London, July 17-August 9).

The idea might seem preposterous, lbut it could be just around the corner. A pornographer creates an online realm where men can have sex with young girls who are avatars viewed through special glasses. Though the sex feels real to the men, it is simulated. Should society permit it?

That's one of the big questions playwright Jennifer Haley ''05 MFA poses in The Nether, a half sci-fi, half police-procedural drama that debuted at Kirk Douglas Theatre in Los Angeles in 2013. It won the 2012 Susan Smith Blackburn Prize, and the Los Angeles Times described it as a "daring new drama" that "should have everyone squirming in their seats." Following on the heels of Haley's play Neighbourhood 3: Requisition of Doom, in which a violent video game becomes real-life for a quiet suburban town, The Nether continues Haley's exploration of the real-world damage that results when we unleash our darkest desires in cyberspace.

Haley says the inspiration for The Nether came from playwright Paula Vogel, who was on the Brown faculty while Haley was earning and MFA: write what your hate, Vogel advised. Haley hated TV police procedurals such as Law & Order and CSI. She also hated pederasts. "I thought, what's the worst thing someone can do? It was all an academic exercise."

In The Nether, a female detective faces off against the businessman who runs the virtual pedophilic playground called The Hideaway. During the interrogation at the police Station, the two debate the risks this new form of online entertainment poses. "You're telling them their desires are not only acceptable, but commendable!" exclaims the detective. "And in an entertainment that can scarcely be differentiated from real life!"

"As long as they don't do it in real life, who cares?" Sims, the businessman, fires back. "I've read the studies. No one has been able to draw a conclusive correlation between virtual behavior and behavior-in-world." Haley says she's agnostic on whether the web is changing us for the worse or the better. "I can's speak to whether one becomes a fundamentally different person or whether one's personality changes," she says. By The Nether's end great damage has been done, but the reasons and the blame are ambiguous.

After its summer run in London, The Nether will be produced next February in New York City at the off-Broadway MCC Theater. Haley wrote for the Netflix TV series Hemlock Grove last winter and hopes to continue. Meanwhile, she's at work on another play based on online identities—a woman spots her ex-lover in a video game and goes in search of him.

El yo remediado


Comenzamos el 15

 EL lunes 15 COMENZAMOS las clases.

Mis asignaturas de este cuatrimestre:

Literatura inglesa II    501 Inter     LM     10,30-12,30  y 17,30-19,30
Géneros lit. en la  X Fac        JV    8.30-10,30 / 10,30-12,30
Introd. lit. ingl.     204 Inter    XV    15,30-17,30

Y mi horario de clases por tanto:

Lunes    10,30 Lit2
    17,30 Lit2
Martes 10,30 Lit2
    17,30 Lit2
Miercoles 15,30 Litingl
Jueves    8,30 Géneros
Viernes 10,30 Géneros
    17,30 LitIngl



I luoghi romanzeschi e le loro verità

I luoghi romanzeschi e le loro verità


Lunes 8 de septiembre de 2014

Microsoft Academic Search

No le llega a la suela del zapato a Google Scholar, pero tiene algunas prestaciones interesantes, este Microsoft Academic. Aquí está mi página, y se puede insertar en la web así:

The above information is generated by Microsoft Academic Search®, please visit Microsoft Academic Search for more information. Please check here for terms of use.

—Lo que no consigo hacer es que desaparezcan de mi perfil las publicaciones mal atribuidas que me incluyen. Ni subir mi foto. No consigo, vamos, que funcione.


Pero me contestan muy atentos los empleados de Microsoft Academic:

Hello Jose,

Edits to profiles take some time to process in the system and appear live on the site. So it is normal that you aren’t seeing the updates immediately.

The “Add author” field is only to add other authors (co-authors) and not the target author for whom the publication is added. Because you are adding a publication from your author profile, you will be automatically listed as the author. Is there a co-author that you could add to that field? If not, please provide us with the information for the publication and we would be happy to add it for you.

Best regards,


Google Scholar


Acción, Relato Discurso 1.1

También en ResearchGate.

El siguiente capítulo lo he encontrado, en una versión curiosamente escaneada, en Scribd:

La acción en la Narratología by Andrés Mora


Un galeón en Venecia

Un galeón en Venecia


Gustavo Bueno, El mito de la felicidad

El pensamiento Alicia en la actualidad


Domingo 7 de septiembre de 2014

Big History getting Bigger

Publica el New York Times un reportaje sobre el proyecto educativo sobre Gran Historia o historia cosmológica (Big History) desarrollado por David Christian y apoyado por Bill Gates.  Han desarrollado materiales didácticos y un sitio web que promete una revolución en la manera en que se integran los contenidos académicos en una Gran Historia—y la manera en que se ofrece un mapa mental a la gente para ubicarse en el universo. Ver y leer:

Andrew Ross Sorkin, "So Bill Gates Has This Idea for a History Class…" New York Times 5 Sept. 2014.*

A mí es un proyecto que me interesa mucho, esta integración interdisciplinar, en parte por las mismas razones que a ellos, y en parte por una razón que no tratan mucho en su proyecto: la dimensión narratológica. Obviamente la considero muy importante, al ser la narración el instrumento que utilizamos para hacer mapas del tiempo.  Así, esta cuestión se relaciona con una de las líneas de reflexión de mi trabajo en narratología, lo que llamo "anclaje narrativo" y "cartografía narrativa". En sustancia es un enfoque narratológico sobre la cuestión de la historicidad de los fenómenos y su inclusión como pequeñas historias en una gran historia global. Expuse esta noción en mi conferencia de París, y en la publicación que saldrá de ella en un volumen de la serie Narratologia. Aquí hay un adelanto.

Y también le he dedicado a la Gran Historia un blog monográfico: The Story in All Stories, casi más videoblog que blog.

Más sobre anclaje narrativo, historicidad, se puede leer en estos artículos:

García Landa, José Ángel. "Capítulos de una historia." Vanity Fea 29 June 2005.
_____. "Procesos, representaciones, narraciones, narratologías." Vanity Fea 19 July 2007.
_____. "El anclaje narrativo." Vanity Fea 1 Jan. 2008
_____. "Anclaje narrativo, anclaje discursivo." Diaporía 11 April 2011.* (From "El anclaje narrativo").
_____. "Harry Thompson, This Thing of Darkness: Narrative Anchoring / Harry Thompson, This Thing of Darkness: Anclaje narrativo."  Social Science Research Network (April 2008):
_____. "Harry Thompson, This Thing of Darkness: Anclaje narrativo." Zaguán 8 Sept. 2009.*
_____. "Harry Thompson, This Thing of Darkness: Narrative Anchoring." Vanity Fea 1 July 2009.*
_____. "Harry Thompson, This Thing of Darkness: Narrative Anchoring." 23 Sept. 2010.*
_____. "Harry Thompson, This Thing of Darkness." Zaguán 8 Sept. 2009.*
_____. "Harry Thompson, This Thing of Darkness: Anclaje narrativo." ResearchGate 11 June 2012.*
_____. "Diez mil millones de años luz de evoluciones." Vanity Fea 6 August 2008. (Andrew C. Fabian, Evolutions)
_____. "Consiliencia, Evolución y Anclaje narrativo." Vanity Fea  20 Aug. 2009.* (Spencer).   
_____. "Historia(s) de todo." Vanity Fea 11 April 2010.*
_____. "Historia(s) de todo." Ibercampus (Vanity Fea) 15 abril 2010.*
_____. "Historicidad." Vanity Fea 13 May 2011.*
_____. "There Is a Tale in Everything." Vanity Fea 15 July 2011.*
_____. "Mapas del tiempo." Vanity Fea 22 August 2011.*
_____. "Mapas del tiempo." Ibercampus (Vanity Fea) 6 Sept. 2011.*
_____. "Narrative as the Tree of Time." Vanity Fea 26 August 2011.*
_____. "Vagabundos de las estrellas." Vanity Fea 8 Sept. 2011.*
_____. "David Christian, The Big Story." Vanity Fea 25 Nov. 2011.*
_____. "This Object Tells a Story." Vanity Fea 5 Feb. 2012.*
_____. "The Story in All Stories." Vanity Fea 8 March 2012.*
_____. "Too True to Be Good: Cartografía narrativa." Vanity Fea 24 Dec. 2012.*
_____. "Anclaje narrativo y círculo hermenéutico en un texto de Polibio." Vanity Fea 5 Jan. 2013.*
_____. "Mapas narrativos y universos simbólicos." Vanity Fea 19 Feb. 2013.* (Berger and Luckmann).
_____. "La mitad de la historia de todo." Vanity Fea 31 March 2013.*
_____. "The Story behind any Story: The Paris Lecture." Ibercampus (Vanity Fea) 31 July 2014.*
_____. "The Story behind any Story: The Paris Lecture." Social Science Research Network 31 July 2014.*
_____. "The Story Behind Any Story: The Paris Lecture." Vanity Fea 8 Aug. 2014.*
_____. "Cartografía narrativa." Vanity Fea 17 May 2014.*
García Landa, José Angel, and Ludmila Tataru. "The Evolution of Narratology." (ENN 2013 Conference Follow-up). Enthymema 9 (2013).*


Mi larga bibliografía sobre evolución y evolucionismo, incluida en, tiene también una sección sobre Evolución Cósmica y Gran Historia. Aquí la reproduzco:

Cosmic evolution / Big History

Aczel, Amir D. God's Equation: Einstein, Relativity, and the Expanding Universe. London: Piatkus Books, 2002.
Bálsamo, Iris. "La evolución de la causalidad." In Evolucionismo y racionalismo. Ed. Eustoquio Molina, Alberto Carreras and Jesús Puertas. Zaragoza: Institución "Fernando el Católico" / Universidad de Zaragoza, 1998. 31-37.*
Birx, H. James. "Exobiology and Exoevolution." In Avances en Evolución y Paleoantropología. Ed. Eustoquio Molina et al. Zaragoza: SIUZ / Mira, 2001. 91-106.*
Boodin,  John Elof. Cosmic Evolution: Outlines of Cosmic Idealism. 1923.  Google Books:
Brown, Cynthia Stokes. Big History: From the Big Bang to the Present. New York: New Press, 2008.*
Bryson, Bill. A Short History of Nearly Everything. New York: Doubleday, 2003. (Aventis Science Book Prize, 2004)
_____. Una breve historia de casi todo. Trans. José Manuel Álvarez Flórez. Barcelona: Círculo de Lectores, 2005.*
Chaisson, Eric. (Harvard U). Cosmic Dawn: The Origins of Matter and Life.
_____. The Life Era: Cosmic Selection and Conscious Evolution.
_____. Relatively Speaking: Black Holes, Relativity, and the Fate of the Universe.
_____. Universe: An Evolutionary Approach to Astronomy.
_____. Cosmic Evolution: The Rise of Complexity in Nature.
_____. Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. Illust. Lola Judith Chaisson. New York: Columbia UP, 2006.* (Foundation for the Future's Kistler Book Award for the best science book of the Year).
_____. "Prologue: Cosmological Overview." In Chaisson, Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia UP, 2006. 1-46.*
_____. "1. Particle Epoch: Simplicity Fleeting." In Chaisson, Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia UP, 2006. 47-78.*
_____. "2. Galactic Epoch: Hierarchy of Structures." In Chaisson, Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia UP, 2006. 79-131.*
_____. "3. Stellar Epoch: Forges for Elements." In Chaisson, Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia UP, 2006. 132-89.*
_____. "4. Planetary Epoch: Habitats for Life." In Chaisson, Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia UP, 2006. 190-247.*
_____. "5. Chemical Epoch: Matter plus Energy." In Chaisson, Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia UP, 2006.*
_____. "6. Biological Epoch: Complexity Sustained." In Chaisson, Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia UP, 2006. 298-369.*
_____. "7. Cultural Epoch: Intelligence to Technology." In Chaisson, Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia UP, 2006. 369-432.*
_____. "Epilogue: A Whole New Era." In Chaisson, Epic of Evolution: Seven Ages of the Cosmos. New York: Columbia UP, 2006. 433-42.*
Christian, David. Maps of Time: An Introduction to Big History. (The California World History Library, 2). Berkeley, Los Angeles, London: U of California P, 2004. 2005.* (I: The Inanimate Universe (1-3); II. Life on Earth (4-5); III. Early Human History: Many Worlds (6-7); IV. The Holocene: Few Worlds (8-10); V. The Modern Era: One World (11-14). VI. Perspectives on the Future (15).).
_____. This Fleeting World: A Short History of Humanity. Preface by Bob Bain and Lauren McArthur Harris. Great Barrington (MA): Berkshire Publishing Group, 2008.*
Cochran, Gregory, and Henry Harpending. The 10,000 Year Explosion: How Civilization Accelerated Human Evolution. New York: Basic Books, 2009
Fabian, Andrew C., ed. Evolution: Society, Science and the Universe.
_____. Evolución: Sociedad, ciencia y universo. By Stephen Jay Gould, Lewis Wopert, Jared Diamond, Richard Rogers, Tim Ingold, Gillian Beer, Freeman Dyson and Martin Rees. Trans. Néstor Herrán. (Metatemas: Libros para pensar la ciencia, 68). Barcelona: Tusquets, 2001.*
Fígols, Francesc. Cosmos y Gea: Fundamentos de una nueva teoría de la evolución. Kairos, c. 2014.
García Landa, José Ángel. "Diez mil millones de años luz de evoluciones." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 6 August 2008. (Andrew C. Fabian, Evolutions)
_____. "Historia(s) de todo." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 11 April 2010.*
_____. "Historia(s) de todo." Ibercampus (Vanity Fea) 15 April 2010.*
_____. "What Remains Unclear." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 16 May 2012.* (Last man, civilization, Homo sapiens, future, Olduvai theory).
_____. "An unpleasant story." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 31 May 2012.* (William Stanton, big history, Olduvai theory, E. O. Wilson).
_____. "Darwin's Big Bang." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 22 Nov. 2012.*
_____. "Cosmic Evolution (John Elof Boodin)." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 22 April 2013.*
_____. "Historia elemental." In García Landa, Vanity Fea  16 May 2013.* (Ernesto Carmona).
_____. "El paradigma evolucionista en física y cosmología." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 20 Aug. 2013.*
_____. "Materialismo, evolucionismo y consiliencia en Diderot." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 9 Sept. 2013.*
Grassie, William. "The Great Matrix of Being." Huffington Post 26 Feb. 2013.*
Jantsch, Erich. The Self-Organizing Universe: Scientific and Human Implications of the Emerging Paradigm of Evolution. (Systems Science and World Order Library / Innovations in Systems Science). Pergamon Press, 1980.
_____, ed. The Evolutionary Vision: Toward a Unifying Paradigm of Physical, Biological and Sociocultural Evolution. Boulder (CO): Westview Press, 1981.
Jou Mirabent, David. "3. Orígenes y dinamismo: Big Bang, evolución, desarrollo." In Jou, Cerebro y universo: Dos cosmologías. Barcelona: Edicions UAB, 2011. 87-120.*
Krauss, Lawrence M. Historia de un átomo: Una odisea desde el Big Bang hasta la vida en la Tierra... y más allá. (Las dos culturas). Editorial Laetoli, c. 2005.
_____. A Universe from Nothing: Whey There Is Something Rather than Nothing. Afterword by Richard Dawkins. New York: Free Press, 2012.
Motz, Lloyd. The Universe (Its Beginning and End). 1975.
_____. El Universo (su principio y su fin). Trans. Josep Anton Planell and José Rodellar. (MUY Interesante, Biblioteca de Divulgación Científica, 72). Barcelona: Orbis, 1986.*
Origen y evolución del Universo. (Temas, 72). Investigación y Ciencia- Edición española de Scientific American, 2nd tr. 2013.* (1. Huellas del universo primitivo. 2. Evolución cósmica a gran escala. 43. Cosmologías  alternativas).
Pérez Mercader, Juan. ¿Qué sabemos del universo? De antes del Big Bang al origen de la vida. Barcelona: Debate, 1996. New ed. (DeBols!llo). Barcelona: Debate, 2001.*
_____. "La evolución del universo." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 11 March 2013.*
Poe, Edgar Allan. Eureka: A Prose Poem (Eureka: An Essay on the Material and Spiritual Universe). New York: Putnam, 1848.
_____. Eureka. Online at Project Gutenberg.
_____. Eureka: Un ensayo sobre el universo material y espiritual. In Poe, Obras completas II. Barcelona: RBA, 2004. 169-248.*
Quinet, Edgar.  La Création. Paris: Librairie internationale,  1870.
_____.  La Création. 1870. Online at Internet Archive.
"The Rocky Road to Dating the Earth." Nature 4 Jan. 2001: 20.
Ruiz, Victor R. "Breve historia de la vida, el universo y todo lo demás." Cuaderno de bitácora rvr 12 Feb. 2010.*
Sagan, Dorion. "Why Are We Here? Evolution's Dirty Secrets." 2 June 2013.*
Smolin, Lee. The Life of the Cosmos.
_____. Time Reborn: From the Crisis in Physics to the Future of the Universe. Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2013;* London: Allen Lane, 2013.
Smuts, Jan C. (General the Right Hon. J. C. Smuts). Holism and Evolution. London: Macmillan,  1926. 2nd ed. 1927.
_____. Holism and Evolution. 1927. Online at Internet Archive (Universal Library).*
Spencer, Herbert. First Principles. London, 1862.
_____. First Principles. London: Williams and Norgate, 1900.
_____. First Principles. 6th ed. (The Thinker's Library). London: Watts, 1937.*
_____. Obras Filosóficas de Spencer / Traducción de José Andrés Irueste / Doctor en Ciencias exactas / y Catedrático de la Universidad de Granada / Los primeros principios / MADRID / LIBRERÍA DE FERNANDO FÉ / Carrera de San Jerónimo, 2 / 1887. (Colección de Filósofos modernos, 4).*
_____. Primeros Principios. Barcelona.
Spier, Fred.  El lugar del hombre en el cosmos: La Gran Historia y el futuro de la humanidad. Trans. Tomás Fernández Aúz and Beatriz Eguibar. (Libros de Historia). Barcelona: Crítica, 2011. (Cosmos, Evolution, Complexity, Human origins, Mankind, Future).
Wilson, E. O. "Deep History." Chronicles 14 (1990): 16-18.


"Big History Project: Todo está conectado." iVoox (March 2014).

Pérez Mercader, Juan. "La Evolución del Universo." Lecture at Fundación Juan March 31 Oct. 2006. Online audio:*

"Teaching History in Deep Time." Panel at Royal Holloway, U of London,  29 April 2009. Online audio at Backdoor Broadcasting Company

Tyson, Neil DeGrasse. Cosmos (2014). TV series.
_____. Cosmos: Una odisea en el espacio-tiempo. 2014. Spanish audio at iVoox (August 2014).* (Full series, 9 h.).


The Big Tale: The Story of Our World - How It Came into Existence and Why it Works the Way It Does

The Story in All Stories: Items on Cosmology, Evolution, (Big) History and Representation. Blog at Storify.*

Vanity Fea: Blog de notas de José Ángel García Landa (Evolución).ón


"La Historia del Universo." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 6 May 2014.*

Internet resources

"Big History." Facebook

"Big History." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.*

"ChronoZoom: A Timeline for Big History." YouTube (UCTV Prime) 18 April 2013.*


Christian, David. "Maps of Time: The Universe in Haiku, from the Big Bang to Today." YouTube (tehelkatv) 9 Nov. 2012.*
_____. "The Big History Project: David Christian at Macquarie University." YouTube (MacquarieUniversity) 4 /6/2012
Cosmic Evolution (2 documentaries at Harvard, by Dana Berry and Eric Chaisson).
Ellis, George F. R. "On the Nature of Cosmology Today (2012 Copernicus Center Lecture." YouTube (CopernicusCenter) 28 Jan. 2013.*
"FREEOK 2013 – Lawrence Krauss: 'The Greatest Story Ever Told'." YouTube (TheThinkingAtheist) 3 July 2013.*
García Landa, José Ángel. "Mi conferencia de París." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 7 July 2013.*
The History of the World in Two Hours. YouTube (Bashkiria Today)  23 Sept. 2012.*
Rees, Martin. "Martin Rees pregunta: ¿Es éste nuestro último siglo? Video talk at TED (2005, posted 2007).
"Richard Dawkins and Lawrence Krauss: Something from Nothing, at ANU." YouTube (ANU) 18 April 2012.*
Spier, Fred. "Big History and the Future of Humanity." Video lecture at Villanova University. Online at YouTube (Villanova University) 16 Sept. 2011.*



A estas alturas de hoy, o más bien este mes, mi página web en tiene la distinción de estar en el TOP 1%.  Merece pantallazo el dato, por si no dura la cosa:


Y aprovecho para consultar en la Wikipedia que este sitio web lo usan once millones de académicos. Es, estadísticamente, representativo, y me sitúa bien en la Academia.  En la mediocre academia española, en cambio, no tengo nada que hacer frente a the Confederacy of Dunces.

150 m. de currículum


Psychological Anthropology

I almost made it to this modest top ten in Psychological Anthropology:

—sadly enough, there's two papers in no. 10 and I'm pushed out.

But hear, hear:

Dear Jose Angel Garcia Landa:

Your paper, "LA EVOLUCIÓN DEL DIVIDUO SOCIAL Y DE LOS ESPACIOS PÚBLICOS (THE EVOLUTION OF THE SOCIAL DIVIDUAL AND OF PUBLIC SPACES)", was recently listed on SSRN's Top Ten download list for: AARN: Psychological Anthropology (Cross-Cultural) (Topic).

As of 07 September 2014, your paper has been downloaded 22 times. You may view the abstract and download statistics at:

Top Ten Lists are updated on a daily basis. Click the following link(s) to view the Top Ten list for:

AARN: Psychological Anthropology (Cross-Cultural) (Topic) Top Ten.

Click the following link(s) to view all the papers in:

AARN: Psychological Anthropology (Cross-Cultural) (Topic) All Papers.

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Estoy en la biblioteca de Lausana

Al lado de EBSCO, la MLA, Periodical Index Online, etc.—aparece mi bibliografía entre la selección bases de datos más relevantes para estudios ingleses. Estas otras bases de datos están sostenidas por poderosas instituciones y son obras colectivas con cientos de colaboradores. Yo la mía la hago solo, y a pedales. Y créanme que no tengo círculo de contactos allí, ni en ninguna de las muchas universidades internacionales que destacan así mi trabajo.

En la Biblioteca de Lausana

Me enlazan en la Universidad de Oxford


Synecdoche, New York

Viendo esta excelente película de Charlie Kaufman—Synecdoche, New York. Humor negro, no apto para depresivos—o quién sabe. Me pregunto si le hizo algún bien a Philip Seymour Hoffman. Como con el caso de Robin Williams, ahora se ven algunos de sus personajes como conteniendo mucha más parte del actor de lo que parecía, o sirviéndoles de expresión a una parte de su personalidad que no superaban ni trascendían mediante la actuación.  Aquí transcribo la excelente reseña que le hizo Roger Ebert, que vio en la película una auténtica experiencia (desengañada) de la vida—de la tuya, hypocrite lecteur.

I think you have to see Charlie Kaufman's "Synecdoche, New York" twice. I watched it the first time and knew it was a great film and that I had not mastered it. The second time because I needed to. The third time because I will want to. It will open to confused audiences and live indefinitely. A lot of people these days don't even go to a movie once. There are alternatives. It doesn't have to be the movies, but we must somehow dream. If we don't "go to the movies" in any form, our minds wither and sicken.

This is a film with the richness of great fiction. Like Suttree, the Cormac McCarthy novel I'm always mentioning, it's not that you have to return to understand it. It's that you have to return to realize how fine it really is. The surface may daunt you. The depths enfold you. The whole reveals itself, and then you may return to it like a talisman.synecdoche NY

Wow, is that ever not a "money review." Why will people hurry along to what they expect to be trash, when they're afraid of a film they think may be good? The subject of "Synecdoche, New York" is nothing less than human life and how it works. Using a neurotic theater director from upstate New York, it encompasses every life and how it copes and fails. Think about it a little and, my god, it's about you. Whoever you are.

Here is how life is supposed to work. We come out of ourselves and unfold into the world. We try to realize our desires. We fold back into ourselves, and then we die. "Synecdoche, New York" follows a life that ages from about 40 to 80 on that scale. Caden Cotard (Philip Seymour Hoffman) is a theater director, with all of the hangups and self-pity, all the grandiosity and sniffles, all the arrogance and fear, typical of his job. In other words, he could be me. He could be you. The job, the name, the race, the gender, the environment, all change. The human remains pretty much the same.

Here is how it happens. We find something we want to do, if we are lucky, or something we need to do, if we are like most people. We use it as a way to obtain food, shelter, clothing, mates, comfort, a first folio of Shakespeare, model airplanes, American Girl dolls, a handful of rice, sex, solitude, a trip to Venice, Nikes, drinking water, plastic surgery, child care, dogs, medicine, education, cars, spiritual solace -- whatever we think we need. To do this, we enact the role we call "me," trying to brand ourselves as a person who can and should obtain these things.

In the process, we place the people in our lives into compartments and define how they should behave to our advantage. Because we cannot force them to follow our desires, we deal with projections of them created in our minds. But they will be contrary and have wills of their own. Eventually new projections of us are dealing with new projections of them. Sometimes versions of ourselves disagree. We succumb to temptation -- but, oh, father, what else was I gonna do? I feel like hell. I repent. I'll do it again.

Hold that trajectory in mind and let it interact with age, discouragement, greater wisdom and more uncertainty. You will understand what "Synecdoche, New York" is trying to say about the life of Caden Cotard and the lives in his lives. Charlie Kaufman is one of the few truly important writers to make screenplays his medium. David Mamet is another. That is not the same as a great writer (Faulkner, Pinter, Cocteau) who writes screenplays. Kaufman is writing in the upper reaches with Bergman. Now for the first time he directs.

It is obvious that he has only one subject, the mind, and only one plot, how the mind negotiates with reality, fantasy, hallucination, desire and dreams. "Being John Malkovich." "Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind." "Adaptation." "Human Nature." "Confessions of a Dangerous Mind." What else are they about? He is working in plain view. In one film, people go inside the head of John Malkovich. In another, a writer has a twin who does what he cannot do. In another, a game show host is, or thinks he is, an international spy. In "Human Nature," a man whose childhood was shaped by domineering parents trains white mice to sit down at a tiny table and always employ the right silverware. Is behavior learned or enforced?

"Synecdoche, New York" is not a film about the theater, although it looks like one. A theater director is an ideal character for representing the role Kaufman thinks we all play. The magnificent sets, which stack independent rooms on top of one another, are the compartments we assign to our life's enterprises. The actors are the people in roles we cast from our point of view. Some of them play doubles assigned to do what there's not world enough and time for. They have a way of acting independently, in violation of instructions. They try to control their own projections. Meanwhile, the source of all this activity grows older and tired, sick and despairing. Is this real or a dream? The world is but a stage, and we are mere actors upon it. It's all a play. The play is real.

This has not been a conventional review. There is no need to name the characters, name the actors, assign adjectives to their acting. Look at who is in this cast. You know what I think of them. This film must not have seemed strange to them. It's what they do all day, especially waiting around for the director to make up his mind.

What does the title mean? It means it's the title. Get over it.

Una importante adición, por tanto, al arte sobre la vida entendida como representación virtual y teatro vívido. Más sobre la vida como teatro aquí: 

García Landa, José Ángel. "Be Copy Now." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 24 June 2006.
_____. "Goffman: La realidad como expectativa autocumplida y el teatro de la interioridad." In Zaguán 29 May 2009.*
_____. "Actuaciones." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 21 October 2009.*
_____. "Somos teatreros: El sujeto, la interacción dialéctica y la estrategia de la representación según Goffman." iPaper at 30 May 2012.*
_____. "Hegel: La comedia y la vida como metadrama." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 15 July 2012.*
_____. "El mundo todo es máscaras." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 30 August 2012.* (Larra).
_____. "El mundo como teatro." In García Landa, Vanity Fea  17 Sept. 2012.*
_____. "El mundo, puro teatro." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 27 Sept. 2012.*
_____. "Role at Variance with Self." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 12 Oct. 2012.* (from McAlindon's English Renaissance Tragedy).
_____. "Retrospección del teatro y de la vida." In García Landa, Vanity Fea  11 May 2013.* (Styan).
_____. "El teatro vivido de El Curioso Impertinente." In García Landa, Vanity Fea  18 May 2013.*
_____. "Más sobre la vida como teatro." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 26 Aug. 2013.*
_____. "La evolución del dividuo social y de los espacios públicos." Lecture at the HERAF seminar on "Individuo y espacio público", Universidad de Zaragoza, 10 Jan. 2014. Social Science Research Network 12 Jan. 2014.*
_____. "El Gran Juego." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 2 Feb. 2014.* (Arsuaga and Martín-Loeches).
_____. "Epifanía del Mundo como Teatro." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 4 Feb. 2014.* (Christopher Rush, Will).
_____. "Veblen y la teatralidad." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 20 March 2014.*
_____. "Aprendiendo a esconderse." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 24 July 2014.* (Berger & Luckmann; roles).
_____. "Interaction as Reality-Maintenance." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 28 July 2014.* (Berger & Luckmann).


A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology

También está ya en ACADEMIA, en español y en inglés.


San Jorge y el Cocodrilo

San Jorge y el Cocodrilo

—¿y el dinosaurio?


Sábado 6 de septiembre de 2014

La televisión medieval


Performing the Self

Citan el libro de Narratology en esta tesis de máster:
Ilené Jacobs, Performing the Self: Autobiography, Narrative, Image and Text in Self-Representations. MA diss. U of Stellenbosch, 2007.

Tendré que ir tomando nota de todas las citas a las que se llega a través de Google Scholar. Lo haremos por partes. Un trabajillo de esos de cultivar el jardín de uno que decía Voltaire.


Heap of Masks

Heap of masks


Viernes 5 de septiembre de 2014

Shakespeare's Montaigne

Cárceles y mundos de la mente


Johnson & Johnson

Entre las Vidas de los Poetas Ingleses de Samuel Johnson (1778-81) se encuentra la biografía de Sir Richard Blackmore (1658?-1729). Y allí hay un curioso pasaje en el que aparece la propia figura crítica de Johnson como el crítico ideal, o modélico, miembro destacado de una imaginaria academia. Lo curioso es cómo Johnson comenta esta descripción prospectiva o profética de sí mismo, avant la lettre de la vie, con cierto escepticismo irónico pero sin pestañear ni comentar el parecido—aunque es de suponer con un guiño imperceptible al lector, disimulado entre los tics de su particular estilo. La principal obra de Blackmore fue, para Samuel Johnson, Creation: A Philosophical Poem (1712) —y  después de ese logro sólo pudo decaer. La descripción del crítico ideal Johnson pertenece a una obra ensayística, género que supone la decadencia de Blackmore. Este pasaje de Johnson on Blackmore on Johnson es curioso, así que lo transcribo:

This poem [Creation], if he had written nothing else, would have transmitted him [Blackmore] to posterity among the first favourites of the English muse; but to make verses was his transcendent pleasure, and as he was not deterred by censure, he was not satiated by praise.

He deviated, however, into other tracks of literature, and condescended to entertain his readers with plain prose. When The Spectator [by Steele and Addison] stopped, he considered the polite world as destitute of entertainment; and in concert with Mr. Hughes, who wrote every third paper, published three times a week The Lay Monastery, founded on the supposition that some literary men, whose characters are described, had retired to a house in the country to enjoy philosophical leisure, and resolved to instruct the public by communicating their disquisitions and amusements. Whether any real persons were concealed under fictitious names is not known. The hero of the club is one Mr. Johnson—such a constellation of excellence, that his character shall not be suppressed, though there is no great genius in the design, nor skill in the delineation.

"The first I shall name is Mr. Johnson, a gentleman that owes to nature his excellent faculties and an elevated genius, and to industry and application many acquired accomplishments. HIs taste is distinguishing, just, and delicate; his judgment clear, and his reason strong, accompanied with an imagination full of spirit, of great compass, and stored with refined ideas. He is a critic of the first rank; and what is his peculiar ornament, he is delivered from the ostentation, malevolence, and supercilious temper, that so often blemish men of that character. His remarks result from the nature and reason of things, and are formed by a judgment free and unbiassed by the authority of those who have lazily followed each other in the same beaten track of thinking, and are arrived only at the reputation of acute grammarians and commentators—men who have been copying one another many hundred years without any improvement; or, if they have ventured farther, have only applied in a mechanical manner the rules of ancient critics to modern writings, and with great labour discovered nothing but their own want of judgment and capacity. As Mr. Johnson penetrates to the bottom of his subject, by which means his observations are solid an natural as well as delicate, so his design is always to bring to light something useful and ornamental; whence his character is the reverse to theirs, who have eminent abilities in insignificant knowledge, and a great felicity in finding out trifles. He is not less industrious to search out the merit of an author than sagacious in discerning his errors and defects, and takes more pleasure in commending the beauties than exposing the blemishes of a laudable writing; like Horace, in a long work he can bear some deformities, and justly lay them on the imperfection of human nature, which is incapable of faultless productions. When an excellent drama appears in public, and by its intrinsic worth attracts a general applause, he is not stung with envy and spleen, nor does he express a savage nature in fastening upon the celebrated author, dwelling upon his imaginary defects, and passing over his conspicuous excellences. He treats all writers upon the same impartial foot; and is not, like the little critics, taken up entirely in finding out only the beauties of the ancient and nothing but the errors of the modern writers. Never did anyone express more kindness and good nature to young and unfinished authors: he promotes their interests, protects their reputation, extenuates their faults, and sets off their virtues, and by his candour guards them from the severity of his jugment. He is not like those dry critics who are moreose because they cannot write themselves, but is himself master of a good vein in poetry; and though he does not often employ it, yet he has sometimes entertained his friends with his unpublished performances."

The rest of the "Lay Monks" seem to be but feeble mortals in comparison with the gigantic Johnson, who yet, with all his abilities and the help of the fraternity, could drive the publication but to forty papers, which were afterwards collected into a volume, and called in the title A Sequel to the Spectator.

Cognitive Johnson


Por una calle de Venecia

Por una calle de Venecia


Jueves 4 de septiembre de 2014

'Tell My Story': The Human Compulsion to Narrate

—by Stephen Greenblatt

Stephen Greenblatt is one of the world's leading literary theorists and Shakespeare scholars. He is often regarded as the main founder of New Historicism, a term he first used in his 1982 introduction to The Power of Forms in the English Renaissance; he himself has referred to New Historicism as 'cultural poetics'. The approach has been one of the most influential strands of literary criticism over the last decades and has had an immense impact on English literary history. Greenblatt has published widely on literary theory and within the fields of cultural, Renaissance and Shakespeare studies. His 2004 biography of Shakespeare, Will in the World: how Shakespeare became Shakespeare, was on the New York Times Best Seller List for nine weeks, and he has won several prestigious prizes and awards, among them the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for General Nonfiction.


Un momento de Virginia Woolf

En un examen de literatura inglesa he puesto este texto de Virginia Woolf, un fragmento de A Room of One's Own:

The mind is certainly a very mysterious organ, I reflected, drawing my head in from the window, about which nothing whatever is known, though we depend upon it so completely. Why do I feel that there are severances and oppositions in the mind, as there are strains from obvious causes on the body? What does one mean by 'the unity of the mind', I pondered, for clearly the mind has so great a power of concentrating at any point at any moment that it seems to have no single state of being. It can separate itself from the people in the street, for example, and think of itself as apart from them, at an upper window looking down on them. Or it can think with other people spontaneously, as, for instance, in a crowd waiting to hear some piece of news read out. It can think back through its fathers or through its mothers, as I have said that a woman writing thinks back through her mothers. Again if one is a woman one is often surprised by a sudden splitting off of consciousness, say in walking down Whitehall,* when from being the natural inheritor of that civilization, she becomes, on the contrary, outside of it, alien and critical. Clearly the mind is always altering its focus, and bringing the world into different perspectives. But some of these states of mind seem, even if adopted spontaneously, to be less comfortable than others. In order to keep oneself continuing in them one is unconsciously holding something back, and gradually the repression becomes an effort. But there may be some state of mind in which one could continue without effort because nothing is required to be held back. And this perhaps, I thought, coming in from the window, is one of them. For certainly when I saw the couple get into the taxi-cab the mind felt as if, after being divided, it had come together again in a natural fusion. The obvious reason would be that it is natural for the sexes to co-operate. (…)

Y alguna cosa quiero comentar al respecto, en incisos. Porque me parecen un pasaje, y un momento, muy representativos de Virginia Woolf, eternity in a moment casi:

The mind is certainly a very mysterious organ, I reflected,

Ciertamente reflexivo, lo de reflexionar o reflejar ad infinitum sobre la mente. El órgano (?) seguirá siendo misterioso después de nuestras reflexiones (o las de Woolf)—quizá más misterioso, pues podemos descubrir profundidades o dimensiones insospechadas para quien no se ha parado un momento a reflexionar. Y sin embargo también será más conocido, en algún sentido, taking a new acquaintance of itself observándose en sus procesos, asociaciones, y niveles o planos simultáneos de funcionamiento. Woolf, en su ensayo sobre modern fiction "Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown", ya llamaba la atención sobre esta dimensión extraña de la realidad que se da cuando la examinamos de cerca y descubirmos nuevas dimensiones, sólo por el procedimiento de no someternos a los hábitos de percepción o de representación manidos o habituales. La mancha en la pared es otro magnífico ensayo donde la mente de Woolf observa sus propios procesos, un ensayo a cuenta de nada, podríamos decir, pero es un nada llena de productividad, como el vacío cuántico. Otro ensayo de un momento perdido, con la mente en blanco, por así decirlo, o en blanco palimpsesto. Los momentos indefinidos están llenos de potencialidades y de pensamientos apenas formulados que bullen bajo la superficie vacía, son el equivalente perfecto de la página en blanco, una tentación a la creatividad, o un reto para extraer de ellos lo que nadie veía y ya estaba, sin embargo, allí. En la mente.

drawing my head in from the window,

Esta reflexión tendrá lugar en el momento en que Woolf se retira a la habitación (a room of her own) tras mirar por las ventanas de la percepción a la calle—todo transcurre en ese segundo, un segundo a cámara lenta, denso como los de Joyce, o como esos excursos de Sterne en Tristram Shandy. La habitación es la mente vuelta sobre sí; la ventana es una ventana al mundo, y por ella acaba de ver Virginia Woolf una escena que procederá a alegorizar, o que se ha alegorizado espontáneamnente en su mente, proporcionándole la imagen que necesitaba para aliviar las tensiones que bullían bajo su mente. Un hombre y una mujer entran juntos en un taxi, y el taxi arranca. Desde una ventana, los miraba Virginia Woolf, que ahora vuelve su atención sobre sí.

about which nothing whatever is known, though we depend upon it so completely.

No es desacertado. Eran los años en que se estaban empezando a formular el psicoanálisis, la fenomenología, la psicología moderna, la neurología, el interaccionismo simbólico de Mead. A la espera de la neurología cognitiva y de la teoría de la mente. Y qué poco se sabe de la mente si se descuentan estas aportaciones. También las percepciones e intuiciones de Woolf merecerán explicación, y aún siguen necesitándola. Decir que dependemos de la mente completamente es, sin embargo, algo un poco chusco. Más acertado sería decir que vivimos en un entorno mental, o que somos entidades mentales antes de ser nada más. Dicho en otro registro, somos cuerpo y alma, pero somos más nuestra alma que nuestro cuerpo. Cuerpo y mente tienen un paralelo sin embargo, y parece apuntar Woolf a una corporeidad de la mente—a ciertas articulaciones o músculos o estructuras que le dan su morfología, y que pueden estar sometidas a tensión o a movimientos forzados:

Why do I feel that there are severances and oppositions in the mind, as there are strains from obvious causes on the body?

Lo nota porque es mujer moderna, viviendo en las tensiones de la modernidad, y la mujer está luchando por un nuevo papel en el espacio público. Por eso escribe Woolf, y para eso necesita su habitación, su espacio. La tensión entre el espacio masculino y el femenino se formula de manera inolvidable en  A Room of One's Own cuando le impiden la entrada a la biblioteca universitaria por ser mujer.  Esta tensión del espacio público la vive Virginia Woolf como una tensión interna (también una tensión en su matrimonio, con su esposo a la vez protector y opresivo). Y esa tensión subyacente, personal y política (the personal is the political, dirán las feministas) ha encontrado una imagen para expresarse, y un alivio, en la imagen de la mujer y el hombre entrando en el taxi, un automóvil que, no lo olvidemos, es un elemento y símbolo de modernidad, mucho más para Woolf que para nosotros.

What does one mean by 'the unity of the mind', I pondered,

Aquí apunta todo un tema modernista, la multiplicidad subyacente al yo—bien teorizada por entonces en la teoría sociológica de los roles que propone el interaccionismo simbólico, de Cooley y de Mead, aunque en la época de Woolf se pensaba más frecuentemente en los términos del psicoanálisis, y las tensiones entre las pulsiones inconscientes y el yo socializado (como hace el Freud de Das Unbehagen in der Kultur, 1929). Quizá la crítica a la unidad de la mente, y su denuncia como una ilusión, encuentre su expresión perfecta en este poema de E. E. Cummings:

so many selves(so many fiends and gods
each greedier than every)is a manmoment of reflection
(so easily one in another hides;
yet man can,being all,escape from none)

so huge a tumult is the simplest wish:
so pitiless a massacre the hope
most innocent(so deep’s the mind of flesh
and so awake what waking calls asleep)

so never is most lonely man alone
(his briefest breathing lives some planet’s year,
his longest life’s a heartbeat of some sun;
his least unmotion roams the youngest star)

—how should a fool that calls him “I” presume
to comprehend not numerable whom?

Conservo la tipografía del original en sus detalles, porque para entender este poema en toda su dimensión formal hay que tener en cuenta que Cummings (que solía firmar "e. e. cummings") a veces dejaba de utilizar las mayúsculas desafiando las convenciones ortográficas de la poesía o de la prosa inglesa, como hace en este poema—en el que no es casual que la única mayúscula corresponda al prepotente "Yo", I, que tantas veces era escrito por cummings como un en tono menor. En fin, junto al carácter menor del yo va expresada en este poema su precaria unidad, o su difusión dispersa por todo el universo. Y sin embargo hay un yo, el yo (mayúsculo) de I pondered, del mismo modo que en la deconstrucción del yo pensada por Hume ofendía e irritaba la continua presencia de ese yo sujeto filosófico (y firmante del libro). Un autor tiene que ser un yo, a un cierto nivel, e incluso un punto de vista o voz privilegiados—aunque la disolución o precariedad del yo sean su tema.

for clearly the mind has so great a power of concentrating at any point at any moment that it seems to have no single state of being.

La mente como gestión de la atención, es lo que le llama la atención a Virginia Woolf—y es esa capacidad de concentrar la atención lo que la vuelve multiforme, o le posibilita el acceso a submundos dentro del mundo, o dentro del momento—vuelve el momento, como vemos, en esta frase del texto. La mente plástica, proteica, nos hace vivir en una potencialidad permantente, en una encrucijada de infinitas posibilidades que (por supuesto) apenas habían comenzado a intuirse a la hora de estudiarla. Sobre la capacidad de atención, que ha sido considerada por Tomasello como uno de los componentes básicos de la mente humana, puede leerse más aquí, en "Atención a la atención". Disponiendo de una mente multidimensional, es tanto más importante poder centrar la atención. Este momento de Virginia Woolf es un caso ejemplar de cómo se combinan esos dos aspectos de la mente, su apertura al mundo y su multiplicidad—la ventana—y su capacidad de centrarse en sí y, reflexivamente, transformarse y transformar el mundo, centrando la atención.

It can separate itself from the people in the street, for example, and think of itself as apart from them, at an upper window looking down on them.

En esta frase ya la mente ha reconocido en la escena vivida por Virginia Woolf, asomándose a la ventana, un modelo de su propio funcionamiento. Aunque parecen apuntarse aquí, en realidad, dos fases: la primera, una sensación vivida en ese momento de contemplación a la ventana, donde empezaba a tomar cuerpo la imagen, en la percepción y en la reacción a ella; la segunda, una vez se ha completado el momento de retirarse de la ventana, y volver al escritorio, cuando puede ya expresarse plenamente la sensación de aislamiento vivida, completada por el aislamiento aún más perfecto de la escritora en su habitación, que termina de completar la impresión producida y de perfilar el sentido que se le está dando.

Or it can think with other people spontaneously, as, for instance, in a crowd waiting to hear some piece of news read out.

Somos individuos, y somos sociedad; somos uno y muchos a la vez—the crowd inside—pero en una multitud podemos sentir en gran medida como el resto de la multidud, y (por comunicación, por empatía) sabemos que participamos de lo que viven los demás, y que ellos también están dentro de nosotros pues el mundo comunicativo en que vivimos nos es común al menos en gran medida. Hay un momento de proyeccción empática, de hecho, también en la primera escena que contrasta con esta: la escritora desde la ventana también siente y vive en parte lo que es reunirse con su pareja y subir juntos al taxi. La unión espontánea con los otros, en la experiencia colectiva de la muchedumbre, me hace pensar en el activismo de Virginia Woolf, quizá en sus experiencias anteriores con el movimiento sufragista (recogidas en The Voyage Out)—sin decir nada al respecto, sugiere a un grupo de personas participando de una empresa común y pendientes de una noticia... un momento de participación en la vida de la comunidad que se vivía entonces de modo espacialmente intenso y que puede haber sugerido esta imagen por contraste a la imagen de la mente solitaria asomada a la ventana.

It can think back through its fathers or through its mothers, as I have said that a woman writing thinks back through her mothers.

La experiencia mental no es sólo presente, sino que es una experiencia de viaje en el tiempo, una experiencia de moverse a través de los mundos construidos por la historia y la cultura, y de proyectarse en ellos, viviendo experiencias ajenas a través de la literatura. Una literatura que es ante todo la de la cultura patriarcal, fathers, y muy especialmente Leslie Stephen, alias Mr. Ramsay en To the Lighthouse, hombre de letras y editor nada menos que del Dictionary of National Biography, el registro oficial de los padres de la patria. Y de las madres, claro—porque Virginia estaba especialmente atenta a la tradición femenina soterrada e incluso inventada, como en su historia de la genial Judith Shakespeare en A Room of One's Own. Las feministas anglófonas de una generación posterior, como Ellen Moers en Literary Women, Gilbert y Gubar con The Madwoman in the Attic, o Elaine Showalter en A Literature of Their Own, entroncarán directamente con esta voluntad de "pensar hacia atrás a través de las madres", redescubriendo experiencias y condicionantes, y haciéndose conscientes de ellas en esa reflexión. La escritura de Woolf y textos como éste serán una inspiración potente en esa reflexión, y Virginia Woolf ha resultado ser más feminista de lo que parecía ser, una vez reinterpretada como ella misma sugería.

Again if one is a woman one is often surprised by a sudden splitting off of consciousness,

Atención a la mente y a lo que pasa en ella—cómo se puede dividir contra sí. La experiencia particular de ser una mujer conlleva esas divisiones o tensiones a las que aludía antes el texto, tensiones en la mente—casi una doble personalidad, la heredada de los padres y la de las madres, o la que se descubre en momentos particulares. Porque volvemos a encontrar una alusión al momento, al hecho de que que esa tensión se percibe en momentos concretos—

say in walking down Whitehall,* when from being the natural inheritor of that civilization, she becomes, on the contrary, outside of it, alien and critical.

La mujer como el otro dentro de la civilización, o el otro dentro de sí, porque esta división se vive dentro, no es entre la mujer y la sociedad patriarcal, sino dentro de la mujer misma, un "splitting off of consciousness". Vemos a Virginia cabreada con el rol limitado de la mujer en el espacio público, como sufragista frustrada, viviendo ese descontento como una alteración mental, una esquizofrenia—quizá parte de esas mismas voces que no la dejaban vivir. Hay que recordar que se tiró por una ventana una vez, Virginia Woolf, ya que hablamos de ventanas, y que fueron en parte las voces que oía—alien voices—dentro de sí lo que la hizo decidirse, una vez más, por el suicidio. Es decir, que la separación del espectáculo de la vida no le era una experienica ajena; y como vemos ese sentimiento de alienación iba en gran medida unido a la condición femenina. Fue problemático para Woolf, lo de ser mujer—sexualemnte hablando, parece ser que nunca llegó a aceptarlo, y de ahí en parte sus fantasías lésbicas o transexuales como las que proyectó imaginativamente en Orlando—novela escrita para su amada Vita Sackville-West. No todas las mujeres, quizá, pero poniéndose aquí a sí misma como arquetipo de mujer, la mujer educada y pensante es un elemento inadaptado en la sociedad. Quizá en parte ya por eso de que el pensamiento no puede tomar asiento, pero las tensiones son aquí más potentes—allí en los años 20—y llevan hasta el borde de la patología. Le hacen desear a Virginia una experiencia no traumática, armónica, una existencia sin divisiones como la que proyectó en parte en Orlando o la que consigue imaginar a través de su arte la pintora Lily Briscoe en To the Lighthouse. La imagen de la integración de los opuestos, el elemento masculino y el femenino reconciliados, subiéndose al taxi de la vida, es tentadora, aunque ni su matrimonio ni su experiencia fuesen tan armónicos como ese sueño de integración perfecta.

Clearly the mind is always altering its focus, and bringing the world into different perspectives.

La mente reprsenta el mundo, y así lo constituye, y lo transforma—apuntando aquí la noción de un mundo a modo de relato cinematográfico, o de objeto fotografiable, modelable a través del foco de la atención mental. Sea lo que sea el mundo, el mundo vivido es el resultado de estas perspectivas que le dan una forma particular.

But some of these states of mind seem, even if adopted spontaneously, to be less comfortable than others.

Habla la enferma, la persona sometida a tensiones internas, dolorida por las posturas forzadas de la mente, y que busca ante todo alivio, un posicionamiento menos forzado en el mundo. La cultura patriarcal es a la vez espontánea y forzosa; el orden de los sexos es a la vez espontáneo y forzado. Otro orden también se generaría espontáneamente, en circunstancias distintas.

In order to keep oneself continuing in them one is unconsciously holding something back, and gradually the repression becomes an effort.

Aquí aparece el lenguaje del psicoanálisis; la Virginia que ha pasado por psicoterapia y que se ha hecho consciente del peso de las represiones victorianas que acarrea—la necesidad de modelar su foco de atención y el mundo en que vive para aliviar las tensiones impuestas a la mente. Quizá para hacerse consciente de cosas que ahora no puede ni pensar con claridad, porque obviamente estas tensiones mentales impiden enfocar con claridad las cuestiones.

But there may be some state of mind in which one could continue without effort because nothing is required to be held back.

Aquí apunta la utopía—un estado de mente sin tensiones (quizá una vez trascendido el orden sexual, lo cual nos llevaría más allá de la evolución o al fin de la evolución...). Es una utopía que quizá no ordene nunca el orden social, pero que sin embargo existe, en tanto que utopía—y en tanto que experiencia vivida, crucialmente: no en una vida, sino apuntando en momentos concretos. Un orden utópico que aparece como un estado de mente, quizá para nunca realizarse más que como tal, pero ya es algo, pues es una realidad en la que se ha habitado, y como decía Hamlet, nada es bueno ni malo si no es que nuestra mente así lo juzga, una mente que construye sus propios mundos y cárceles mentales (the mind-forg'd manacles, que decía Blake). Una mente que puede construir también su habitación propia en la que refugiarse, y su utopía.

And this perhaps, I thought, coming in from the window, is one of them.

Este momento. Un punto culminante del pasaje está aquí: en hacerse consciente del momento, del presente —the present, the gift— porque vemos ahora más claro que todo este stream of consciousness ha tenido lugar en un momento intenso. ¿O no? Está el momento, y está su reelaboración en el pensamiento, la reflexión sobre el momento, que también (como hemos dicho antes) se echa de ver en la escritura de este pasaje, sobre un momento tanto vivido y experimentado como recreado y explorado con el pensamiento.

For certainly when I saw the couple get into the taxi-cab the mind felt as if, after being divided, it had come together again in a natural fusion.

Un alivio percibido, y experimentado más conscientemente al reflexionar sobre él y convertirlo en una cierta alegoría. El elemento masculino y el femenino, reconciliados, y partiendo en el taxi a seguir el viaje de la vida. Tal vez, también, un matrimonio con éxito, que no se diferencia aquí de la integración satisfactoria y no represiva de los principios masculinos y femeninos.

The obvious reason would be that it is natural for the sexes to co-operate. (…)

Y reaparece la naturaleza. Pero esa naturaleza, mediada y distorsionada por la cultura, no dicta exactamente en qué manera han de estructurarse, cooperar, o repartirse los papeles los sexos. Llevamos toda la historia, y la evolución, a cuestas, a la hora de redistribuir estos papeles. Y siempre es un dilema, porque también parece obvio que la cultura no está en flotación libre por encima de la historia, ni de la naturaleza. Reaparece ésta, lo natural, en esta lína donde dejamos el texto. No todas las distribuciones de roles —internos y externos— serán igual de naturales, y hemos visto los peligros y tensiones que generan las distribuciones antinaturales. Materia para seguir pensando, cuál es la cooperación natural de los sexos, dentro de la mente, y en la sociedad. Tema para tratar, quizá, en otro momento.


* Whitehall, la sede del poder político en Londres.

Exquisite Moments


Miércoles 3 de septiembre de 2014

Un barco enorme en Venecia

Un día que madrugué en San Servolo ví pasar este buque por la laguna de Venecia, frente a la isla.


Pragmática del lenguaje y de la comunicación: Bibliografía

1.Pragmatics by Efar Jaka Efendi

Pragmatics of Literature


Martes 2 de septiembre de 2014

Reja del este al amanecer

Sigo subiendo fotos de Venecia—hay para rato.

La reja del este al amanecer


BBC Horizon

Excelente búsqueda en YouTube, la de BBC Horizon. Salen más horas de documentales interesantes de los que podría nadie ver. Por ejemplo este clásico basado en The Blind Watchmaker de Richard Dawkins:

Produced in 1987 by Jeremy Taylor and Richard Dawkins for BBC HORIZON series. It was based on Dawkins same named book and won the Sci-Tech Award for Best Science Documentary of the year. 

O este otro, también de Dawkins y de 1987, Nice Guys First


Vuelve Hotel California 2

Veníamos oyendo esta canción zumbando con la Zafira, camino de Zaragoza, a la hora del ángelus. En realidad oíamos la versión acústica de Hell Freezes Over. Esta es la versión de "mis vídeos menos demandados":


Lunes 1 de septiembre de 2014

Cuadro de Venecia en Venecia

Cuadro de Venecia en Venecia

Venecia ya es sólo un recuerdo. No creo que vuelva nunca. Mañana tengo el primer examen de septiembre.


El derecho a ofenderse, bis

En Ibercampus, un artículo mío, políticamente correcto, aunque pudiera parecer lo contrario—El derecho a ofenderse.


Microblog de septiembre 2014

Maintes masques

30 sep 14, 22:43
JoseAngel: Quand le voilier est dévoilé. C'était en septembre...
30 sep 14, 19:43
JoseAngel: 'Half-monk, half-warrior': The New Man in Spain:
30 sep 14, 19:29
JoseAngel: Mi salvapantallas del Mac, unbidden, me da ahora noticias de Apple. Cosas veredes, y oiredes.
30 sep 14, 19:28
JoseAngel: En George Herbert, Love (III), el anfitrión es la hostia—y también el plato único.
30 sep 14, 15:48
JoseAngel: Transubstantiation:
30 sep 14, 13:19
JoseAngel: El golpe blando: la eterna y futura cesión al nacionalismo:
29 sep 14, 22:08
JoseAngel: Jose Angel Garcia Landa Author Rank is 2,314 out of 263,220
29 sep 14, 13:32
JoseAngel: Tertulia sobre el órdago de Artur Mas:
28 sep 14, 21:34
JoseAngel: Russian documentary on Cold War Soviet bombers:
28 sep 14, 20:55
JoseAngel: La Isla Mínima, thriller español recomendable:
28 sep 14, 18:27
JoseAngel: Mi Foto y Yo, en La mirada indiscreta:
28 sep 14, 15:09
JoseAngel: Mi blog en BlogCatalog... con retraso:
28 sep 14, 14:32
JoseAngel: иногда нужно быть уверенным в себе
28 sep 14, 13:24
JoseAngel: Ignacio Martínez de Pisón, 25 años después. En mi caso son más bien 35 desde aquellas tertulias:
28 sep 14, 12:48
JoseAngel: Aquí en el Delaware Valley College:
28 sep 14, 12:14
JoseAngel: Bibliographie du XVIIIe siècle (on m'enlace)
28 sep 14, 11:33
JoseAngel: A stunner:
27 sep 14, 20:04
JoseAngel: Les médias face à l'`État Islamique':
27 sep 14, 14:51
JoseAngel: Gnosce te ipsum, Rajoy. El auténtico Atila de la política en España.
27 sep 14, 11:36
JoseAngel: Claudio Guillén sobre el escritor exiliado (1980), audio:
26 sep 14, 22:09
JoseAngel: Cómo teleportar objetos necesarios a una nave espacial:
26 sep 14, 21:37
JoseAngel: Escuela de Doctorado de la Universidad de Zaragoza: Actividades transversales para este curso:
26 sep 14, 21:04
JoseAngel: Me enlazan en la Academia del Sagrado Corazón de Duchesne, en Houston.
26 sep 14, 20:55
JoseAngel: La comparecencia de Pujol, a soltar más bolas aún, del tamaño que le da la gana:
26 sep 14, 10:29
JoseAngel: Me voy a dar una clase sobre la Poética de Aristóteles. La última de esta semana.
25 sep 14, 23:56
JoseAngel: "ты мне понравилась" и "ты мне нравишься" это разные вещи.
25 sep 14, 18:25
JoseAngel: Naomi Wolf, "Vagina: A New Biography"
25 sep 14, 11:33
JoseAngel: Fotos de la ría de Pontevedra de Manuel Broullón:
24 sep 14, 23:30
JoseAngel: Los indios llegan a Marte:
24 sep 14, 21:00
JoseAngel: Edición electrónica y nueva portada de THEORIZING NARRATIVITY:
24 sep 14, 08:54
JoseAngel: Academic journals: Philology:
24 sep 14, 08:38
JoseAngel: чаще всего бывает так: я делаю 50 селфи, 49 удаляю и смотрю на оставшееся одно до тех пор, пока оно не станет уродливым, и тоже удаляю
23 sep 14, 23:24
JoseAngel: Aquí en Microsoft Academic Search:
23 sep 14, 16:01
JoseAngel: Cuando un golpe de estado no es delito:
22 sep 14, 17:23
JoseAngel: El jueves 25 conferencia en Zaragoza Lingüistica sobre biología, historia y cultura en el lenguaje:
22 sep 14, 12:37
JoseAngel: El avance de los MOOCS:
22 sep 14, 10:04
JoseAngel: GARCIALANDIA is out...
22 sep 14, 06:54
JoseAngel: La nueva edición de NARRATOLOGY, en Routledge, y mi página en Lybrary:
20 sep 14, 16:17
JoseAngel: Mi traducción de LA FILOSOFÍA DEL PRESENTE de Mead, en la Wikipedia:
20 sep 14, 00:08
JoseAngel: Otra manera de ver mi blog:
19 sep 14, 23:57
JoseAngel: Garcialandia:
19 sep 14, 21:45
JoseAngel: The Falklands War:
19 sep 14, 12:30
JoseAngel: Scotland votes NO:
18 sep 14, 23:45
JoseAngel: Un error histórico, lo del referéndum (sólo) a los escoceses:
18 sep 14, 21:50
JoseAngel: люблю делать дз когда я хорошо поняла тему на уроке, но когда до меня не допёрла суть изначально, дз превращается в иероглифы и алхимию
18 sep 14, 12:41
JoseAngel: El origen de los europeos:
18 sep 14, 12:26
JoseAngel: Pero peor sería la destrucción del Universo. Hawking avisa sobre el bosón de Higgs:
18 sep 14, 12:00
JoseAngel: UK RIP? Aquí votamos que NO:
17 sep 14, 21:51
JoseAngel: Top 3%
17 sep 14, 21:46
JoseAngel: - 56 people, 460 documents; JAGL: 153 documents:
17 sep 14, 18:55
JoseAngel: La decisión más importante de Escocia, con el NO A LA UNION dominando la calle:
17 sep 14, 18:52
JoseAngel: El ránking universitario de este año. Suben los catalanes:
17 sep 14, 18:47
JoseAngel: Hombre, se saltan eso de que la apertura solemne del año pasado se suspendió por amenazas de grupos violentos tolerados:
17 sep 14, 09:28
JoseAngel: Me citan (como fuente única) en "Filología Inglesa" (Mashpedia). Ahora que se extingue la carrera.
17 sep 14, 09:28
JoseAngel: Often infuriating. So selectively blind... sheesh...
17 sep 14, 08:55
JoseAngel: Chomsky hopes electronic espionage on the part of the government may be banned... keep on dreaming (min. 18)
17 sep 14, 08:49
JoseAngel: Me enlazan en TRILCAT: Grup d'estudis de traducció, recepció i literatura catalana
17 sep 14, 08:00
JoseAngel: Chomsky on Scottish independence:
16 sep 14, 23:50
JoseAngel: No hay Gran Isla de Plásticos, ahora:
16 sep 14, 23:48
JoseAngel: Qué náusea, la dinámica de cesión a los secesionistas también en el Reino Unido:
16 sep 14, 23:22
JoseAngel: El coste del error de Cameron:
16 sep 14, 17:23
JoseAngel: Un tipo de narración simultánea poco estudiado. Por cierto, este individuo tiene ocho millones de suscriptores. (¡?!)
16 sep 14, 07:50
JoseAngel: Redeem Time Past:
15 sep 14, 20:59
JoseAngel: Mi bibliografía sobre cosas que empiezan por L:
15 sep 14, 15:09
JoseAngel: Fernando Gamboa y las TICS en el Aula del Futuro:
15 sep 14, 13:00
JoseAngel: ¿Burbuja de academias de inglés?
15 sep 14, 07:18
JoseAngel: El Banco de Santander ayudó a blanquear los fondos de los Pujol vendiéndoles sus oficinas:
14 sep 14, 21:38
JoseAngel: Existe el peligro de ver demasiado claro.
14 sep 14, 07:02
JoseAngel: Un debate sobre el demonio, entre católicos en él creyentes:
14 sep 14, 06:41
JoseAngel: Entrevista con Albert Rivera:
13 sep 14, 23:16
JoseAngel: Pedro Santana et al. sobre Filosofía y Literatura:
13 sep 14, 22:52
JoseAngel: Aquí una reseña de Narratology en GoodReads:
13 sep 14, 22:11
JoseAngel: Fray Josepho sobre el referendum catalán:
13 sep 14, 17:39
JoseAngel: Si buscamos "anaciclosis"...^BND406^YY^CL&shad=s_0041&apn_uid=0449723522424550&gct=ds&apn_ptnrs=^AG6&d=406-706&lang=es&atb=sysid%
13 sep 14, 17:34
JoseAngel: Conferencia de Albert Boadella:
13 sep 14, 13:27
JoseAngel: Pío Moa sobre la involución permanente frente a los nacionalistas:
12 sep 14, 01:02
JoseAngel: Introduction to John Locke's Political Philosophy:
11 sep 14, 23:28
JoseAngel: SSRN: Jose Angel Garcia Landa Author Rank is 2,331 out of 262,061
11 sep 14, 21:37
JoseAngel: El alarde separatista de hoy:
11 sep 14, 19:19
JoseAngel: Scottish Independence debate Perth (The Courier, 2 Sept):
11 sep 14, 18:56
JoseAngel: 3,000 Books: (Half) a Lifetime of Reading:
11 sep 14, 17:23
JoseAngel: Qué penica dan los catalanes, por dios...
11 sep 14, 15:53
JoseAngel: Asexuals:
11 sep 14, 13:40
JoseAngel: (El) mañana habrá sido escrito:
11 sep 14, 12:00
JoseAngel: Cuando menos lo esperamos... nos cae una pedregada
11 sep 14, 11:58
JoseAngel: La trayectoria de Botín, en el Heraldo:
11 sep 14, 11:56
JoseAngel: Malos alumnos y malos profesores en la Universidad, dicen..
11 sep 14, 10:22
JoseAngel: La lección más importante a extraer del caso Botín: que nadie nos asegura que vayamos a seguir vivos dentro de un minuto siquiera. Así es la cosa.
11 sep 14, 10:21
JoseAngel: Un lugar donde recrearse la pupila: Lambda García:
10 sep 14, 22:04
JoseAngel: Emilio Botín, el amigo de los presidentes:
10 sep 14, 19:08
JoseAngel: Scotland and the European Union:
10 sep 14, 16:34
JoseAngel: La independencia escocesa, hace 22 años. Y ya ven.
10 sep 14, 16:31
JoseAngel: Thoughts on Scottish Independence:
10 sep 14, 16:11
JoseAngel: La Juez Alaya:
10 sep 14, 15:49
JoseAngel: Acción, Relato, Discurso—en Lingüística:
9 sep 14, 23:11
JoseAngel: Página web de la asignatura Introducción a la Literatura Inglesa (Grado en Lenguas Modernas):
9 sep 14, 21:52
JoseAngel: Mi blog sobre Shakespeare, para la asignatura de la licenciatura en extinción:
9 sep 14, 21:51
JoseAngel: Best of Philip Glass:
9 sep 14, 14:02
JoseAngel: Notes on Metafiction (1994):
9 sep 14, 13:08
JoseAngel: Cogiendo setas:
9 sep 14, 12:46
JoseAngel: Restoration Comedy Project:
9 sep 14, 11:43
JoseAngel: Hawking, Higgs, y la destrucción del Universo:
9 sep 14, 11:38
JoseAngel: El calendario académico de este año:
9 sep 14, 10:09
JoseAngel: David Hare (playwright):
9 sep 14, 09:22
JoseAngel: No menciona a César Vidal, y sus tertulianos también callados como muertos XD
9 sep 14, 09:21
JoseAngel: Seguidamente dice que alguien tendrá que contar la historia de la Iglesia en España en los últimos años, que quién se anima a escribirla.
9 sep 14, 09:21
JoseAngel: Federico JIménez Losantos hablando de cómo el Opus es un bastión del independentismo catalán.
9 sep 14, 08:50
JoseAngel: Otra variante más de mi CV:
9 sep 14, 08:29
JoseAngel: Aquí en Netvibes una app para mi blog:
9 sep 14, 08:25
JoseAngel: не смотря на школу, ощущение того, что сейчас лето
9 sep 14, 07:21
JoseAngel: Los misterios de Michel Houellebecq:
8 sep 14, 18:34
JoseAngel: Acción: El concepto y su historia (Acción, Relato, Discurso, 1.1):
8 sep 14, 17:10
JoseAngel: De El País, claro.
8 sep 14, 17:10
JoseAngel: Aquí la sustancia de la tesis sobre el 11-M:
8 sep 14, 17:05
JoseAngel: —BOA 28/8/2014, grupo HERAF:
8 sep 14, 17:03
JoseAngel: Nos dan unos eurillos para investigar en Hermenéutica y Antropología Fenomenológica.
8 sep 14, 16:59
JoseAngel: Yo hago boicot a productos catalanes mientras voten gobiernos sediciosos y secesionistas; a productos vascos y navarros por fueros abusivos.
8 sep 14, 14:16
JoseAngel: Aires de cambio en la Uni... poco, de momento:
7 sep 14, 20:07
JoseAngel: Cerramos, con tormenta eléctrica, la temporada de piscinas. Hasta el 2015, si llega. (Webster was much possessed by death).
7 sep 14, 14:47
JoseAngel: Academia Analytics:
7 sep 14, 11:25
JoseAngel: Aquí promocionando mi bibliografía en las redes sociales. O quitándole puntos, quién sabe (?).
7 sep 14, 11:04
JoseAngel: Seguimos en la tercera legislatura de Zapatero:
7 sep 14, 11:01
JoseAngel: Hoy cumpleaños de MJ... que está al parecer en Bolivia.
7 sep 14, 01:27
JoseAngel: Bibliografía de Teoría Literaria, Crítica y Filología:
6 sep 14, 16:41
JoseAngel: Soaring Oil Debt:
6 sep 14, 16:40
JoseAngel: Hoy empieza Pibo a estudiar ruso, y Oscar alemán.
6 sep 14, 11:14
JoseAngel: если захочешь, то можешь остаться
6 sep 14, 09:56
JoseAngel: Noticias de esta semana: Pujol, Aguirre, nacionalistas, musulmanes, etc.:
6 sep 14, 08:42
JoseAngel: Información (poca) sobre mi sitio web:
6 sep 14, 08:41
JoseAngel: Viendo a Fabiola — bastante más animada, pero el camino del duelo es largo.
5 sep 14, 18:07
JoseAngel: En el Cognitive Linguistics eJournal:
5 sep 14, 16:47
JoseAngel: Stephen Greenblatt on Shakespeare life stories:
5 sep 14, 14:10
JoseAngel: Terminating Shakespeare:
5 sep 14, 13:38
JoseAngel: Cosmos (9 h. de audio):
5 sep 14, 11:16
JoseAngel: La nueva página de la Universidad de Zaragoza es más dinámica, va transformándose en una revista, casi:
5 sep 14, 09:52
JoseAngel: Mi trabajillo de 1982, "John Donne: 'The Good-Morrow'," en Academia:
4 sep 14, 19:59
JoseAngel: Grant Abbitt, Narrative Theory 1:
4 sep 14, 14:47
JoseAngel: The Gunfighter:
4 sep 14, 13:47
JoseAngel: La posible alianza de UPyD y Ciudadanos:
4 sep 14, 12:09
JoseAngel: El País pide apoyo para la decisión de Merkel contra el Estado Islámico:
3 sep 14, 23:09
JoseAngel: John Shade's poem 'Pale Fire' might be mentioned, too:
3 sep 14, 13:03
JoseAngel: No tiene precio, lo del moltunurapla, pero anda, que lo de los que lo votan...
3 sep 14, 12:52
JoseAngel: Los catetos que se lo llevan. Con el nivelico que gastan nuestros vecinos orientales:
3 sep 14, 11:26
JoseAngel: Me citan en este artículo sobre "Tensiones de la etnografía virtual"
3 sep 14, 10:44
JoseAngel: M citan en Autores: Sabine Lang Localización: La narración paradójica: normas narrativas y el principio de la transgresión / coord. por Nina Grabe, Sabine Lang, Klaus Meyer-Minnemann, 2006.
3 sep 14, 10:38
JoseAngel: Con las excelentes cifras de Rajoy, en 8 años estaremos en dos millones de parados. ¡Sigue así, machote!
3 sep 14, 10:34
JoseAngel: Parece que me aceptan una publicación más en la serie Narratología, de De Gruyter, ¡albricias!
3 sep 14, 07:48
JoseAngel: Los 100 libros más vendidos de la historia:
3 sep 14, 06:41
JoseAngel: Un país en crisis total de valores y ciudadanía. Sólo el 16% de los españoles lo defenderían. Listos estamos para el desguace:
3 sep 14, 06:10
JoseAngel: The Paris lecture:
2 sep 14, 23:07
JoseAngel: ¿Pero será posible que estos estafadores del Gobierno convenzan a alguien con sus cifras cocinadas sobre el empleo? PUES SÍ. Así anda el país. ¡Hep, a despertaros, que estáis atontaos!
2 sep 14, 21:43
JoseAngel: Сегодня я потерял своего друга, который был всегда со мной... my self.
2 sep 14, 21:36
JoseAngel: Are We Real?
2 sep 14, 21:36
JoseAngel: Rajoy y el PP, enemigos de la ley del aborto de ZP, van para 300.000 abortos:
2 sep 14, 13:04
JoseAngel: Veo que mi blog es, ante todo, un fotoblog:
2 sep 14, 13:02
JoseAngel: Academia: 2213 document views in the last 30 days:
2 sep 14, 07:42
JoseAngel: Myself According to Himself: Blog de notas de agosto 2014:
1 sep 14, 00:00
JoseAngel: 'No tengo tiempo para estar enfermo'

Microblog de agosto 2014