escombros pinturaVANITY FEA: Blog de notas de José Angel García Landa (Biescas y Zaragoza) - Noviembre de 2014


 
Miscellaneous
Rubbish


    Mi web    Indice    Fotoblog    Videoblog    Lecturas    Enlaces y blogs    Bibliografía  — Música que viene: Figlio perduto (Sarah Brightman) - Y vuelve: How to Be Invisible (Kate Bush) - Y vuelve: Broken Bicycles (Anne Sofie von Otter)
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Blog de hoy AQUÍ

Domingo 30 de septiembre de 2014

Mi periódico de hoy






—oOo—

Evolutionary criticism


Two Facebook groups:

Evolutionary Narratology
https://www.facebook.com/groups/115505095152536/

 Narratología evolucionista / Evolutionary Narratology
https://www.facebook.com/narratologiaevolucionista


A website: Joseph Carroll's Publications on Literary Darwinism:
http://www.umsl.edu/~carrolljc/




And some people:
        
  Joseph C. Carroll jcarroll@umsl.edu
        Adam Miklosei miklosa@ludens.elte.hu ,
        Alice Andrews aandrews@hvc.rr.com ,
        Ana Sobral Ana.Sobral@uni-konstanz.de ,
        Andy Thomson jat4m@eservices.virginia.edu ,
        Anja Mueller-Wood 'wood@uni-mainz.de' ,
        Apurva Narechania narechan@gmail.com ,
        Kevin S Baldwin KBALDWIN@monm.edu ,
        Barbara Lewis barbara.lewis@waitrose.com ,
        Bill Zimmerman wfzimmerman@amherst.edu ,
        "biopoet@yahoogroups.com" biopoet@yahoogroups.com ,
        Blakey Vermeule vermeule@stanford.edu ,
        Bob Storey rfstorey@gmail.com ,
        Bret Rappaport BRappaport@hardtstern.com ,
        Brett Cooke brett-cooke@tamu.edu ,
        Brian Boyd b.boyd@auckland.ac.nz ,
        Candace Alcorta candace.alcorta@uconn.edu ,
        Carl Degler degler@stanford.edu ,
        Carsten Koenneker Koenneker@spektrum.com ,
        Charles Duncan duncanguitar@hotmail.com ,
        Cheryle Jaworski chery2@umbc.edu ,
        Clinton Machann c-machann@tamu.edu ,
        Dan Kruger djk2012@gmail.com ,
        Daniel Barratt d.barratt@yahoo.co.uk ,
        Daniel Nettle daniel.nettle@ncl.ac.uk ,
        Daniel Tanaka djtanaka1@gmail.com ,
        Dave Evans evanspl@sio.midco.net ,
        David Barash dpbarash@u.washington.edu ,
        David Buss dbuss@psyvax.psy.utexas.edu ,
        David Livingstone Smith dsmith06@maine.rr.com ,
        David Miall David.Miall@ualberta.ca ,
        David Michelson dmichel1@binghamton.edu ,
        David Sloan Wilson dwilson@binghamton.edu ,
        Denis Dutton constant.force@netaccess.co.nz ,
        Dirk Vanderbeke vanderbeke@t-online.de ,
        D. L. DiSalvo dldisalvo@yahoo.com ,
        Don Brown deb1934@cox.net ,
        Don Mahan don.mahan@yahoo.com ,
        Michael Shermer DrMichaelShermer@aol.com ,
        Dylan Evans evansd66@googlemail.com ,
        Edward Slingerland slinger@interchange.ubc.ca ,
        Eileen A. Joy ejoy@siue.edu ,
        Ellen Dissanayake edissana@seanet.com ,
        Ervin Nieves Ervin_Nieves@hotmail.com ,
        Fotis Jannidis jannidis@linglit.tu-darmstadt.de ,
        Frances Widdowson franceswiddowson@yahoo.ca ,
        Francis F. Steen steen@commstds.ucla.edu ,
        Frank Miele FMieleX@aol.com ,
        Frank Salter FSSalter@aol.com ,
        Gad Saad GadSaad@jmsb.concordia.ca ,
        Geoffrey Harpham gharpham@nationalhumanitiescenter.org ,
        Gerhard Lauer gerhard.lauer@phil.uni-goettingen.de ,
        Glen Love rglove@uoregon.edu ,
        Gordon M. Burghardt gburghar@utk.edu ,
        Griet Vandermassen Griet.Vandermassen@UGent.be ,
        Hans Foerstl Hans.Foerstl@lrz.tu-muenchen.de ,
        Harold Fromm hfromm@earthlink.net ,
        "Horvathon@aol.com" Horvathon@aol.com ,
        Ian Duncan iduncan@berkeley.edu ,
        Jay R. Feierman jfeierman@comcast.net ,
        "jefoy@notes.cc.sunysb.edu" jefoy@notes.cc.stonybrook.edu ,
        Jeremy Hsu jmichael.hsu@gmail.com ,
        jerry hoeg jhoeg1@yahoo.com ,
        Jessica Drew jdrew1@binghamton.edu ,
        John Johnson j5j@psu.edu ,
        John Knapp jknapp@niu.edu ,
        John Tooby tooby@anth.ucsb.edu ,
        John van Wyhe jmv21@cam.ac.uk ,
        John Whitfield ja_whitfield@btinternet.com ,
        Jon Hodgson gladfish@worldonline.co.za ,
        Jose Garcia Landa garciala@unizar.es ,
        Joseph Anderson josepha@conwaycorp.net ,
        Judith Saunders Judith.Saunders@marist.edu ,
        Karl Eibl Karl.Eibl@gmx.net ,
        Karl Sigmund karl.sigmund@univie.ac.at ,
        Kathryn Coe KCoe@azcc.arizona.edu ,
        Katja Mellmann katja.mellmann@germanistik.uni-muenchen.de ,
        Ken Womack kaw16@psu.edu ,
        Kevin Baldeosingh kbaldeosingh@hotmail.com ,
        Kevin Cullen kpcullen@gmail.com ,
        L. Eslinger eslinger@ucalgary.ca ,
        Larry Arnhart TI0LEA1@wpo.cso.niu.edu ,
        Lauri Jang laurij@interchange.ubc.ca ,
        Leslie Heywood heywood@binghamton.edu ,
        Linda Carroll lincar@tulane.edu ,
        Lionel Tiger lionel.tiger@worldnet.att.net ,
        M. S. Smith M.S.Smith@kent.ac.uk ,
        Marcus Nordlund marcus.nordlund@eng.gu.se ,
        Maria Bachman mbachman@coastal.edu ,
        Martin Bruene martin.bruene@ruhr-uni-bochum.de ,
        Mathias F. Clasen mathias@tellerup.dk ,
        Max Oelschlaeger Oelsch@prodigy.net ,
        Maya Lessov mayalessov@yahoo.com ,
        Michael Austin austinm@newmanu.edu ,
        Michelle Scalise Sugiyama michelle_scalise@hotmail.com ,
        Miguel Conde miguel.conde@oglobo.com.br ,
        Mike Fonte mike.fonte@gmail.com ,
        Mogens Olesen olesen@hum.ku.dk ,
        Nadia Zaboura zaboura@mfg.de ,
        Nancy Aiken aikennancy@yahoo.com ,
        Nancy Easterlin neasterl@uno.edu ,
        Gaspar Nemes nemesgaspar@catv-sonar.hu ,
        Nicholas F. Pici nickpici@gmail.com ,
        Nick Cavallo npcavallo@yahoo.com ,
        Nick Gillespie gillespie@reason.com ,
        P.M. Hejl hejl@mefo.uni-siegen.de ,
        Craig T. Palmer palmerct@missouri.edu ,
        Priyanka Pathak P.Pathak@Palgrave.com ,
        Pauline Uchmanowicz uchmanop@newpaltz.edu ,
        Pete Swirski pswirski@netvigator.com ,
        Peter Bikoulis peterbikoulis@trentu.ca ,
        Robert Funk rnfunk@mgc.edu ,
        Robert Perchan chorea_97@yahoo.com ,
        robin dunbar rimd@liverpool.ac.uk ,
        Robin Fox rfox@rci.rutgers.edu ,
        Robin Headlam Wells R.Headlam_Wells@roehampton.ac.uk ,
        Rudiger Vaas euw@wissenschaft.de ,
        Ruth Berger ruth.berger@em.uni-frankfurt.de ,
        Catherine Salmon Catherine_Salmon@redlands.edu ,
        Priya Shetty priya4876@gmail.com ,
        Simone Winko simone.winko@phil.uni-goettingen.de ,
        Stephen Davies sj.davies@auckland.ac.nz ,
        Steven Brown stebro@sfu.ca,
        Steven Pinker  pinker@wjh.harvard.edu,
        Tamas Bereczkei  btamas@btk.pte.hu,
        Todd Williams  williams@kutztown.edu,
        Tom Dolack  dolack_thomas@wheatoncollege.edu,
        Torben Grodal  grodal@hum.ku.dk,
        Ursula Goodenough  ursula@biology2.wustl.edu,
        Wayne Hall  HALLWE@ucmail.uc.edu,
        William Irons  w-irons@northwestern.edu,
        Wulf Schiefenhoevel  schiefen@orn.mpg.de



Toward a Consilient Study of Literature


—oOo—


Isla de Ons

Isla de Ons


—oOo—





Cita con la Historia: La Falange





Instructivo programa, si bien pasa de puntillas, de modo bastante tendencioso, por un momento crucial de la historia de la Falange: cuando se convierte en una fuerza criminal para organizar asesinatos masivos de personas asociadas al bando republicano, especialmente durante los primeros meses de la guerra civil. Pequeño detalle, con miles y miles de muertos que no constan en el currículum de los falangistas, porque se aplicó allí la desmemoria interesada hasta extremos épicos. Y sigue aplicándose, como se ve.

Aquí la segunda parte—la Falange bajo el franquismo.

—oOo—



Nothing Like the Sun



Voy recopilando las referencias de trabajos académicos que me citan, a veces siguiendo los enlaces de Google Scholar. Al menos cuando me consta que en efecto me citan, porque a veces parece que sólo ponga esas referencias para alegrarme la vida, y luego no me encuentro en ellas. O son de pago, con lo cual siguen veladas en el misterio—porque no será el año que viene, sino quizá el siguiente, cuando pague yo por ver qué dicen de mí. En fin, en tiempo siempre las pagamos, estas aficiones. Hoy, al margen de algunas citas en revistas religiosas y teológicas, y sitios paranormales, he encontrado esta referencia de un colega que cita un estudio mío sobre Enrique V de Shakespeare.





Título:  Nothing like the Sun: Shakespeare in Spain Today
Autor/es:  González Fernández de Sevilla, José Manuel
Grupo/s de investigación o GITE:  Shakespeare y el Siglo de Oro Español
Centro, Departamento o Servicio:  Universidad de Alicante. Departamento de Filología Inglesa
Palabras clave:  Shakespeare, William | Spain | Translations | Criticism | Productions
Área/s de conocimiento:  Filología Inglesa
Fecha de publicación:  28-dic-2012
Editor:  Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Cita bibliográfica:  GONZÁLEZ, José Manuel. “Nothing like the Sun: Shakespeare in Spain Today”. Multicultural Shakespeare: Translation, Appropriation and Performance. Vol. 9, No. 24 (2012). ISSN 2083-8530, pp. 34-52
Resumen:  Today Shakespeare is more present in Spain than ever as a result of the critical interest and spectacular growth of his popularity among Spaniards who recognise him as the embodiment of cultural and literary values. Since the celebration of the Seventh World Shakespeare Congress in Valencia in April 2001, Shakespearean scholarship in Spain has provided new ways of understanding the playwright. It has opened up debates on issues which have made possible new scholarly studies, translations and performances that have proved more active and vigorous than ever, and whose effects can be seen in different facets of Spanish culture and life.
URI:  http://hdl.handle.net/10045/33144
ISSN:  2083-8530
DOI:  10.2478/v10224-011-0014-5
Idioma:  eng
Tipo:  info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Derechos:  Copyright © 2012 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH
Revisión científica:  si
Versión del editor:  http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/v10224-011-0014-5
Aparece en las colecciones: INV - SSO - Artículos de Revistas


Otras citas que encuentro hoy:

Thate, Michael James. "Remembrance of Things Past? Albert Schweitzer, the Anxiety of Influence, and the Untidy Jesus of Markan Memory." Ph.D. Durham U, 2012. Online at Durham eTheses
    http://etheses.dur.ac.uk/3907/1/SINGLE_DOC.pdf
    2014
Dreyer, Jaco S. "The Narrative Turn in Practical Theology: A Discussion of Julian Müller's Narrative Approach." Verbum et Ecclesia 35.2 (2014). Doi: 10.4102/ve.v35i2.889
    http://ve.org.za/index.php/VE/article/view/889
    2014
Gómez Mesas, María. (U de Almería; then Germany). "Aproximación a las funciones metaficcionales de autor y lector implícitos, narrador y narratario dentro de lo neofantástico en el cuento de Cortázar 'Ahí, pero dónde, cómo'." Grin (2014):
    http://www.grin.com/es/e-book/282646/aproximacion-a-las-funciones-metaficcionales-de-autor-y-lector-implicitos
    2014


Books in Motion


—oOo—


Sábado 29 de noviembre de 2014

Lune (5)





—oOo—








Barco que va a un puerto


Barco que va a un puerto



—oOo—





Bibliografía de crítica sobre Samuel Beckett


Procedente de mi bibliografía de crítica literaria, y subida por un alma caritativa (o quizá pirata, vaya usted a saber) a SlideShare:


On Samuel Beckett from peterbuck


Por cierto, que nada más este listado ya tiene más de 7.000 visitas que supongo habría que sumar a las de mi bibliografía. Por eso me gusta pensar que, aunque la página principal de la bibliografía tenga menos visitas que antes y rara vez llegan a cincuenta diarieas, en realidad recibe una cantidad innumerable de visitas. Literalmente innumerable, o incalculable, si se prefiere—pues está desperdigada en centenares o miles de documentos que o bien tienen su propio contador independiente, como es el caso aquí, o sencillamente no tienen contador.


Literatura y cibercultura II


—oOo—







Viernes 28 de noviembre de 2014

Casas de Galicia 2


Casas de Galicia 2
Twelfth Night

from the Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble:


Twelfth Night, or What You Will, a comedy by *Shakespeare probably written 1601. John *Manningham saw a performance of it in the Middle Temple in February 1602; it was frist printed in the *Folio of 1623. Shakespeare's immediate source for the main plot was 'The History of Apolonius and Silla' in Barnabe *Rich's Riche His Farewell to Militarie Profession (1581). This is derived from Belleforest's version, which by way of *Bandello can be traced back to a Sienese comedy Gl'Ingannati (The Deceived), written and performed 1531.

Sebastian and Viola, twin brother and sister and closely resembling one another, are separated in a shipwreck off the coast of Illyria. Viola, brought to shore in a boat, disguises herself a youth, Cesario, and takes service as page with Duke Orsino, who is in love with the lady Olivia. She rejects the duke's suit and will not meet him. Orsino makes a confidant of Cesario and sends her to press his suit on Olivia, much to the distress of Cesario, who has fallen in love with Orsino. Olivia in turn falls in love with Cesario. Sebastian and Antonio, captain of the ship that had rescued Sebastian, now arrive in Illyria. Cesario, challenged to a duel by Sir Andrew Aguecheek, a rejected suitor of Olivia, is rescued from her predicament by Antonio, who takes her for Sebastian. Antonio, being arrested at that moment for an old offence, claims from Cesario a purse that he had entrusted to Sebastian, is denied it, and hauled off to prison. Olivia coming upon the true Sebastian, takes him for Cesario, invites him to her house, and marries him out of hand. Orsino comes to visit Olivia. Antonio, brought before him, claims Cesario as the youth he has rescued from the sea; while Olivia claims Cesario as her husband. The duke, deeply wounded, is bidding farewell to Olivia and the 'dissembling cub' Cesario, when the arrival of the true Sebastian clears up the confusion. The duke, having lost Olivia, and becoming conscious of the love that Viola has betrayed, turns his affection to her, and they are married.

Much of the play's comedy comes from the sub-plot dealing with the members of Olivia's household: Sir Toby Belch, her uncle, Sir Andrew Aguecheek, his friend, Malvolio, her pompous steward, Maria, her waiting-gentlewoman, and her clown Feste. Exasperated by Malvolio's officiousness, the other members of the house make him believe that Olivia is in love with him and that he must return her affection. In courting her he behaves so outrageously that he is imprisoned as a madman. Olivia has him released and the joke against him is explained, but he is not amused by it, threatening, 'I'll be reveng'd on the whole pack of you.'

The play's gentle melancholy and lyrical atmosphere is captured in two of Feste's beautiful songs, 'Come away, come away, death' and 'When that I was and a little tiny boy, / With hey, ho, the wind and the rain'.



Twelfth Night (1996 film version, dir. Trevor Nunn):  https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL26C95A2E2E4A5673


—oOo—




Wilde
(1997)



 




Y un documental de la BBC sobre Oscar Wilde:










—oOo—









Henry V
opening sequence (Laurence Olivier)




Jueves 27 de noviembre de 2014

Luz en la vela 2

Luz en la vela 2




—oOo—






Meet Me at MIT

Hace unos años que me pusieron un enlace en el MIT—y veo con satisfacción que ahí sigue, enviándome visitas de vez en cuando. Pantallazo, antes de que desaparezca, que aquí todo fluye. Aquí está la página entera, y ésta es la sección final:

mit enlace


MITificándome


—oOo—





Shakespeare at MIT


THE COMPLETE WORKS OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE



OCW, Universia, y la innovación docente en la Universidad

—oOo—


Miércoles 26 de noviembre de 2014

Luis, Tere y David en los años 80

Cuando aún dibujaba yo retratos y cosas:

Luis, Tere y David en los años 80


—oOo—






Kepler 186F - Alien Planets Revealed





—oOo—









En mi área


También aparece mi bibliografía entre los recursos de mi área de conocimiento —en mi propia universidad. Para que luego digan que uno no es profeta en su tierra, si es que ésta es mi tierra. Que también soy yo un poco noman of noland.

BMM

Y oigan, no estoy en mala compañía—con la Cambridge History of English and American Literature, con la bibliografía de la MLA. Ésta, por cierto, acumuló entre 1926 y 1962 menos registros que mi bibliografía. Ahora es un poquito más voluminosa—pero no la ponen de acceso libre, miren cómo son.


Me enlazan en la Universidad de Oxford



—oOo—





Martes 25 de noviembre de 2014


Human Origins Documentary






—oOo—



Isaac Newton: The Last Magician

Isaac Newton: The Last Magician. Dir. Renny Bartlett. Prod. BBC, 2013.




Isaac Newton The Last Magician Biography... por singaporegeek


and also: The Secret Life of Isaac Newton









—oOo—






Estoy en Philology


Figuro citado desde hace años, creo que como única fuente española, en el artículo "Philology" de la Wikipedia. Bueno, también remiten a una asociación de filólogos de la Complutense. Pero quiero decir que no está mal, aunque sea la Wikipedia. Cualquier día me dedican un artículo monográfico.

Ahora he encontrado ese artículo en Scribd, y me permito reinsertarlo aquí...

Vaya, va el dueño y lo borra. Pues saco pantallazo del artículo de la Wikipedia, sección enlaces externos.


wikiphilology















































MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers

—oOo—


Lunes 24 de noviembre de 2014

Surfacing to the Sun


Surfacing to the sun

—oOo—



Drama from the Beginning of the Eighteenth Century


British drama c. 1700-1950—from the first edition of David Daiches' Critical History of English Literature:


As we have seen in Chapter 1, the Restoration dramatic works persisted for some time after the political and social conditions that bred it had disappeared before gradually giving way to a more moral and more sentimental kind of drama. The charting of the course of eighteenth-century drama is a tedious business, for, with a few exceptions, it is a drama of very little literary interest or quality. Indeed, this can be said for the great bulk of English drama between Congreve and Shaw. The drama was never to recover the central position it held in the Elizabethan and Jacobean periods. The rise of the novel was partly responsible for this, as was the growing power of the theatrical manager, who decided what plays were to be accepted and, by putting on only what he thought could be relied on to appeal to popular taste, put the hack entertainer above the man of letters, thus eventually creating a damaging divorce between the theater and the creative literary minds of the age. Theatrical history after the seventeenth century has no necessary connection with literary history. True, the eighteenth century was an age of great actors and actresses, but their very acting skill had a blighting effect on the drama as literature, for they depended more and more on their virtuosity and less and less on the material with which they were provided, exploiting their abilities and personalities rather than the potentialities of the plays: it was the beginning, in a sense of the star system, which has done so much harm in our own time. Several paradoxes resulted from this situation. Shakespeare was regularly performed and was immensely popular, but the Shakespearean repertoire of the eighteenth century was a theatrical rag-bag of patched and "improved"plays and parts of plays which would horrify a modern producer. The reaction among serious critics was to lead them to see the true Shakespeare as a writer of closet plays, and the ignoring of Shakespeare's theatrical skills by men of letter wen on through much of the nineteenth century. The dominance of the theater in the eighteenth century and the ignoring of the theatrical tradition in literary dramatic criticism in the nineteenth were equally harmful. It was all part of the divorce between art and entertainment which has been such a disturbing feature of modern culture. The dominance of the manager was part cause and part effect of the dominance of the audience; the audience dominated because a playwright was now dependent on the audience, rather than on aristocratic or royal patronage, for his success. The same can be said of the public for novels and other literature, but the effects here were not harmful in the same way, partly because the audience for literature was wide and more varied and at its best more intelligent than the audience for acted drama. There was a real drop in the intelligence of theater audiences in the eighteenth century, for reasons which are complex and not easily formulated.

Jeremy Collier's Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage (1698) was effective as an attack on the immorality of the drama because it coincided with a rising tide of bourgeois opinion. Restoration drmaa was written for a homogeneous audience of court wits who looked with equal contempt on London merchants and country squires. But the homogeneity of theatrical audiences was rapidly giving way to something much more mixed; the rising middle classes, who have featured so often in the preceding chapters, were buying their way into the squirearchy and the aristocracy, and the same situation which led Addison and Steele to write essays to provide a cultural surface for Londoners seeking to move with some assurance in society led to the theaters being filled by people who did not quite know whether to be titillated or shocked by the Restoration ethos.The drama reflected this uncertainty. Instead of the witty play between the sexes in which the conflicting claims of security, reputation, and sensual appetite were balanced against each other in a fundamentally amoral manner, we find indecency and innuendo in the first four acts being replaced by repentance and moral sententiousness in the fifth, which was a way of having one's cake and eating it. This transitional and hybrid kind of comedy soon gave way to a kind more thoroughly sentimental and moral. These terms can be variously defined, but in this context "sentimental" implies the mixing and even interrupting of action with frequent displays and expressions of pity and other emotions indicating a tender mind and a heart easily moved, while "moral" means the equally frequent expression of edifying generalization, sometimes self-congratulatory, sometimes reproving, as well as a plot calculated to show virtue rewarded and vice frustrated. It is easy to be condescending about the influence of bourgeois morality on the drama, but we must remember that all great literature has a true moral pattern and the amorality of Restoration comedy, however brilliantly it might show, was based on a shallow and cruel view of life on which no truly great art coul be founded. Our condescension is inevitable, however, becaus the morality in so many early eighteenth-century plays is laid on so crudely and thickly and is not adequately realized in the texture of the work as a whole. Richard Steele, who made a genuine and praiseworthy effort to replace the hollow moral world of Restoration drama by something with more humanity and decency, produced four comedies (including The Tender Husband, 1705, and The Conscious Lovers, 1722) which are of interest because of the determined belief in the essential goodness of the human heart which they display, and the manner in which he manipulates the action to illustrate this belief, but though there are moments of tremulous emotion and intense pathos, as well as some lively dialogue and comic incidents, the plays are not true comedy in any acceptable sense of the term; they have not the wit of Congreve, the power of Ben Jonson, or the golden combination of humor and wonder we find in Shakespeare's "middle comedies"; they are of interest as indications of a trend rather than as fully realized works of dramatic art.

How strong the trend was, how deep-seated the popularity of sentimental drama in the eighteenth century, and to what an extent a strong moral and sentimental coloring with a plot contrived to reward the virtuous and punish the wicked would compensate in the eyes of contemporaries for literary quality, can be seen in the plays of Richard Cumberland, whose sentimental comedy The West Indian (1771) was immensely popular and is still mentioned respectfully by literary historians. The one good quality this play does have is speed of action: events bowl along at a great pace. But the dialogue, the situations, the characters, the plot, are all preposterous, all simply slick manipulations of what had by long become stock dramatic properties. The hero, a young man from the West indies of good heart but impulsive temperament (rather like Tom Jones) behaves with exaggerated and flamboyant generosity, gets himself involved in ridiculous misunderstandings with the other characters, who are either all equally goodhearted or else thorough villains, and in the end is proclaimed the long-concealed son of the goodhearted merchant in whose house the play opens. The following extract from Act V must serve as a sample of the dialogue:


Belcourt: Keep me no longer in suspense; my heart is softened for the affecting discovery, and nature fits me to receive his blessing.
Stockwell: I am your father.
Belcourt: My father! Do I live?
Stockwell:  I am your father.
Belcourt: It is too much; my happiness o'erpowers me; to gain a friend and find a father is too much; I blush to think how little I deserve you. (They embrace).
Dudley: See, children, how many new relations spring from this night's unforeseen events, to endear us to each other.

Writers of this kind of comedy never achieved a proper kind of stylization. Their plays were set in contemporary society, but the dialogue employed noeither the stylized with of the Restoration dramatists nor a language that was able to sustain any colloquial tone beyond a few intermittent sentences. As soon as the characters got under way they began expressing themselves in long, sententious speeches which are not artificial enough for a purely formal style and not natural enough for the illusion of realism. And the dramatists' horror of what was "low" closed to them a major source of robustness and vigor. It is only after reading many plays of this kind that one can appreciate the comic iconoclasm of Goldsmith and Sheridan in comedies which, though they may appear sentimental enough to modern eyes, were in fact directed against the sentimental gentility in the drama of the time. They had been anticipated in this by occasional satirical comedies—George Colman's Polly Honeycombe (1760) for example—but Goldsmith's The Good Natured Man (1766) strikes more directly at some of the most popular desires of the contemporary dramatists, even though he has his own moments of high sentimentality and he never really mastered the problem of stylization: his dialogue is often as cumbersome as Cumberland's.
she stoopsIn She Stoops to Conquer (1773), Goldsmith did very much better. Trivial though the plot is, and mechanical though the devices are which Goldsmith uses in order to project the humor (a young man thinks he is at an inn when he is really at a private house, and behaves accordingly, to the astonishment and indignation of his host), there is a rollicking ease about the play which had not been seen in English comedy for a long time. It is perhaps an indication of the poverty of eighteenth-century drama that this simple-minded comedy should enjoy the reputation it does, but it does possess genuine comic life. This is even truer of the comedies of Richard Brinsley Sheridan (1751-1816). In The Rivals (1775) we can see Sheridan working toward his comic ideal, and trace the Restoration and Jonsonian elements he drew on; it is a spirited play with some lively Jonsonian humors and real comedy of character. Lydia Languish, the girl who is so soaked in romantic fiction that she will not marry unless she can elope under difficulties according to the best novels, is in the same ironic vein as Mark Twain's picture of tom Sawyer's efforts to romanticize the escape of Jim in Huckleberry Finn; it is simpler and cruder, but it is dramatically achieved. And Mrs. Malaprop, though again a simple satiric conception, looks back, however faintly, to Shakespeare's middle comedies as well as forward to Dickens. The School for Scandal (1777) is Sheridan's masterpiece. It has a strong satirical note which is almost (but never quite) reminiscent of Jonson; but the wit is real, the character drawing vigorous and unsparing, the air of knowing the world as it is (something quite lacking in most eighteenth-century comiedies) genuine and refreshing. And Sheridan has learned how to handle dialogue that has both naturalness and order. The brief "afterpiece," The Critic (1779), intended to be put on after a full-length play, is admirable satire of the vanities and fashions of playwrights and critics and tells us much about the run-of-the-mill eighteenth-century tragedy which nobody now reads.

It is by the parodies of it that eighteenth-century tragedy can be best looked at from the perspective of the twentieth century, for the parodies are at least readable, and in some cases extremely funny. Henry Fielding's Tom Thumb the Great (1730) is hilarious. By the time Fielding wrote, the moralizing, blank verse tragedy, generally conforming to the neoclassic "unities," on a theme from ancient or English history had become so standardized in manner and matter that it was clearly doomed as a dramatic form. Addison's Cato (1714) was the earliest successful play of this kind, a tragedy in end-stopped blank verse (mostly with "feminine" endings) with a minimum of action and a greta deal of complacent speeches about his own virtue by Cato, and a perfunctory love interest hitched on to a play whose real motive is (in Johnson's well-known description) to provide "a succession of just sentiments in elegant language rather than a representation of natural affections, or of any state possible or probable in human life." The whole thing is utterly lifeless, and the blank verse adds no poetic dimension of any kind to the total pattern of meaning. This is how Cato talks:

Then let us rise, my friends, and strive to fill
This little interval, this pause of life
(While yet our liberty and fates are doubtful)
With revolution, friendship, Roman bravery,
And all the virtues we can crowd into it;
That Heaven may say, it ought to be prolonged.
Fathers, farewell—the young Numidian prince
Comes forward, and expects to know our counsels.

When Juba, the "young Numidian prince," comes forward and hears Cato's resolution, he replies:

The resolution fits a Roman senate.
But, Cato, lend me for a while thy patience,
And condescend to hear a young man speak.
My father, when, some days before his death,
He ordered me to march for Utica
(Alas! I thought not then his death so near!)
Wept o'er me, pressed me in his aged arms. . . .

This is a fair sample of the wooden verse in which this lifeless play is written. One need not pursue this kind of tragedy through James Thomson's Sophonisba (1730) to Dr. Johnson's Irene (1749). The wonder is that the mode survived as long as it did.

Another kind of eighteenth-century tragedy aimed at pathos rather than at moralizing dignity. Nicholas Rowe's The Fair Penitent, 1703 (derived from Massinger's The Fatal Dowry), was a fountainhead here; his other tragedies (Jane Shore, 1714, Lady Jane Grey, 1715) wring pathetic scenes out of the predicaments of historical heroines. The verse is the same sort of emasculated Fletcher we saw in Cato:

No, though the royal Edward has undone me,
He was my king, my gracious master still,
He loved me too, though 'twas a guilty flame,
And fatal to my peace, yet still he loved me;
With fondness and with tenderness he dote
Dwelt in my eyes, and lived but in my smiles.

But Rowe's plays have a real emotional pattern, and the pathos, if only pathos, is achieved. The eighteenth-century domestic tragedy, developing a similar kind of pathos from the misfortunes of middle-class characters, is closely related to the kind of play written in Rowe, but the shift in class interest is of the first importance for the future of the drama, for it set the pattern fro more than a century and a half of tragedy. This is the tribulations of ordinary people displayed in a prose drama in which the morality is emphasized by a simple division of characters into black and white and a perpetual uttering of moral platitudes by the good. George Lillo's The London Merchant, or the History of George Barnwell (1731) tells the story of a good apprentice seduced by a wicked woman into, first, robbery of his master, and then, murder of his uncle. The merchant is the epitome of virtue and integrity, as are his daughter Maria (who loves the hapless George Barnwell) and his other apprentice Trueman—indeed, as is Barnwell himself, who is dominated and led astray by Millwood, the thoroughly wicked and cunning she-devil. Barnwell goes to the gallows repentant and sure of grace, after having vainly tried to turn his gallows-mate Millwood to God. His last words are: "Since peace and comfort are denied her here, may she find mercy where she least expects it, and this be all her hell"! Thorowgood, the good merchant, can only let justice take its course, advicint his errant apprentice: "Bear a little longer the pains that attend this transitory life, and cease from pain for ever." His normal diction is more orotund, as is his reproof to Barnwell for not turning up one evening (he was in fact in Millwood's clutches): "Without a cause assigned, or notice given, to basent yourself last night was a fault, young man, and I came to chide you for it, but hope I am prevented. This modest blush, this confusion so visible in your face, speak grief and shame. When we have offended Heaven, it requires no more; and shall man, who needs himself to be forgiven, be harder to appease? If my pardon or love be of moment to your peace, look up secure of both." The real interest of the play lies in Barnwell's remorse and repentance. It is a sign of the general wretchedness of English tragedy in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries that The London Merchant is still discussed with respect by historians of the drama.

The eighteenth century was also the great age of pantomime and of spectacular shows depending on ingenious and abundant use of stage "machinery." The pantomime—developing as a result of converging strains from masque, mime, commedia dell' arte, and dance—was often performed as an afterpiece, but eventually became a full-blown and established form of its own; in the nineteenth century it became a peculiarly English institution. Italian opera was also opopular in England in the early eighteenth century, and it was as a patriotic reaction against it that the ballad-opera developed, set to native airs and written in English. The first and greatest of the ballad-operas is John Gay's The Beggars Opera (1728), discussed in Chapter 2. There were many imitations of Gay's successful ballad-opera produced in the first half of the century; it eventually gave way to the comic opera, where the music is specially composed instead of being taken from traditional airs. There were successful comic operas in the 1760's, and Sheridan's The Duenna (1775), a prose comedy with incidental songs composed by Thomas Linley, enjoyed enormous success. Love and intrigue form the main interest of late-eighteenth- and early nineteenth-century comic opera; it was left to Gilbert and Sullivan to rejuvenate a by then much jaded form by turning it to satiric purposes.

The literary currents of the late eighteenth century affected the drama in various ways, but again the divorce between literature and the theater kept most serious "Romantic" drama off the stage, and again the lack of mutual influence between literature and the theater was harmful to both. Blank verse tragedy on high classical themes gave way as the eighteenth century progressed to a tragedy differing little in technique and moral sententiousness, but using more exotic themes and, like the domestic tragedy, stressing the pathetic. John Home's Douglas (1756) took its subject from the Scottish ballad "Gil Morrice," and Robert Jephson's The Count of Narbonne (1781) is derived from Horace Walpole's Castle of Otranto. Stress on the sensational and the pathetic, and the ability to arouse tears as the principal criterion of dramatic excellence ("the ladies in the audience were distinguished by their virtuous distress," one critic remarked), were not conducive to the development of a serious tragedy. Various kinds of rhetorical plays, some with Shakespearean or would-be Shakespearean echoes, and all endeavoring to exploit the emotional moment, were produced at the turn of the century, but few had any success on the stage.

What kept the theater going were melodrama and farce, the former (in the earlier part of the nineteenth century) often with Gothic trimmings and atmosphere. Distressed virtue, hardhearted villainy frustrating innocent love, the manipulation of the action so as to expose and punish the villain, often with the revelation of a concealed crime, and to bring hero and heroine together, all done in a standardized rhetorical speech, became a regular formula for melodrama, which soon moved from the Gothic to the domestic, so that the tradition of Lillo's London Merchant can still be traced. Early nineteenth-century farce is a crude stuff, of no literary interest. Burlesque and extravaganza sometimes had rather more to offer; the latter, as developed by J. R. Planché, Robert Brough, and H. J. Byron, constituted the tradition taken over by W. S. Gilbert in the comic operas he wrote with Arthur Sullivan as composer. The tradition was to combine the supernatural, the gorgeous, and the satirical, to include burlesque and parody on the one hand and light fantasy on the other, while making lavish use of spectacle.

In the comedies of T. W. Robertson (Society, 1865, Caste, 1867, and others) there is a somewhat faint attempt to escape from the mechanical formulations and standardized sentimentalities of earlier nineteenth-century drama and cast an ironic eye on the social life of the time. But Robertson never really escaped from the conventions of his day: his ironies never cut deep, and they are compatible with an acceptance of all the Victorian moral and social commonplaces, but he did look at some contemporary social problems that other Victorian dramatists had wholly ignored. Put beside the domestic melodrama of Tom Taylor (Still Waters Run Deep, 1855), Robertson's plays represent an advance toward a more responsible and serious comedy. But there was no immediate response. The cloying sentimentalities of James Albery's Two Roses (1870) and the combination of melodrama and prettiness in the plays of Sydney Grundy as late as the 1890's show how strong the older tradition was.

With Henry Arthur Jones (1851-1929) and Arthur Wing Pinero (1855-1934), Victorian drama becomes more sophisticated, more technically accomplished, and concerned with moral problems more delicate and more contemporary than those dealt with in nineteenth-century melodrama. Both began in the older style, and worked their way out of it. Jones's The Silver King (1882) is in the sentimental melodramatic manner, brilliantly done in its way, almost the apotheotis of its kind; but Breaking a Butterfly (an adaptation of Ibsen's  A Doll's House), Saints and Sinner (both produced in 1884), The Crusaders (1893), and The Case of Rebellious Susan (1894) are "problem plays" dealing with some of the moral dilemmas of middle-class life. The Case of the Rebellious Susan was prefaced by an admonitory letter to Mrs. Grundy. Neatly constructed, with brisk dialogue and an air of knowingness, Jones's plays did not wholly escape from conventions of the melodramatic tradition, which are intermittently recognizable. Pinero's later plays concentrate on problems arising from the relations between the sexes in modern society: The Second Mrs. Tanqueray (1893) is his most serious effort, and the most "modern": it deals with the emerging dilemma of a "woman with a past," and forces the implications of attitudes to women's behavior in a man's world to a disturbing conclusion. But neither Jones nor Pinero were more than skillful theatrical practitioners who grew impatient with the mechanical patterns of drama as they found it and tried to provide novelty and depth by discussing problems of contemporary morality. They had the wit neither of Wilde nor of Shaw, nor did they have the literary imagination or the depth of moral and psychological understanding to be able to present a social problem as a tragic one.

The satirical wit, verbal dexterity, and keen eye for what was vulnerable in contemporary literary fashion, gave the comic operas of W. S. Gilbert (1836-1911) a brilliance and a vitality like nothing else on the Victorian stage. H. M. S. Pinafore (1878), The Pirates of Penzance,
(1880), Patience (1881), The Mikado (1885), and others are often thought of a delightful musical fantasies suitable for children, but in fact there is a comprehensiveness and a cruelty in Gilbert's destruction of the conventional romantic world by artful ridicule that strike at the heart of Victorian civilization. This may sound like a pretentious remark to make about a writer who was after all essentially an entertainer and who is generally regarded only as such; but a close look at his work reveals that behind the playfulness, the comic exaggeration, the absurd overemphasis of popular convention, there lies an almost nihilistic sense of the ridicouleness of human emotions and human dignity. It is unlikely that he was really aware of the implications he allowed into his own work, and there can be do doubt that Arthur Sullivan thought of his colleague's plays as nor more than gay and amusing parodies with moments of lyrical feeling to be set in appropriate tuneful music. Sullivan's music, admirably tuneful though it is, and sometimes most amusingly parodying Italian opera, lacks a dimension we find in Gilbert's words.
patience

The plays of Oscar Wilde have more surface brilliance and less genuine satiric undertone. Wilde belonged to the fin de siècle esthetic movement which believed in art less an escape from that as a substitute for life: he acted out his estheticism in his own career, even to the extent of allowing his life to fall into a tragic pattern which he might easily have escaped, because he wanted to be hero in a trial scene and felt impelled to carry the play of his own life to its melodramatic conclusion. Wilde's estheticism was not essentially in conflict with Victorian melodrama; he wanted to subtilize it, just as he wanted to make sensationalism witty. The poets of the nineties who drank themselves to death or otherwise wore out their lives in suicidal poses were, like Wilde, acting out their esthetics. Though Gilbert, in satirizing the movement in Patience, was running together a number of different strains, including the Pre-Raphaelite, he was in essence right in presenting the behavior of the poet Bunthorne as a deliberate pose to shock and impress:

Though the Philistines may jostle, you will rank as an
      apostle in the high aesthetic band,
If you walk down Piccadilly with a poppy or a lily
      in your mediaeval hand.

That was in 1881; it was in the 1890's that the esthetic movement flourished most vigorously. Its members were out to shock, but also to demonstrate a way of life and a way of art (which were identical). The Yellow Book, which ran from 1894 to 1897, was in some degree the organ of these sophisticated and intelligent young men, though it contained a great deal more dull realistic fiction and conventional work of one kind or another than is generally realized and contained nothing by Wilde.

Wilde's plays were not the direct product of those views of arts and life which he expressed in his symbolic story
The Picture of Dorian Gray (1891) or in his carefully wrought fairy tales. In his comedies he wrote for the theater and for success. he thus took formulad from Victorian farce and melodrama, but treated the dialogue with a polished wit which really removed the whole action into a never-never land of ultrasophisticated stylization. The stylization is the very raison d'être of Wilde's plays. The plots are ridiculous, sometimes degenerating into cheap farce. But the dialogue imposes the order of an ideal wit on the society it portrays. He achieves this most perfectly in The Importance of Being Earnest (1895), a play wrought entirely out of the studied wit of the dialogue, which projects the society of upper-class leisure as an English world so emptied of earthiness and genuine emotional, moral, or physical reality, that is pure style, a world where action exists in order to make possible the appropriate conversation and where the appropriate conversation is a ballet-like exchange of epigrams. It is not a profound art, if an extremaly clever one, and it is not an art that could have any real influence. The tradition of wit which Wilde bequeathed to the modern comedy of manners proved too tenuous as well as too self-sufficient to be usable by others.

Meanwhile, the influence of Henrik Ibsen had been making itself felt in English drama. The propagandizing and translating by William Archer and the enthusiasm of George Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) helped to spread the influence but also conditioned the way Ibsen was understood in England. Shaw's study of Ibsen, The Quintessence of Ibsenism (1891), presented the Norwegian dramatist as the exponent of a reforming naturalism with the emphasis on the prose "social plays," such as A Doll's House and Ghosts, and paying much less attention to the more poetic and symbolic plays. Suh a view suited Shaw's own ideas of the function of the drama. Shaw saw the drama as a vehicle for presenting in entertaining and provocative form for his views of the abuses and contradictions of the social order and his suggestions of the true way in which to view human experience and its institutions. His object was to satirize, no the invented characters in the plays, but the audience. "I must warn my readers that my attacks are directed against themselves, not against my stage figures." In his desire to shock rather than to lull, to provoke rather than to amuse, Shaw put into his characters' mouths discussions in which his characteristic wit and love of paradox were given full play. A favorite device of his was to stand the popular view on its head, thus both outraging and titillating his audience. Yet in many respects Shaw took over the idea of the "well-made" play from his predecessors. He had been a dramatic critic for years before he became a dramatist, and his experience in the theater had familiarized him with all the popular tricks of the trade, which he adopted and exploited with considerable virtuosity. Ibsen's great contribution, as Shaw saw it, had been twofold: the presentation on the stage of life as it is really lived in contemporary society, and the introduction of the discussion into drama. His own plays incorporated both features.

Shaw regarded himself as primarily an antiromantic. The romantic view, he claimed, got in the way of people's seeing what really went on in the world, with the result that it made them accept the most appalling horrors in the name of edifying slogans and under the guarantee of social approval. The Swiss soldier in Arms and the Man (1894) behaved as Shaw maintained a soldier actually does behave, not as the conventions of Victorian melodrama would have a soldier behave: the play exhibited what Shaw called "natural morality" as against the "romantic morality" of those who objected to it. But Shaw was too clever to present his natural morality directly. He took the accepted pattern of Victorian melodrama or farce or drawing-room comedy and, at the most effective moment, inverted it, as it were, transposing the parts of the conventional hero and the conventional villain; and then, having done that and having led his audience to believe that this is a revolutionary or an iconoclastic play, he inverts it again, and shows that the conventional hero is, after all, a hero—but in a new sense. This double investion is an immensely successful dramatic device, but it is more than that: it is part of Shaw's technique for making his audience look again and again at the particular situation he is presenting, until they have shed all illusions bred by either convention or by facile anticonventionality. The revolutionary hero of Man and Superman (1903) is built up into a conventional rebellious figure, then laughed at, then restored, in a different way, to his revolutionary status. The theme of this play is the way in which the Life Force works itself out in human affairs in order to improve the race—Shaw was a Lamarckian evolutionist influenced by Samuel Butler, believing that the Life Force cooperated with the individual will to achieve the further development of the human race. But he is least successful as a dramatist when dealing directly with such large themes. Back to Methuselah (1921), which he considered his masterpiece, is pretentious and dull, showing a most undramatic desire to reduce all human life to disembodied speculation.

In his Preface to Plays Pleasant(1898), Shaw wrote: "I can no longer be satisfied with fictitious morals and fictitious good conduct shedding fictitious glory on robbery, starvation, disease, crime, drink, war, cruelty, cupidity, and all the other commonplaces of civilisation which drive men to the theatre to make foolish pretences that such things are progress, science, morals, religion, patriotism, imperial supremacy, national greatness and all the other names the newspapers call them. On the other hand, I see plenty of good in the world working itself out as fast as the idealists will allow it; and if they would only let it alone and learn to respect reality, which would include the beneficial exercise of respecting themselves, and incidentally, respecting me, we should all get along much better and faster." In the same preface, Shaw pleaded for a "genuinely scientific natural history." That is what Shaw considered his plays to present. In the Preface to Major Barbara, he called himself a "professor of natural psychology."
shaw In other words, like so many great innovators in English literature, his cry was "back to nature"—and he used the word "nature" in Pope's and Dr. Johnson's sense of human nature rather than in Wordsworth's sense. Thus there were no conventional heroes and villains in his plays; but neither is there any of the worried pity that we get in Galsworthy's humanitarian plays. Shaw was not concerned with the pity of it: he was concerned to diagnose sham and release vitality. All Shaw's heroes and heroines—Lady Cicely in Captain Brassbound's Conversion, Valentine in You Never Can Tell, Caesar in Caesar and Cleopatra, Candida, Major Barbara—stand in their own way for vitality. And often the real villain is not a character in the play, but the audience. For the audience, the average playgoer, represents that thoughtless, complacent, sentimental society which, for Shaw, was responsible for so much distortion of vision and so much evil and suffering. readers of detetive stories have sometimes wondered whether a detective story could ever be written where the murderer turns out to be the reader; Shaw comes near to that in making his audience the true villain of his drama.

This kind of plan succeeds best when it deals with a social problem or situation familiar to the audience or at least recognizable to them as the kind of situation which, in however modified a form, might well arise in their own society. For Shaw, like the great eighteenth-century moralists, believed that generalizations about the society you know best, your own contemporary society, are valid for men at all times, and thus he cheerfully assumed that he understood Caesar or Saint Joan on the basis of modern analogies. But he did not understand them, for he lacked historical imagination; and these characters become in his hands modern Shavian heroes rather than convincing historical characters.

Shwa had his own sentimentalisms and theatricalities, as the character of Eugene Marchbanks in Candida (1895) clearly shows. Further, though he brought a new kind of intelligence to the drama, he did not create—or attempt to create—a new dramatic idiom in which the total dramatic meaning could be fully expressed. His long and detailed stage directions, in which not only the actions of his characters but their states of mind, emotions, tones of voice, and intentions are fully described as though in a novel, confirm by what is suggested by his criticism of Shakespeare—that Shaw had no conception of the drama as a literary art form in which the total pattern of meaning is achieved cumulatively and completely by the language put into the mouths of the characters as they talk to and interact with each other. Detailed psychological stage directions put the burden of conveying meaning onto the actor and producer and help to perpetuate that very dominance of the drama by the theater that Shaw as a dramatic critic had so deplored. Shaw, by challenging the censorship, bringing ideas back to drama, and using plays as a vehicle for intellectual stimulation and provocation, rendered an immense service to English theater. But his plays were not as new as drama as those early twentieth-century critics who talked about the "new drama" considered it to be. The Dutch-born drama critic Jacob thomas Grein founded the Independent Theatre in 1891, and it was the Independent Theatre Society that first presented Shaw to the theater-going public, full of exuberance about the "new drama." This movement was much influenced by Ibsen and sought to make the drama a vehicle for responsible discussion
of modern problems. This is not in itself a dramatic objective. Neither Shaw nor any other Ibsenite worked out an essentially new way of exploring reality dramatically. Shaw's comedy of ideas is full of life and fun; comedies like Major Barbara (1905), Androcles and the Lion (1913) and Pygmalion (1913) are entertaining as well as critical and stimulating; but all this comes from the sparkle of Shaw's mind, not from a fully realized dramatic projection of a complex vision of life. Saint Joan (1923) is in many ways a brilliant play; it is not a tragedy, but a comedy with one tragic scene, and the comedy lies in the way in which Shaw interprets his historical characters in the light of his own modern understanding and preoccupations. He never really comes to terms with the miraculous in this play: he uses it for comic effect and to implement his view that sainthood is mrely inspired common sense, but, though this is amusing and even at first sight convincing, it begs too many questions to be ultimately satisfactory. Hens who have long ceased laying eggs aand suddenly start to lay when Joan appears provide a splendid comic opening to the play; but if miracles are simply natural events presented in such a way as to inspire faith (as Shaw argues), then how does he explain the eggs, or the miraculous change of wind? A miracle cannot be at the same time both a funny stage trick and a profound religious fact. The fact is that Shaw remained an entertainer and a master of all the tricks of the entertainment trade, and his wit and intellectual brilliance was never fully absorbed into a dramatic form of appropriate depth and scope. This is not to say that Shaw was a great writer whose plays do not fit into any accepted category, but rather that he was a dramatist of immense talent and prodigious wit whose limited view of the nature of literary art prevented him from seeing the limitations of his own artistic imagination and so from seeking a dramatic form which could contain all he had to say about man absorbed wholly into the dramatic texture. This is perhaps as much as to say that the greatest drama must be poetic, for it needs the extra dimension of expression if it is to achieve its complex pattern of meaning without expository or discursive glosses by the author.

Shaw's stature is most easily seen if we set his plays beside those by his contemporaries. St. John E. C. Hankin (1860-1909) attempted to deal seriously with the problems of contemporary society, but his plays lack both wit and the sense of life. A more accomplished dramatist was Harley Granville-Barker (1877-1946), whose sensitive and perceptive work as a critic and producer would seem to promise the subtlest kind of art in his own plays; but though a careful intelligence and a fine artistic sense are at work in The Voysey Inheritance (1905) and The Madras House (1910), they are too obviously contrived and lack the air of dramatic spontaneity.

How far technical theatrical skill could combine with a truly cunning exploitation of the sentimental tradition to achieve popularity in the age of Shaw is shown by James Matthew Barrie (1860-1937). Barrie was quite out of touch with the new literary movements of his time, but exploited with determination and professional assurance the emotions, whimsies, and sentimentalities implicit in the Scottish kailyard tradition and in so much Victorian and Edwardian middle-class feeling. He knew what he was doing; he wrought from the outside; as Edwin Muir has remarked, "his softness was really a kind of toughness, and the most deplorable fault of his work is not sensibility run to seed, but obduracy."
The Admirable Crichton (1902), What Every Woman Knows (1908), Dear Brutus (1917) and Mary Rose (1920) are masterpieces of theatrical journalism. They are quite different in intention from John Galsworthy's (1867-1933) humanitarian fables of social and moral worry; such plays as Justice (1910), The Skin Game (1920), and Loyalties (1922) command respect and sympathy for their technical competence and humane feeling, but these two qualities are not enough to make a great dramatist.

For the most part, the mixture of drawing-room comedy and morality play hs continued to provide the ordinary fare of the British theatre-goer. After Wilde and Shaw some degree of wit and some degree of serious concern with the problems of modern social life have become de rigueur, except, of course, for pure knockabout farce or detective plays. Intelligent and skillful dramatists who artfully tailor their stories to the requirements of the theatre have not been lacking in the twentieth century: the tone can vary from sardonic irony to moral concern, the technique from straightforward use of realistically set scenes proceeding in chronological order to the use of flash blacks, single symbolic settings, or even a bare stage. Formulas once accepted are repeated again and again with minor variations.

By far the most interesting development in dramatic literature in the twentieth century has been the revival of poetic drama in the plays of W. B. Yeats (1865-1939) and T. S. Eliot (born 1888). Yeats began by writing dreamy plays on Irish mythological themes, but from the beginning he showed a symbolic power in both action and imagery which suggested levels of meaning that drama had not sought after for a long time. The Countess Cathleen (1892), the story of the Irish countess who sold her soul to save her people, but reached Heaven after all, is languid in movement and has an oddly mixed vocabulary, but its meaning came across clearly enough for it to cause riots among Dublin audiences. Yeats's treatment of the Deirdre story (Deirdre, 1907), concentrates (unlike Synge's in Deirdre of the Sorrows) on  the final moments with a heroic dignity which was part of his view of tragedy. His later plays are based on neo-Platonic and other mystic notions and symbols, and are highly stylized in a manner reminiscent of the Japanese no plays, by which Yeats was considerably influenced. Calvary (1929), The Resurrection (1931), Purgatory (1949), and The Death of Cuchulain (1939) are strangely impressive symbolic plays for the full understanding of which some knowledge of Yeats's symbolic system is necessary but which even without this have a haunting suggestiveness that leads not to mere dreaminess but to ironic contemplation of human psychology and history. The language combines the colloquial and the ritualistic, and it is out of the way the two work together that the irony is distilled. His prose play The Words upon the Window-Pane (1934) stands alone in both theme and treatment; it is a powerful evocation of a few key scenes in the life of Swift.

Yeats's dramatic career transcended the Irish literary movement out of which it grew in the same way as his career as a poet transcended its Irish context. But the Irish background, the Abbey Thatre, the national consciousness, and the view of Irish and Anglo-Irish history are all important for an understanding of how Yeats came to be the kind of dramatist he was. The irish dramatic movement produced a number of humorous or sentimental quasi-realistic plays of modern Irish life. But it also produced, beside Yeats (whose later plays were not intended for the public theatres), the plays of John Millington Synge (1871-1909), including Riders to the Sea (1904), The Playboy of the Western World (1907), and Deirdre of the Sorrows (1910). Synge turned to the speech and imagination of Irish country people to restore vitality to English drmaa. "On the stage," he wrote in his preface to the Playboy, "one must have a reality, and one must have joy: and that is why the intellectual modern drama has failed, and people have grown sick of the false joy of the musical comedy, that has been given them in place of the rich joy found only in what is superb and wild in reality. In a good play every speech should be as fully flavoured as a nut or an apple, and such speeches cannot be written by anyone who works among people who have shut their lips on poetry. In Ireland, for a few years more, we have a popular imagination that is fiery and magnificent, and tender; so that those of us who wish to write start with a chance that is not given to writers in places where the springtime of the local life has been forgotten, and the harvest is a memory only, and the straw has been turned into bricks." Synge deplored the debilitation of urban speech, and sought a vocabulary both poetic and real, both rich and natural. His own plays are not always successful in achieving this combination effectively, though the Playboy succeeds triumphantly as a comedy which is also a profound "criticism of life," while Riders to the Sea is a remarkable dramatic presentation of an elegiac situation redeemed from false pathos by the elemental dignity achieved by the language, and Deirdre of the Sorrows, in spite of its monotony of tone, is an experiment in a new kind of stylized, almost ritualistic, tragedy, that Yeats was to make much of.

Synge's poetic prose based on the speech rhythm of the Irish peasantry provided him with some of the resources of poetic drama. The other significant dramatist of the Irish revival was a purely prose artist. Sean O'Casey (born 1884) used Irish material as Lady Gregory and Lennox Robinson and the other Irish national playwrights did, but in his best plays he used it with a sense of tragic irony, a violent species of humor, and a rich and hightly flavored language that gave his work real dramatic stature. His best play is Juno and the Paycock (1925), which successfully welds tragic melodrama (based in part on the real violence of the civil war), humor of character, and irony of circumstance into an original and impressive unity. The Plough and the Stars (1926) is a symbolic documentary play, tragic in tone, presenting the pattern of Ireland's tragedy. In his later plays O'Casey's own passions and prejudices tend to come between him and the dramatic work he is trying to create, and when in addition he turns to expressionist techniques suggested by German dramatists and by the American Eugene O'Neill the result is generally unsuccessful. The verbal vitality and vivid humor of his earlier plays gave way in his later to conventionally "colorful" language and a rather mechanical verbal symbolism.

T. S. Eliot's poetic dramas represent an attempt to restore ritual to drama in quite a different way from Yeats'.
Murder in the Cathedral (1935) remains the most successful of his plays because the ritualistic element is implicit in the situation; the chorus of women of Canterbury are the archbishop's congregation and the archbishop's central speech takes ita place naturally as a sermon in an ecclesiastical context. But when Eliot moved away from the obviously ritualistic and tried to achieve overtones of myth and ritual in realistic plays of modern upper-class life, the clash of levels is dramatically disturbing. The Family Reunion (1939) is a most interesting attempt to render the theme of the Furies of Greek mythology and drama in contemporary terms.tseliot Eliot modulates the colloquial into the ritualistic and back again with impressive skill; the accents of conversation mingle or alternate with more formal kinds of utterance, choric or incantatory or stylized in one way or another, and the result is to build up a suggestive complex of meaning behind the overt action. But the attempt to deal with a religious-mythological theme in terms of the problems posed by family relationships in a modern country house is not altogether successful. Levels of meaning tend to get in each other's way instead of reinforcing or subtilizing each other. The hero's departure to expiate (in some unnamed way) his guilt is marked by his saying to his mother: "My address, mother, will be care of the bank of London until you hear from me," and this trivial precision about a detail of contemporary financial life tears the symbolic fabric of the action. In The Cocktail Party (1954) Eliot makes an even more strenuous attempt to combine the socially amusing with an underlying Christian-cum-classical symbolism, but the two levels never really come together, or, when they do, the result is likely to be embarrassing, as in the behavior of Sir Herny Harcourt Reilly in The Cocktail Party. The verse in these plays is so chastened and filed away that it is hardly recognizable as verse at all in the theater; it shows how far verse can be brought toward conversational prose without actually falling over the edge—a remarkable balancing feat.

In spite of movements toward new social responsibility and of every kind of technical experimentation in the theatre since the end of the nineteenth century, and in spite of a moderately successful attempt to bring poetry back to the acted drama., it cannot be said that the first half of the twentieth century pointed the way to any real resolution of the problem posed by the gap between art and entertainment which has been growing ever since the Jacobean period. The fragmentation of the audience, which has split the public for all the arts into highbrows, lowbrows, and middlebrows, and which is such a feature of modern civilization, has had more immediate and obvious effect on the theater than anywhere else. True, Eliot's later plays were box office successes, but his attempt to bring together drawing-room comedy and religious symbolism has not, as we have observed, wholly succeeded. The dramatist of the middle twentieth century has also got radio and television to contend with; whether these inventions will prove to be his salvation or his damnation depends on too many factors—social, economic, and educational among others—to invite prophecy.


British drama 1800-1950



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Estoy en la Biblioteca Universitaria de Sevilla

Estoy en la Biblioteca Universitaria de Sevilla

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Domingo 23 de noviembre de 2014

Händel: L'Allegro, Il Penseroso ed Il Moderato












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Aquí en las Seychelles

Aquí en las Seychelles



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En portada en Philosophy of Science

Aquí estamos en portada con una nota sobre Stephen Hawking, en la revista electrónica sobre Filosofía de la Ciencia de la Red de Investigación en Ciencias Sociales (SSRN, Philosophy Network).  Y pronto en sus pantallas un artículo sobre El Gran Diseño de Hawking y Mlodinow.

SSRN-POS

Aquí puede bajarse mi artículo sobre "El principio del tiempo" de Hawking.



Perspectiva narrativa sobre Historia del Tiempo

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Handel - Coronation Anthems, Semele, etc.






Gotye - Bronte













NOTES ON METAFICTION (88 p.)









una publicación de Narratología evolucionista - Evolutionary Narratology.






Sábado 22 de noviembre de 2014

My ORCID QR code



My Orcid QR code


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Iñigo Ongay, La unidad de España frente a los secesionismos







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Iñigo Ongay sobre la libertad de expresión






"El fuero interno viene del fuero externo, y no cabe entenderlo de otra manera." Cierto hasta cierto punto—y sin embargo los discursos e instituciones sociales, que vienen "de fuera", se combinan "dentro" a veces de maneras imprevisibles e incalculables, en un sujeto situado en una encrucijada particular de situaciones, instituciones y discuross. Lo cual es en sentido débil si se quiere una generación interna de contenidos. Y por allí se puede justificar esta idea metafísica como "no metafísica", y puede matizarse la tesis un tanto maximalista de esta conferencia—tan maximalista a su manera como la posición que pretende refutar. Y conste que la he disfrutado mucho, si me sirve de eximente por la crítica. Con la conclusión estoy más de acuerdo, lo cual viene a querer decir (para mí) que la conclusión no se sigue mucho del énfasis en esa crítica a la interioridad. Con la conclusión estoy más de acuerdo, lo cual viene a querer decir (para mí) que la conclusión no se sigue mucho del énfasis en esa crítica a la interioridad. Más bien se sigue de que el propio teorizador está situado en un mundo social formado y limitado por fuerzas en tensión, y reconoce esa situación—aunque no se haga de modo explícito ese reconocimiento y su relación con la crítica a la noción de libertad de expresión.





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Wish You Were Here...

Wish You Were Here from Jose Angel García Landa on Vimeo.


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Bueu en día gris



Bueu en día gris


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Viernes 21 de noviembre de 2014

La política espectacular de Julio César

Unos escritos sobre la tragedia de Shakespeare, ahora en un par de eJournals de la SSRN:


La política espectacular de 'Julio César'


Analizamos la convergencia de espectáculo teatral y política espectacular en la tragedia de Shakespeare Julio César, reseñando la contextualización política en la era isabelina descrita por James Shapiro, y atendiendo a la estética metateatral y reflexiva de Shakespeare. Aparece Julio César a la vez como una reflexión sobre la teatralidad en la política y sobre las posibilidades dramáticas que proporciona para una intensificación de la experiencia teatral.

English Abstract: Spectacular Politics in 'Julius Caesar':

 This paper provides an analysis of the convergence between theatrical spectacle and spectacular politics in Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Caesar. Starting from a review of James Shapiro's contextualization of the play in contemporary Elizabethan politics, the metatheatrical and reflexive aspects of the play are stressed. Julius Caesar is revealed as a reflection both on the theatricality of politics, and on the dramatic possibilities it provides for an intensification of the theatrical experience.


eJournal Classifications : Date posted: November 14, 2014  
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
                          
LIT Subject Matter eJournals
             




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The Hanging Tree




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Femme qui s'en va



Femme qui s'en va





Edgar Morin, Introducción al pensamiento complejo












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Armande Altaï, "Cold Song"








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Dryden & Purcell: King Arthur  (Le Concert Spirituel)





Dryden. King Arthur. Music by Purcell. Le Concert Spirituel (2009). YouTube (Le Concert Spirituel) https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLC0DDFE1CB26C31D4 2014



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Estoy en Political Theory

Como se dura poco tiempo en primera página, sic panta rei, le saco un pantallazo:
Salgo en Political Theory


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Jueves 20 de noviembre de 2014

Strani amori




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Topsight en Sun Tzu

La perspectiva dominante en El Arte de la Guerra: Más aspectos de un clásico chino

Proporcionamos en este artículo un acercamiento narratológico al El Arte de la Guerra, clásico chino sobre estrategia militar atribuido a Sun Tzu (Sunzi). Esta lectura enfatiza las dimensiones cognitivas del texto, entendido como un tratado sobre la perspectiva y el punto de vista, y como una formulación temprana del concepto de perspectiva dominante o 'topsight'. También examinamos sus estructuras temorales implícitas, en especial en lo referente al papel de la retrospección. El texto de Sunzi tiene, en suma, una interesante dimensión como teoría de la perspectiva, de la acción, y de la representación intersubjetiva.

Topsight in The Art of Warart of war: Further Aspects of a Chinese Classic:

This paper provides a narratological perspective on The Art of War, a Chinese classic treatise of military strategy attributed to Sun Tzu. This reading foregrounds the cognitive aspects of the text as a treatise in perspective and point of view, and as an early formulation of the concept of topsight. It also examines its implicit temporal structures, especially as regards the role of retrospection. All in all, Sun Tzu's text has an interesting dimension as a theory of perspective, of action, and of intersubjective representation.

Note: Downloadable document is in Spanish.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 10

Keywords: Sun Tzu, Strategy, Topsight, Perspective, Knowledge, Information, War, Strategy, Models, Plans, Retrospection, Narratology, Theory of action, Chinese literature 

Reference Info: Ibercampus (May 5, 2014)


http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2520473

El artículo ha sido aceptado en estas revistas temáticas de la Social Science Research Network:

eJournal Classifications:
Date posted: November 09, 2014  
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
             
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
             
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
                          
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
                          
Conflict Studies eJournals
             
Conflict Studies eJournals
             
Political Behavior eJournals
             
Political Theory eJournals
             


Mankind: The Story of All of Us - EMPIRES


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Estoy en Conflict Studies




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Prophètes de la SF - Mary Shelley

Now en français:







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Bajo los faros de Ons



Bajo los faros de Ons




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#siempremepilladesorpresa

@unizar Mañana piquetes en el campus 8h. El de la puerta. ¿Ha decidido el rector ya si TAMBIEN nos encierra fuera? #siempremepilladesorpresa
— JoseAngelGarcíaLanda (@JoseAngelGLanda) noviembre 19, 2014
#hastaloscojonesdepiquetesydemanipulacionporpartedelasautoridades


Esto es a cuenta de la huelga del día 20, anunciada por varios colectivos de estudiantes. Que me parece genial que haga huelga quien lo estime conveniente. Ahora, los piquetes coactivos me parecen una indecencia política y moral que desautoriza cualquier causa.  Y mañana los tendremos como de costumbre bloqueando la entrada a los centros—al menos a Filosofía y Derecho, que son los favoritos de sus miras. Y el acceso al campus, con lo cual el personal ya se queda en casa, previamente enseñado.

La novedad, sin embargo, es que el Vicerrectorado nos envía un mensaje.


Estimados compañeros:

El próximo día 20 de noviembre está convocada una huelga de estudiantes. Como en otras ocasiones, es previsible que a lo largo de la jornada hagan acto de presencia piquetes informativos a la entrada de las facultades y en las mismas aulas.

Se hará lo posible por garantizar el derecho de los miembros de la comunidad universitaria de acudir al trabajo y a las aulas, si así lo desean. No obstante, vemos necesaria la participación del personal docente e investigador para que la jornada discurra con normalidad. Para ello lanzamos una serie de recomendaciones:

* Es posible que el tráfico rodado se vea interrumpido en el Campus de Plaza San Francisco. Se recomienda valorar medios alternativos al coche particular para acceder a este campus.

* Ante la presencia de piquetes informativos en los accesos a las facultades, es necesario actuar con calma y normalidad, en el caso de que no se participe de los argumentos esgrimidos, se recomienda evitar enfrentamientos inútiles.

* Cabe la posibilidad de que se produzcan interrupciones durante la impartición de alguna clase debido a que los piquetes informativos visiten el aula. Dado lo breve de estas intervenciones, es recomendable no poner impedimentos y realizar una pausa en la labor docente.

Un cordial saludo.



Como se ve, la presuposición es que es "inútil" intentar oponerse a las imposiciones violentas. Hay que ceder, y darles cancha. Hoy mandan los piquetes. Que es el carnaval—o la carnaza a la bestia.

Y por supuesto, mañana los piquetes cierran la entrada al campus. Eso ya se nos anuncia, al igual que se anuncia que no se mantendrá el orden.  

¿ACASO EL RECTORADO DESCONOCE QUE EL CORTE DEL ACCESO PRINCIPAL AL CAMPUS ES EL PUNTO CLAVA PARA LA MANIPULACIÓN Y COACCIÓN DEL PERSONAL? 

Claro que no.

Ahora sí, pon una moto en la acera y te vienen con la sanción cagando leches. Cerrar el campus, en cambio, no importa. Ahora, si viniesen qué se yo, los neonazis a cerrarlo, ya veríamos. Todo según sople el viento. A los comunistas y anarquistas sí se les permite —lo que echen.

_______

En efecto, el 20-N, el campus cerrado con piquetes, y la poli mirando.  Se puede entrar andando sin que nadie te empuje, eso sí, hemos progresado.

Aviso a Seguridad de que hay un grupo de gente bloqueando la entrada.


—Ya, sí, es que hay huelga.
— ¿Es que ha dado el Rector orden de que no despejen la puerta?
— No le puedo dar esa información.
— Bueno, pero la misión de Seguridad es que todo funcione con normalidad, ¿no? Si no consta la orden del Rector, todo tendrá que funcionar con normalidad.
— No le puedo decir. Si quiere le paso con el jefe de Seguridad.
— Vale.
Rin, rin, rin....

—Seguridad.
—Buenas. Mire, hay un grupo de fascistas, o anarquistas, o algo, bloqueando la entrada al campus. ¿Van a despejarla?
—No, es que hay huelga.
—¿Tienen Vds. instrucciones entonces de no despejar la entrada?
— No sé.
— Vaya, pues habría que saber.  En cualquier caso, ¿la van a despejar, visto que altera el orden de la universidad?
— No sé; el Rectorado ya está gestionando la huelga.
— ¿Entonces es que ha decidido el Rectorado que se cierre la entrada?
— No le podría decir.
— Y su unidad no les va a decir nada a los piqueteros.
— Bueno, en realidad yo soy el becario de Tráfico, el jefe de Seguridad no está. No sé qué medidas va a tomar.
— Ya se lo digo yo: ninguna.
— ¡Jaja!
— Bien, pues que conste la queja de que al menos un profesor ha llamado para protestar por la interrupción ésta.
— Buenos días.
—Buenos días.

Y así cada vez. Eso cuando no hay empujones y barricadas en la puerta de la Facultad. Pero ya se sabe:

CUANDO LO HACEMOS NOSOTROS, NO ES FASCISMO.





Y qué vergüenza da ver a piquetes de encapuchados, con pañuelo palestino o cachirulo de la nazión, circulando por la Facultad para echar a la gente de clase. Aquí se deja mandar al último de la clase, por sus santos cojones—o por los de quien le deja.  Que esto se dé por normal y se acepte con resignación, y sigamos votando a los rectores que toleran estas cosas—la banda la porra que nos pastorea al personal. Qué vergüenza. Esto es una corrupción política, moral—y , ojo, INTELECTUAL también—de la Universidad.




65 comentarios sobre la huelga obligatoria en la Universidad


En Ibercampus: Otra corrupción de la Universidad: #siempremepilladesorpresa


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Miércoles 19 de noviembre de 2014

Virgil's Aeneid - Translated by John Dryden





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Cold Song - By Paris' Click

A song by Dryden and Purcell—with Fernando Arrabal in the cast:










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Popular John Dryden videos








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Martes 18 de noviembre de 2014


Sub in the woods


Sub in the woods




Hamlet (Royal Shakespeare Company, 2009)











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"Arise, Ye Spirits of the Deep!" From Thomas Linley's Music for The Tempest






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El principio del tiempo: una nota sobre Stephen Hawking




una publicación de Narratología evolucionista - Evolutionary Narratology.




Lunes 17 de noviembre de 2014

Performing Arts Top Ten

Me llega esta carta de la SSRN, diciéndome que tengo un artículo entre los más leídos de la red de artes visuales y teatrales:



Dear Jose Angel Garcia Landa:

Your paper, "ATONEMENT AND ADAPTATION (ON IAN MCEWAN'S NOVEL AND JOE WRIGHT'S FILM)", was recently listed on SSRN's Top Ten download list for: PVFA Subject Matter eJournals and Performing, Visual, & Fine Arts Research Network.

As of 17 November 2014, your paper has been downloaded 540 times. You may view the abstract and download statistics at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1091883.

Top Ten Lists are updated on a daily basis. Click the following link(s) to view the Top Ten list for:

PVFA Subject Matter eJournals Top Ten and Performing, Visual, & Fine Arts Research Network Top Ten.

Click the following link(s) to view all the papers in:

PVFA Subject Matter eJournals All Papers and Performing, Visual, & Fine Arts Research Network All Papers.


SSRN performing arts


Hasta aquí hemos ascendido. Vale, no es mucho, estoy el último, pero fíjensen que hay gente de universidades muy buenas, y que de la de Zaragoza sólo estoy yo. Qué digo, es que no hay otros españoles ahí. La película es ésa de Keira Knightley que aquí se tituló Expiación.


On Chesil Beach






Chica salta tapia



Chica salta tapia

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Aphra Behn

From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble:


BEHN, Mrs Afra or Aphra, probably née Johnson (1650-89). She was born in Kent and visited Surinam, then a British colony, in 1663 with members of her family. On her return to England the following year she married Behn, a city merchant probably of Dutch descent, who died within two years. She was employed  in 1666 by Charles II as a spy in Antwerp in the Dutch war. Her first play, The Forced Marriage (1670), was followed by some 14 others, including her most popular, The Rover (in two parts, 1677-81), dealing with the adventures in Naples and Madrid of a band of English Cavaliers during the exile of Charles II; its hero, the libertine Willmore, was said to be based on *Rochester, though another model may have been her lover, John Hoyle, lawyer and son of the regicide Thomas Hoyle. The City Heiress (1682) is a characteristic satiric comedy of London life and, like Otway's *Venice Preserv'd, contains a caricature of *Shaftesbury. The Lucky Chance (1686) explores one of her favourite themes, the ill consequences of arranged and ill matched marriages. Her friends included *Buckingham, *Etherege, *Dryden and *Otway, and she was a staunch defender of the Stuart cause. She also wrote poems and novels and edited a Miscellany (1685). Her best-remembered work is *Oroonoko, or The History of the Royal Slave, based on her visit to Surinam. Perhaps the earliest English philosophical novel, it deplores the slave trade and Christian hypocrisy, holding up for admiration the nobility and honour of its African hero. Despite her success she had even in her time to contend with accusations of plagiarism and lewdness, attracted in her view by her sex, and as late as 1905, in an edition of her novels, Ernest Baker described her work as 'false, lurid and depraved'. V. Woolf in *A Room of One's Own (1928) acclaims her as the first English woman to earn her living byh writing, 'with all the plebeian virtues of humour, vitality and courage', and comments that she was buried 'scandalously but rather appropriately' in Westminster Abbey. See M. *Duffy, The Passionate Shepherdess (1977). (See RESTORATION.)



Oroonoko, or The History of the Royal Slave, a novel by Afra Behn, published c.1688, adapted for the stage by *Southerne,  1695.

Oroonoko, grandson and heir of an African king, loves and wins Imoinda, daughter of the king's general. The king, who also loves her, is enraged and orders her to be sold as a slave. Oroonoko himself is trapped by the captain of an Enlglish slave-trading ship and carried off to Surinam, then an English colony, where he is reunited with Imoinda and renamed Caesar by his owners. He rouses his fellow slaves to revolt, is deceived into surrender by deputy governor Byam (a historical figure), and brutally whipped. Oroonoko, determined on revenge but not hoping for victory, kills Imoinda, who dies willingly. He is discovered by her dead body and cruelly executed.

The novel is remarkable as an early protest against the slave trade, and as a description of primitive people in 'the first state of innocence, before men knew how to sin': the author comments on the superior simplicity and morality of both African slaves and the indigenous Indians, whose Christian oppressors are shown as treacherous and hypocritical. Afra Behn's memories of her own visit to Surinam in 1663 provide a vivid background, and much of the story is narrated as by a personal witness. Southerne's tragedy follows the broad lines in the novel, but the deputy governor's passion for Imoinda is made a chief motif of action, Imoinda herself is presented as the daughter of a white European, and Oroonoko dies by his own hand, alterations which decrease the violence of the story and increase its intended pathos.


Orinoco de Aphra Behn





Contra todos

Contra los que pervierten la política — contra Mariano el cesionista, contra los secesionistas (sionistas de su propia Sión local), contra los majaderos del PSOE, contra IU que se disuelve como un azucarillo, y contra Pablemos, vendedor de humo fashion:

Federico a las 7:

— Federico a las 8:




—y la tertulia, con Podemos y PSOE contra la constitución:





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Domingo 16 de noviembre de 2014


MANKIND: The Story of All of Us

Mankind: The Story of All of Us.
History Channel series (12 episodes), narrated by Josh Brolin. With a disagreeable but quite realistic emphasis on competition, war, conquest and domination. We are the children of war—somos hijos de la guerra. Some might say this is an American perspective, but I seem to recall that cultural materialists also say that the key to the history of mankind is the exploitation of natural resources, most prominently human resources, or humans as resources.


Episode 1:





Episode 2: Iron Men
and the rest,

In this YouTube list (more than 100 videos):
    http://youtu.be/1_Xr4u8mofU?list=PL3f3W9Ts9QXt2n_PnJXK9TMe3LCk6WFle






The Story in All Stories


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La mauvaise réputation (3)




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Abdelazer

Henry Purcell's incidental music for Aphra Behn's play Abdelazer, or The Moor's Revenge:



Purcell and Dryden - King Arthur


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L'Enlèvement de Michel Houellebecq




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Stairway to the Deep Blue Sea


Stairway to the Deep Blue Sea

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Oroonoko, or the Royal Slave


Oroonoko, or The Royal Slave is a novel by Aphra Behn (1640-1689). Aphra Behn was the first woman writer in England to make a living by her pen, and her novel Oroonoko was the first work published in English to express sympathy for African slaves. Perhaps based partly on Behn's own experiences living in Surinam, the novel tells the tragic story of a noble slave, Oroonoko, and his love Imoinda. The work was an instant success and was adapted for the stage in 1695 (and more recently by the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1999). Behn's work paved the way for women writers who came after her, as Virginia Woolf noted in A Room of One's Own (1928): "All women together ought to let flowers fall upon the tomb of Aphra Behn, ... for it was she who earned them the right to speak their minds." (Summary by Elizabeth Klett)

SUBSCRIBE TO FAB AUDIO BOOKS YouTube channel for the other audiobooks as well as eBooks and other audiobooks - regular new uploads.

VISIT www.FabAudioBooks.com for the free eBook and other video audiobook titles.

This audiobook was sourced from www.LibriVox.org and is in the public domain.


Orinoco de Aphra Behn

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Ape to Man (Evolution documentary, History Channel)



—oOo—




El narrador impersonal

beckett gafas


Sigo publicando en el SSRN, por capítulos, mi libro sobre Beckett, y llegamos al capítulo 7:

El narrador impersonal (Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 7).

Samuel Beckett y la Narración Reflexiva es un estudio en profundidad de la escritura experimental de Beckett, en especial de la trilogía novelística Molloy, Malone Dies, y The Unnamable, desde la perspectiva de la narratología estructuralista y las teorías estructuralistas sobre la enunciación. Resulta de allí no sólo una mejor comprensión de la técnica utilizada por Beckett para transmitir su peculiar visión de la realidad, sino también toda una nueva gama de significaciones en estos textos. En este capítulo examinamos la voz narrativa de The Unnamable (El Innombrable) como la culminación del proceso de vaciado crítico de la narración homodiegética o en primera persona iniciado en las novelas anteriores de la trilogía.

"Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative" is an in-depth study of Beckett's experimental writing, more specifically of the novelistic trilogy "Molloy," "Malone Dies" and "The Unnamable," from the standpoint of structuralist theories of narrative and of enunciation. An increased insight is thereby obtained into the technique used by Beckett to articulate his peculiar view of reality, and a new dimension of signification of these texts emerges. This chapter examines the use of narrative voice in "The Unnamable" as a culmination of the critical emptying out of homodiegetic or first-person narrative begun in the previous novels of the trilogy.

Aparece también este capítulo en un par de revistas temáticas de la SSRN:

Date posted: November 05, 2014  

eJournal Classifications
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
                          
LIT Subject Matter eJournals
             



Y el capítulo anterior es:

"Narración autodiegética (Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 6) (Autodiegetic Narration (Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative, 6)." Social Science Research Network 26 Oct. 2014.*
         http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2514510

         English & Commonwealth Literature eJournal 26 Oct. 2014.*
         http://www.ssrn.com/link/English-Commonwealth-Lit.html



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Sábado 15 de noviembre de 2014

Mandan los vendidos



Mandan en España los vendidos al nacionalismo—el consorcio Rajoy - Arriola - Cebrián - Godó. Y el mandado Pedro Sánchez. Y mandan también los nacionalistas mismos, con Mas y Junqueras hinchados como globitos llenos a petar de gas infecto. El programa Sin Complejos de EsRadio de hoy. En el debate, un representante de cada uno de los partidos que hoy por hoy no apestan: VOX, Ciudadanos, y UPyD.  Como me entere de que alguien vota a cualquier otro partido que no sea éstos, me temo que bajará varios puntos en mi consideración, así está el tema—el país en pleno ha bajado muchos puntos en mi consideración. Esto no hay quien lo regenere, si ha podido llegar la cosa hasta estos niveles de idiocia, traición y mangancia.






—oOo—





Thinking of Rocks


Thinking of Rocks


—oOo—


Viento es la dicha de amor






—oOo—


El 9n  - Radio Materialista



—oOo—



Viernes 14 de noviembre de 2014

Hungry Ghosts - I Don't Think About You Anymore, But I Don't Think About You Any Less




—oOo—




Henry Lawes' Five Songs for John Milton's Masque: Comus






—oOo—


Henry Lawes, Go Lovely Rose








A song by Edmund Waller, set by Henry Lawes




         Go, lovely Rose!
Tell her, that wastes her time and me,
         That now she knows
When I resemble her to thee,
How sweet and fair she seems to be.

         Tell her that's young
And shuns to have her graces spied,
         That hadst thou sprung
In deserts, where no men abide,
Thou must have uncommended died.

         Small is the worth
Of beauty from the light retired:
         Bid her come forth,
Suffer herself to be desired,
And not blush to be so admired.

         Then die! that she
The common fate of all things rare
         May read in thee:
How small a part of time they share
                   That are so wondrous sweet and fair!



 —oOo—
 




Purcell and Dryden - King Arthur

King Arthur or The British Worthy.
Dramatic opera. Libretto by John Dryden. Music by Henry Purcell. Premiere at the Queen's Theatre, Dorset Gardein, 1691. Libretto in Dryden, Dramatic Works. Ed. Montague Summers.


_____. King Arthur. Véronique Gens, Claron McFadden, Sandrine Piau, Susannah Waters, Mark Padmore, Iain Paton, Jonathan Best, Petteri Salomaaa, François Bazola. Les Arts Florissants / William Christie. YouTube (DidoneAbbandonata) 1 June 2013.*
    http://youtu.be/6fhs6C_UJy4





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Fotógrafa

Fotógrafa


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Jueves 13 de noviembre de 2014

El argumento número 35

Esto viene del apéndice a 36 Arguments for the Existence of God: A Work of Fiction. Es ésta una excelente novela de campus de Rebecca Goldstein (pareja por cierto de Steven Pinker) en la que, metamorfoseándose imaginativamente en el judío descreído Cass Seltzer, "el ateo con alma", expresa la autora su comprensión (ligeramente irónico-maquiavélica) hacia el fenómeno religioso en tanto que fuente de consuelo metafísico, y en tanto que mecanismo articulador de mundos posibles y de sentimientos de integración en una comunidad.  Aunque sea una comunidad excéntrica articulada por creencias absurdas: los Valdenses, una pequeña tribu superviviente de judíos de Europa del Este, deslocalizados a América, eligen aquí al joven prodigio matemático Azariah, el hijo de su rabino, como nuevo guía espiritual, y éste acepta su destino a pesar de su distancia intelectual hacia las viejas tradiciones. Es, en suma, una versión judeo-americana, y altamente sofisticada, de San Manuel Bueno, Mártir. A la vez se completa con una intriga de campus, en la que Cass rompe con su novia perfecta pero carrierista, la genial psicóloga Lucinda, toda cerebro ella, y pasa a reanudar relaciones con la emocional y vital Roz, una antigua novia que reemerge ahora que Cass es famoso. El libro de Cass Seltzer, el que lo lanza a la fama, se llama The Varieties of Religious Illusion, combinando los títulos de libros sobre la religión de William James y de Sigmund Freud. Ese libro terminaba con una colección de argumentos a favor de la existencia de Dios, y sus correspondientes refutaciones, argumentos y refutaciones que son seguramente los mismos que cierran el libro de Rebecca Goldstein. Los argumentos reales se complementan con una colección fantástica de argumentos vividos en el argumento del libro, que dan título a cada capítulo. Creo que voy a incluir una lista de todos, los del argumento y los del apéndice argumentativo. Y terminaré con el argumento 35 del apéndice, por no terminar contando el final.


Contents:

I. The Argument from the Improbable Self.
II. The Argument from Lucinda.
III. The Argument from Dappled Things.
IV. The Argument from the Irrepressible Past.
V. The Argument from Reversal of Fortune.
VI. The Argument from Intimations of Immortality.
VII. The Argument from Soul-Gazing.
VIII. The Argument from the Existence of the Poem.
IX. The Argument from the Eternity of Irony.
X. The Argument from the Purer Self.
XI. The Artument from Transcendental Signifiers.
XII. The Argument from Prime Numbers.
XIII. The Argument from Taking Differences.
XIV. The Argument from Inconsolable Solitude.
XV. The Argumment from Sacred Circles.
XVI. The Argument from the Longing on the Gate.
XVII. The Argument from Strange Laughter.
XVIII. The Argument from the Arrow of Time.
XIX. The Argument from the Overheard Whispers of Angels.
XX. The Argument from Tidings of Destruction.
XXI. The Argument from the Remains.
XXII. The Argument from Fraught Distance.
XXIII. The Argument from the Disenchantment of the World.
XXIV. The Argument from the Ethics of the Fathers.
XXV.The Argument from Cosmic Tremblings.
XXVI. The Argument from Chosen Individuals.
XXVII. The Argument from the Bones of the Dead.
XXVIII. The Argument from the Mandelbaum Equilibrium.
XXIX. The Argument from Rigid Designators.
XXX. The Argument from the Long Silence of the Night.
XXXI. The Argument from the New York Times.
XXXII. The Argument from the Precipice.
XXXIII. The Argument from the Violable Self.
XXXIV. The Argument from the View from Nowhere.
XXXV. The Argument from Solemn Emotions.
XXXVI. The Argument from the Silent Rebbe's Dance.

Un libro con capítulos titulados así merece ser leído. Sobre todo si en el apéndice encontramos los auténticos argumentos sobre la existencia de Dios:

Appendix: 36 Arguments for the Existence of God:

1. The Cosmological Argument.
2. The Ontological Argument.
3. The Argument from Design.
    a) The Classical Teleological Argument
    b) The Argument from Irreducible Complexity
    c) The Argument from the Paucity of Benign Mutations
    d) The Argument from the Original Replicator.
4. The Argument from the Big Bang.
5. The Argument from the Fine-Tuning of Physical Constants.
6. The Argument from the Beauty of Physical Laws.
7. The Argument from Cosmic Coincidences.
8. The Argument from Personal Coincidences.
9. The Argument from Answered Prayers.
10. The Argument from a Wonderful Life.
11. The Argument from Miracles.
12. The Argument from the Hard Problem of Consciousness.
13. The Argument from the Improbable Self.
14. The Argument from Survival After Death.
15. The Argument from the Inconceivability of Personal Annihilation.
16. The Argument from Moral Truth.
17. The Argument from Altruism.
18. The Argument from Free Will.
19. The Argument from Personal Purpose.
20. The Argument from the Intolerability of Insignificance.
21. The Argument from the Consensus of Humanity.
22. The Argument from the Consensus of Mystics.
23. The Argument from Holy Books.
24. The Argument from Perfect Justice.
25. The Argument from Suffering.
26. The Argument from the Survival of the Jews.
27. The Argument from the Upward Curve of History.
28. The Argument from Prodigious Genius.
29. The Argument from Human Knowledge of Infinity.
30. The Argument from Mathematical Reality.
31. The Argument from Decision Theory (Pascal's Wager).
32. The Argument from Pragmatics (William James's Leap of Faith).
33. The Argument from the Unreasonableness of Reason.
34. The Argument from Sublimity.
35. The Argument from the Intelligibility of the Universe (Spinoza's God).
36. The Argument from the Abundance of Arguments.


35. The Argument from the Intellibility of the Universe (Spinoza's God)

1. All facts must have explanations.

2. The fact that there is a universe at all—and that it is this universe, with just these laws of nature—has an explanation (from 1).

3. There must, in principle, be a Theory of Everything that explains why just this universe, with these laws of nature, exists. (From 2. Note that this should not be interpreted as requiring that we have the capacity to come up with a Theory of Everything; it may elude the cognitive abilities that we have.)

4. If the Theory of Everything explains everything, it explains why it is the Theory of Everything.

5. The only way that the Theory of Everything could explain why it is the Theory of Everything is if it is itself necessarily true (i.e., true in all possible worlds).

6. The Theory of Everything is necessarily true (from 4 and 5).

7. The universe, understood in terms of the Theory of Everything, exists necessarily and explains itself (from 6).

8. That which exists necessarily and explains itself a God (a definition of "God").

9. The universe is God (from 7 and 8).

10. God exists.

Whenever Einstein was asked whether he believed in God, he responded that he believed in "Spinoza's God." This argument presents Spinoza's God. It is one of the most elegant and subtle arguments for God's existence, demonstrating where one ends up if one rigorously eschews the fallacy of Inoking one Mystery to Explain Another: one ends up with the universe and nothing but the universe, which itself provides all the answers to all the questions one can ask about it. A major problem with the argument, however, in addition to the flaws discussed below, is that it is not at all clear that it is God whose exisntence is being proved. Spinoza's conclusion is that the universe that itself provides all the answers about itself simply is God. Perhaps tha conclusion should, rather, be that the universe is different from what it appears to be—no matter how arbitrary and chaotic it may appear, it is in fact perfectly lawful and necessary, and therefore worthy of our awe. But is its awe-inspirign lawfulness reason enough to regard it as God? Spinoza's God is sharply at variance with all other divine conceptions.

The argument has only one substantive premise, its first one, which, though unprovable, is not unreasonable; it is, in fact, the claim that the universe itself is thoroughly reasonable. Though this first premise can't be proved, it is the guiding faith of many physicists (including Einstein). It is the claim that everything must have an explanation; even the laws of nature, in terms of which processes are explained, must have an explanation. In other words, there has to be an explanation for why it is these laws of nature rather than some other, which is another way of asking why it is this world rather than some other.

FLAW: The first premise cannot be proved. Our world could conceivably be one in which randomness and contingency have free reign, no matter what the intuitions of some scientists are. Maybe some things just are ("stuff happens"), including the fundamental laws of nature. Philosphers sometimes call this just-is-ness "contingency," and if the fundamental laws of nature are contingent, then, even if everything that happens in the world is explainable by those laws, the laws themselves couldn't be explained. There is a sense in which this argument recalls The Argument from the Improbable Self. Both demand explanations for just this-ness, whether of just this universe, or just this me.

The Argument from the Intelligibility of the Universe fleshes out the consequences of the powerful first premise, but some might regard the argument as a reductio ad absurdum of that premise.

COMMENT: Spinoza's argument, if sound, invalidates all the other arguments, the ones that try to establish the existence of a more traditional God—that is, a God who stands distinct from the world described by the laws of nature, as well as distinct from the world of human meaning, purpose, and morality. Spinoza's argument claims that any transcendent God, standing outside of that for which he is invoked as an explanation, is invalidated by the first powerful premise, that all things are parts of the same explanatory fabric. The mere coherence of The Argument from the Intelligibility of the Universe, therefore, is sufficient to reveal the invalidity of the other theistic arguments. This is why Spinoza, although he offered a proof of what he called "God," is often regarded as the most effective of all atheists.



El Gran Diseño y Hacedor de Estrellas (5): La Teoría de Todo







Mujer sola en la playa 2


Mujer sola en la playa 2


—oOo—




Miércoles 12 de diciembre de 2014

Rosa Díez: "El gobierno debería haber hecho cumplir la ley"





—oOo—



Definitions of literature

Definitions.of.Literature by marcosclopes



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Looking for Richard








Looking for Richard from samarkkanda on Vimeo.




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Narración autodiegética

Narración autodiegética (Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 6)

(Autodiegetic Narration (Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative, 6))

http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2514510

Reference Info: Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva (Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 1992)




eJournal Classifications (Date posted: October 26, 2014)
LIT Subject Matter eJournals
    
        
LIT Subject Matter eJournals
    



—oOo—



Mujer con sombrero


Mujer con sombrero




—oOo—




Britten - Curlew River








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Martes 11 de diciembre de 2014

Consiliencia y retrospección

Mi artículo sobre Stephen Jay Gould, E. O. Wilson, la unidad del conocimiento, la comprensión de los fenómenos y la retrospección,

Consiliencia y retrospección
http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2513969

Reference Info: Ibercampus 16 Nov. 2009

Se encuentra ahora, en español, en estas revistas temáticas de la SSRN (Date posted: October 24, 2014)
eJournal Classifications
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
    
        
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
    
        
            
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
    
        
PRN Subject Matter eJournals
    
        

(Consilience and Retrospection) - aquí el texto revisado en inglés.



Consiliencia y retrospección



—oOo—







Purcell: Dido and Aeneas (Le Poème Harmonique)






—oOo—






La Angustia de la Evolución

Seguimos actualizando, sin prisa pero con pausa, el blog sobre narratología evolucionista, y también el viejo Vanity Fea de Blogia:


una publicación de Narratología evolucionista - Evolutionary Narratology.


—oOo—






Lunes 10 de diciembre de 2014

Gotye - Somebody that I Used to Know







—oOo—



Solo en Rodeira


Solo en Rodeira


—oOo—



España territorio sin ley




una publicación de Rosa Díez.


Y aquí el primer comentario de Federico: Nos gobiernan unos cobardes



 





—oOo—








Domingo 9 de noviembre de 2014

El narrador autorial y las otras voces narrativas

De Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva (Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 1992)

El narrador autorial y las otras voces narrativas 

(Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 5) 

(The Authorial Narrator and the Other Narrative Voices (Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative, 5))

http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2511946 

Aparece también en esta revista sobre "otras literaturas inglesas" con fecha de 21 de octubre de 2014 (Date posted: October 21, 2014)

LIT Subject Matter eJournals
             



El status narrativo en la trilogía (Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 4)

—oOo—




Luna con cráteres


Luna con cráteres


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El famoso Nueve Ene





—oOo—





Sábado 8 de noviembre de 2014

En la Vniversidad de Salamanca

No es de ayer, tampoco es de hoy, pero aquí estamos Shakespeare y yo como dos referencias centrales en Filología Inglesa. En una buena universidad, con buena tradición de Filología Inglesa, la Universidad de Salamanca.  También en la Universidad de Salamanca publiqué uno de mis escasos libros, Acción, Relato, Discurso: Estructura de la ficción narrativa. Como más libros no creo que escriba yo, déjenme al menos retratarme en pantallazo de esta Biblioteca de Filología:
salamanca



En el Collegio Internazionale Ca' Foscari



—oOo—




Viernes 7 de noviembre de 2014

Aquí con mis fotos de reflejos

Aquí con mis fotos de reflejos

—oOo—







Topsight in Sun Tzu's Art of War


La perspectiva dominante en El Arte de la Guerra: Más aspectos de un clásico chino

(Topsight in The Art of War: Further aspects of a Chinese classic))


José Angel García Landa


Universidad de Zaragoza

May 5, 2014

Ibercampus (May 5, 2014)

Abstract:     
Spanish abstract: Proporcionamos en este artículo un acercamiento narratológico a El Arte de la Guerra, clásico chino sobre estrategia militar atribuido a Sun Tzu (Sunzi). Esta lectura enfatiza las dimensiones cognitivas del texto, entendido como un tratado sobre la perspectiva y el punto de vista, y como una formulación temprana del concepto de perspectiva dominante o 'topsight'. También examinamos sus estructuras temorales implícitas, en especial en lo referente al papel de la retrospección. El texto de Sunzi tiene, en suma, una interesante dimensión como teoría de la perspectiva, de la acción, y de la representación intersubjetiva.

English abstract: This paper provides a narratological perspective on The Art of War, a Chinese classic treatise of military strategy attributed to Sun Tzu. This reading foregrounds the cognitive aspects of the text as a treatise in perspective and point of view, and as an early formulation of the concept of topsight. It also examines its implicit temporal structures, especially as regards the role of retrospection. All in all, Sun Tzu's text has an interesting dimension as a theory of perspective, of action, and of intersubjective representation.
 

Number of Pages in PDF File: 10

Keywords: Sun Tzu, Strategy, Topsight, Perspective, Knowledge, Information, War, Strategy, Models, Plans, Retrospection, Narratology, Theory of action, Chinese literature,
 
Accepted Paper Series


La perspectiva dominante en El Arte de la Guerra

—oOo—






Jueves 6 de noviembre de 2014

Trying On a Mask

Trying on a Mask

—oOo—




Fotos antiguas no vistas

Me las manda mamá, una colección de esas que van circulando por la red—y es que son buenísimas, estas fotos antiguas no vistas (powerpoint).



—oOo—



Posicionamiento en Google Scholar


En Google Scholar no salgo quizá tan bien retratado como en Academia.edu. Tiene una opción este Google, poniendo el nombre de la universidad en el buscador, que muestra de modo cruel y despiadado a todos los profesores de esa universidad ordenados por número de citas. (De las que le constan a Google).

Así que este es el ránking de los profesores de la Universidad de Zaragoza, según Google, que es autoridad en la materia.

Ahí es ése el ránking, por citas, y no por número de visitas recientes como en Academia. Y no es que figure mal, yo—sigo el primero de mi área, si no contamos a Susana Onega, que no ha puesto su universidad y no figura por tanto en el ránking general—y en total salgo en posición 130, con más de 500 citas, que para humanidades es muchísimo, pues normalmente nos ignoramos mutuamente, y nos ignoran también. De hecho hay sólo tres o cuatro de las áreas de Letras (Javier García Marco, Juan de la Riva, Tramullas...) que salen mejor posicionados. Ahora bien, Google Scholar creo que sólo incluye a los que se dan de alta voluntariamente—como Academia, por otra parte—así que más serán los llamados y más los elegidos si atienden y se dan de alta, igual me mandan al puesto 200, por decir.



Y a ver cómo ando de índices y de bilirrubina:

 Citation indices     All        since 2009
Citations         522          235
h-index                        7           5
i10-index            4           3





Hace dos meses iba así la cosa:


Citation indices All        Since 2009
Citations  513           226
h-index    6         5
i10-index    4          3

Hoy en Google Scholar

—oOo—





Documentos del Departamento

Aquí hay 464 publicaciones subidas a Academia.edu por miembros de nuestro departamento de Filología Inglesa y Alemana. Pueden hacerse vistas comparativas por universidad, por departamento, etc., así panorámicamente. Me está feo decir que en mi departamento no sólo soy el usuario mejor valorado de Academia (estoy en el top uno por mil, con cierta ventaja sobre el resto) sino que también tengo yo el mayor número de publicaciones, de descargas, de seguidores, con diferencia— y el mayor número de mini-trofeos de Top Porcentajes o pequeños premios pixelados de esos que reparte Academia. 

Con este baremo no quedo mal situado en mi departamento—con otros, sí, como se ha demostrado repetidamente.


¡¡En el Top 0,1 %!!

—oOo—







El escrito de acusación penal


Me citan en el artículo "El escrito de acusación penal" de Raquel Taranilla, sobre narratología jurídica:


Taranilla, Raquel. "El escrito de acusación penal: Convenciones genéricas en la configuración del relato de los hechos." I Vardande: Revista Electrónica de Semiótica y Fenomenología Jurídicas Burcaramanga 2.2 (March 2013-Feb. 2014): 64-94. Online at Scribd (alilozadaprado) 5 Nov. 2014.*
         2014





Taranilla_El Escrito de Acusación Penal_convenciones Genéricas en La Configuración Del Relato de Los Hechos... by alilozadaprado




—oOo—





Miércoles 5 de noviembre de 2014

The Great Stories of Venice


The Great Stories of Venice


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Richard Bulliet - History of the World to 1500





—oOo—







La suspensión del merendéndum






—oOo—






Mis artículos más vistos en Ibercampus

O, mi faceta de columnista y periodical essayist.

Mis artículos más visitados en IBERCAMPUS

Y aquí, ya directamente, mi propio periódico en paper.li: GARCIALANDIA is out!



—oOo—







Darwin, la selección natural y la selección sexual


una publicación de Narratología evolucionista - Evolutionary Narratology.


—oOo—








I'm far too Continental

Aquí en eJournals uno de mis capítulos sobre las novelas de Beckett:

"Entrando en la Trilogía: la narración en Molloy (Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 2) (Entering the Trilogy: Narration in Molloy (Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative, 2)). 1992. Social Science Research Network 10 Oct. 2014.*
         2014
         Linguistic Anthropology eJournal 10 Oct. 2014.*
         2014
         Continental Philosophy eJournal 10 Oct. 2014.*
         2014

Que quede pantallazo de mi paso por esta revista de Filosofía Continental. Los europeos somos far too continental para los British, e incluso para los norteamericanos. Beckett también para los irlandeses.

En el Continental Philosophy eJournal


Introducción a Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva

—oOo—


Martes 4 de noviembre de 2014

Strange Beliefs: Sir Edward Evans-Pritchard




—oOo—






En Linguistic Studies

Mi artículo sobre la crítica clásica tras Aristóteles está en el Top Ten de "Linguistic Studies", en esta red de Antropología de la SSRN:
AARN: Linguistic Studies (Topic) All Papers.






—oOo—





Sube el agua en Venecia

Sube el agua en Venecia


—oOo—





El narrador impersonal

El narrador impersonal

(Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 7) 

The Impersonal Narrator (Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative, 7)


José Angel García Landa


Universidad de Zaragoza

1992

Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva (Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 1992)

Abstract:     
Spanish Abstract: Samuel Beckett y la Narración Reflexiva es un estudio en profundidad de la escritura experimental de Beckett, en especial de la trilogía novelística Molloy, Malone Dies, y The Unnamable, desde la perspectiva de la narratología estructuralista y las teorías estructuralistas sobre la enunciación. Resulta de allí no sólo una mejor comprensión de la técnica utilizada por Beckett para transmitir su peculiar visión de la realidad, sino también toda una nueva gama de significaciones en estos textos. En este capítulo examinamos la voz narrativa de The Unnamable (El Innombrable) como la culminación del proceso de vaciado crítico de la narración homodiegética o en primera persona iniciado en las novelas anteriores de la trilogía.

English Abstract: Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative is an in-depth study of Beckett's experimental writing, more specifically of the novelistic trilogy Molloy, Malone Dies and The Unnamable, from the standpoint of structuralist theories of narrative and of enunciation. An increased insight is thereby obtained into the technique used by Beckett to articulate his peculiar view of reality, and a new dimension of signification of these texts emerges. This chapter examines the use of narrative voice in The Unnamable as a culmination of the critical emptying out of homodiegetic or first-person narrative begun in the previous novels of the trilogy.

Number of Pages in PDF File: 35
Accepted Paper Series




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Lunes 3 de noviembre de 2014

La antropología social de Evans-Pritchard





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The Three B's: Bacon, Burton, Browne

From A Critical History of English Literature, by David Daiches:

While churchmen debated the theory and practice of church government, the secular mind of Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was meditating an ambitious scheme for laying anew the foundations of human knowledge on which could be reared an ever-increasing understanding and control of nature. To this scheme he gave the general name of the Great Instauration (or Renewal). Reacting against scholastic philosophy and against all a priori thinking and systems of thought derived deductively from premises laid down by authority, the Great Instauration, basing knowledge on observation, would restore a truer relationship between the observing mind and observed nature and so make scientific progress possible. For Bacon, "the furthest end of knowledge" was not theoretical insight but "the relief of man's estate": it was to be "the benefit and use of man." The sequence was to be from observation to understanding to practical application. francis baconBacon proposed to himself six stages in the realization of this scheme, beginning with the classification of existing knowledge, within a precise mapping of all gaps and deficiencies, and proceeding thorugh the development of a new, inductive, logical method (the New Organon) and the collection of basic data to provide lists of examples of the new method in operation, thence to a preliminary report of the achievements of the method, and finally to a full-dress presentation of the new philosophy and method and its results in explaining the natural phenomena of the universe. The sixth and final stage could not of course be reached by any single individual: it represented the eventual aim of human knowledge. Of the other five stages, the first is represented by Bacon's Advancement of Learning (1605, with an enlarged Latin version in 1623); the second by the unfinished Latin work, Novum Organum, which appeared together with a general statement of the aims and plans of the Great Instauration (Magna Instauratio) in 1620; and the others only in fragments.

Bacon was not the first to propose an inductive scientific theory, or to attack scholasticism; nor did his writings achieve a philosophic revolution of the kind which Descartes bourght about a generation later. Further, he was not in touch with the actual achievements of contemporary science, was ignorant of and sometimes hostile to new advances in astronomy and medicine and curiously uninfluenced by the revival of Greek science and Platonic mathematics which were so important for the scientific achievements of the Renaissance. Nevertheless he spoke with prophetic eloquence of the new conception of knowledge and its function, popularizing a point of view which was to become increasingly significant later in the century. His diagnosis of much of the accepted philosophy of his time as mere verbal jugglery hand something of the same effect as the work of the more popular of the logical positivists and semanticists of the 1930's: "For the wit and mind of man, if it work upon matter, which is the contemplation of the creatures of God, worketh acording to the stuff and is limited thereby; but if it work upon itself as the spider worketh his web, then it is endless, and brings forth indeed cobwebs of learning, admirable for the fineness of thread and work but of no substance or profit."

The Advancement of Learning is in two books: the first states and answers arguments that have been brought forward against learning and the second providing a detailed classification of all the kinds of knowledge, with the deficiencies noted. The argument against learning comes from theologians, from politicians, and from the habits and studies of learned men themselves. The first he answers in their own terms; the second he answers by an appeal to history and experience; and in tackling the third he admits that here are "three vanities in studies" which have been responsible for attacks on learning in general. These "vanities" or "distempers" of learning are in ascending order of gravity, fantastic and exhibitionist styles of writing, the kind of logic chopping which degenerates into mere verbalism, and "delight in deceiving and aptness to be deceived, imposture and credulity." The greatest error of all, however, is "mistaking or misplacing the last or furthest end of knowledge"—hwich is control over nature for the benefit of man. Book I concludes with positive arguments to prove the dignity of learning, both "divine proofs" and divinity to the divines, distinguishing between God's word, as revealed by Him and studied by His ministers, and God's work, the natural world, the province of scientific inquiry; but though the separation between theology and philosophy had been made before (e.g., by William of Ockham), Bacon makes the separation to protect science from religion (to use modern terms) not, as Ockham had done, to protect faith from reason. Thomistic philosophy did not make this separation, subsuming philosophy in theology, but later scholastic thougth did sometimes recognize a "twofold truth." Such a division was found useful by seventeenth-century thinkers such as Bacon and Hobbes in providing a clear field for secular thought.

Book II of The Advancement of Learning is a briliant piece of classification, full  of the witty definitions and apt and lively phrases so characteristic of Bacon's vigorous expository style; but in spite of this the modern reader will find this sort of detailed schematization somewhat tedious. Among the many interesting definitions, that of poetry might be singled out, for it is curiously Freudian: "it [poetry] doth raise and erect the mind, by submitting the shows of things to the desires of the mind; whereas reason doth buckle and bow the mind unto the nature of things." (The dwindling number of those who profess to believe that Bacon wrote Shakespeare's plays might reflect on this definition of poetry and consider whether it could possibly be made to apply to Hamlet or Othello.)

The Novum Organum contains the famous account of "the four classes of idols which beset men's minds," a fine example of the imaginative wit which Bacon so often displayed in making his points. The Idols of the Tribe (deriving from the limitations of human nature), the Idols of the Cave (deriving from personal character and idiosyncrasies), the Idols of the Marketplace (popular superstitions and confusions), and the Idols of the Theatre ("because in my judgment all the received systems are but so many stage-plays representing worlds of their own creation after an unreal and scenic fashion"), all militate against the proper use of observation and reason. Again, this reminds us of a modern semanticist analyzing the sources of verbal confusion or of a psychologist explaining the origins of irrational prejudice. Bacon was not himself a great scientist or a great philosopher; he was a master of prose exposition whose colorful and memorable phrases helped to popularize a new view of science.

The New Atlantis, published incomplete in 1627, is a slight work; it describes how a group of seafarers come upon an unknown island in the South Sea, where they are hospitably entertained and told of the high state of morality and civilization prevailing there, notably of the wonders of Salomon's House, a research institution in the description of which Bacon illustrates his own ideas of how research should be carried on. It all seems rather naïve in an age when scientific research is as highly developed and as much taken for granted as it is now; but it is interesting as providing further evidence of Bacon's desire to popularize his views of the importance of experimental science, that "commerce between the mind of man and the nature of things, which is more precious than anything on earth" as he called it in his Magna Instauratio.

Bacon's Essays—beginning with a volume of ten essays, written in a pungent aphoristic style, in 1597, with expansions and additions and a progressively more discursive style in the volumes of 1612 and 1625, the last containing fifty-eight essays—consist of reflections on human affaires by a practical psychologist who wishes to base his ethical prescriptions on a sound knowledge of human nature. The essay as a literary form had been invented by Montaigne shortly before Bacon adopted it; but Montaigne, with his rambling curiosity about himself and his genial and sceptical humanism, represented a different side of Renaissance thought. The easy flow of Montaigne's prose represented a relaxed self-consciousness far removed from the impersonal wisdom affected by Bacon, whose early essays read almost like a series of proverbs. It is the aphoristic element in his style that makes so many of his sentences—particularly his opening sentences—memorable and quotable. "What is truth? said jesting Pilate; and would not stay for an answer." "Men fear death as children fear to go in the dark; and as that natural fear in children is increased with tales, so is the other." "Revenge is a kind of wild justice . . ." "He that hath wife and children hath given hostages to fortune." "A man that hath no virtue in himself ever envieth virtue in others." The essays deal as much with public as with private life, discussing "great place," nobility, "seditions and troubles," empire, and "the true greatness of kingdoms and estates," as well as truth, death, parents and children, marriage, envy, love, and "wisdom for a man's self." He speaks as a man of the world, illustrating his generalizations by references to history (often classical history) and his own experience. Realistic in politics, shrewd but not coldly calculating in practical affairs, Christian in a general theistic way with more than a touch of Stocism, occasionally rising to somber eloquence in discussing time and change and death or led into the display of a personal enthusiasm as in the essay on gardens, Bacon in his essays is an impressive if hardly an endearing character. There is a moderately Machiavellian side to his thought: "The best composition and temperature is, to have openness in fame and opinion; secrecy in habit; dissimulation in seasonable use; and a power to feign, if there be no remedy." He is reconciled to human nature: "Why should I be angry with a man for loving himself better than me?" He knows how to relax with a variety of delights, but it is significant that he ends his essay on "masques and triumphs" with the sentence: "But enough of these toys." Montaigne in one way, Bacon in another, are very far from the medieval mind; and they are far, too from some of the more passionate movements of their own time. It is hardly extravagant to suggest that Bacon lives in the same world as Benjamin Franklin, not in that of the author of Piers Plowman, or in that of Spenser or Milton or George Herbert.

Bacon's History of Henry VII (1622) is a conscientious study of that king's policy in the light of which he is able to give an integrated
Thomas Browne picture of the events of his reign. The work shows Bacon's interest in statecraft, his political and legal knowlege, his command of an effective narrative and expository style, and a historico-psychological imagination which enabled him to put imaginary speeches into the mouths of his characters in the manner of classical historians. Others of Bacon's works, more or less fragmentary contributions to the sixfold plan of thee Great Instauration, were published in various collections of his literary remains after his death.


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If Bacon separated God's word and God's work in order to be able to concentrate freely on the latter, Sir Thomas Browne (1605-82) divided his attention between the two, investigating the facts of nature with a Baconian empiricism (though with a religious excitement at the ingenuity of the Creator thus revealed, which Bacon wholly lacked) and at the same time glorying in his acceptance by faith of religious mysteries on which his imagination loved to dwell. Browne was both Baconian experimentalist and Christian mystic, author both of Pseudodoxia Epidemica (generally known as Vulgar Errors), an exposure of erroneous notions about nature held by the credulous, and of Religio Medici, a discursive statement of his religious faith with a deliberate emphasis on wonder and mystery. The impact of the "new philosophy" in the seventeenth century naturally differed according to the temperament of the individual. Browne had a "unified sensibility" in the sense that he could move freely between mystery and experiment and saw no conflict between the duty of the man of science and that of the man of religion. This is related to his genial autobiographical manner of discussion and his interest in what might be called philosophy as play; if in discussing one kind of truth you are also aware of another kind, you will not be too intense in your method of presenting either.

The relation—sometimes the conflict—between science and religion becomes henceforth an important aspect of English thought. Although seventeenth-century theological controversy for the most part ignored the new science, its effects were indirectly visible in the great debate between those who believed optimistically in inevitable progress and those who held that the world was steadily declining. The classic statement of the pessimisic position was Godfrey Goodman's massive work, The Fall of Man, or the Corruption of Nature Proved by the Light of our Natural Reason, published in 1616. This was answered by George Hakewill's Apology of the Power and Providence of God in the Government of the World,published in 1627, with enlarged editions in 1630 and 1635. The argument as to whether the world had steadily declined from an original Golden Age or was steadily progressing and improving represents two poles of human thought which are perhaps always with us; but the seventeenth century saw the conflict brought into focus with particular clarity. It was this debate which underlay the conflict between Ancients and Moderns which developed later in the century; whether the classical literature of the Greeks and Romans represented a summit of human literary achievement which later ages could never quite reach, or whther modern refinement and ingenuity could surpass the achievements of the ancient world, was an argument which flowed from the larger debate on the decline of the world. The narrowing of the issue in this way reflects a contraction o the intelelctual universe of the late seventeenth century and early eighteenth centuries as compared with that of the earlier seventeenth century. The comfortable deistic solution of the science-religion conflict, making God the First Cause who retired from the universe after the creation, the divine watchmaker who made and wound up the watch before leaving it to be admired and investigated by the pious and the curious, was the eighteenth-century systematization of a position implicit in Bacon. Scientific progress then becomes increasingly successful in discovering how the watch was made and how it works, while literary progress is measured by the degree to which writers equal or perhaps even excel the great achievements of the classical world.

pseudodoxiaSir Thomas Browne remained at the still center of the controversies of his day, cultivating an inclusive tolerance which enabled him to reconcile almost anything with almost anything else. Religio Medici—which circulated for some time in manuscript, and appeared in two inauthorized editions in 1642, before the appearance of the authorized edition in 1643—might almost be called an exercise in inclusiveness of thought and feeling. The very title—"the religion of a doctor"—emphasizes a reconciliation of traditional opposites, the numinous and the scientific; for, as Browne points out in the very first sentence, the world does not generally consider doctors to have any religion at all. His favorite image is the circle, his favorite concept the microcosm. The prose of Religio Medici is so richly harmonized that one might almost say that its meaning is conveyed vertically rather than horizontally. Browne's constant endeavor is to break down distinctions and include all things in a single context. In sentence after sentence he reaches out to embrace apparent contradictions and bring them together; each sentence—or at least each paragraph—is thus a microcosm of the book as a whole. Consider, for example, his discussion of the relation between Protestants and Catholics:

We have reformed from them, not against them; for (omitting those Improperations and Terms of Scurrility betwixt us, which only difference our Affections, and not our Cause,) there is between us one common Name and Appellation, one Faith and necessary body of Principles common to us both; and therefore I am not scrupulous to converse and live with them, to enter their Churches in defect of ours, and either pray with them, or for them.

Here we have the whole of Religio Medici in little: reformation does not imply disagreement; any admission of difference is softly tucked away within brackets; and at the end there is the cunning suggestion that praying for somebody (which would really indicate that we are concerned for him because he is not of our faith) amounts to the same thing as praying with him (which indicates that we are of the same faith). The actual statement of the case—an appeal for toleration—is reinforced by stylistic devices and by every kind of quasi-logical suggestion that can be derived from language.

Religio Medici begins with a definition of the author's brand of Christianity, a definition which gradually expands to include, by a "general charity to Humanity," virtually all faiths professed by men. Though a member of the Church of England ("there is no Church whose every part so squares onto my Conscience; whose Articles seem so consonant unto reason, and as it were framed to my particular Devotion, as this whereof I hold my Belief, the Church of England"), Browne "could never divide myself from any man upon the difference of an opinion, or be angry with his judgment for not agreeing with me in that from which perhaps within a few days I should dissent my self." By various quasi-logical and autobiographical devices he brings all humanity into the circle of his own faith. Faith and reason are at first distinguished:

As for those wingy Mysteries in Divinity, and airy subtleties in Religion, which have unhing'd the brains of better heads, they never stretched the Pia Mater of mine. Methinks there be not impossibilities enough in Religion for an active faith; the deepest Mysteries ours contains have not only been illustrated, but maintained, by Syllogism and the rule of Reason. I love to lose myself in a mystery, to pursue my Reason to an O Altitudo! . . . I can answer all the objections of Satan and my rebellious reason with the odd resolution I learned of Tertullian, Certum est, quia impossibile est. I desire to exercise my faith in the difficultest point; for to credit ordinary and visible objects is not faith, but persuasion.

But though faith and reason are thus opposed, they are eventually reunited, if not logically at least symbolically, by being discussed in terms of each other and by the inclusion of both in a third term, such as God's Wisdom, which created the world to be "studied and contemplated by Man: 'tis the Debt of our Reason we owe unto God, and the homage we pay for not being Beasts." God's work and God's word are distinguished, but again only to be reunite: Nature is the Art of God. This being so, "there are no Grotesques in Nature." Every created thing is beautiful and wonderful in its way. Man himself is a little world. "We carry with us the wonders we seek without us: there is all Africa and her prodigies in us, we are that bold and adventurous piece of Nature, which he that studies wisely learns in a compendium what others labour at in a divided piece and endless volume." God's work is also a book, like His word. "Thus there are two Books from whence I collect my Divinity; besides that written one of God, another of His servant Nature, that universal and public Manuscript, that lies expans'd unto the Eyes of all; . . . "

Religio Medici continues with the adducing of examples showing the inclusive attitude at work. Both the miraculous and the scientific explanations of the same phenomenon are accepted; atheism is explained away as never having existed; pagan gods are included in the Christian scheme; soul and body, life and death, are so defined as to include each other. Martyrdom is deprecated as symbolizing an exclusive rather than an inclusive attitude. And even when Browne has reluctantly to concede that salvation is granted by God only to Christians, he adds significantly: "Yet those who do confine the Church of God, either to particular Nations, Churches, or Families, have made it far narrower than our Saviour ever meant it." Part II of the work is, logically enough, a discussion of charity, the state of mind which favours maximum inclusion. It is essentially an autobiographical illustration of his own charitable and tolerant disposition: "Methinks there is no man bad, and the worst, best." He can exclude nobody from his charity, and as "every man is a Microcosm, and carries the whole World about him," his own tolerance takes on universal dimensions. The work concludes with the author's submission to the will of God.

Browne's style, with its coupling of Anglo-Saxon and Latin words and its sentences composed of an arrangement of fairly short clauses rising and falling in a carefully contrived cadence, is in many respects a reflection of his sensibility. "Do but extract from the corpulency of bodies, or resolve things beyond their first matter, and you discover the habitation of Angels, which if I call the ubiquitary and omnipresent Essence of God, I hope I shall not offend Divinity: for before the Creation of the World God was really all things." The Latinisms here are introduced with a deliberate relish; they reflect that savoring of words and attitudes which is part of Browne's literary character. But it is worth noting that this sentence works up to a crucial statement which is itself expressed (except for the one word "Creation") in words of Anglo-Saxon origin: "for before the Creation of the world God was really all things." Browne's stylistic artifice is perhaps more obvious
melancholia in Hydriotaphia (Urn Burial) and The Garden of Cyrus, published together in 1658. In the former, the digging up of some old sepulchral urns "in a field of old Walsingham" provokes Browne to eloquent meditation on burial customs of the past and on the mysteries and solemnities of mortality. The opening sentence of the Epistle Dedicatory sets the tone of the work:

When the Funeral pyre was out, and the last valediction over, men took a lasting adieu of their interred Friends, little expecting the curiosity of future ages should comment upon their ashes, and, having no old experiences of the duration of their Reliques, held no opinion of such after-considerations.

Historical curiosity, philosophical speculation, mystic contemplation, and the suggestiveness and sonority of a rich and carefully manipulated vocabulary, combine to make Hydriotaphia a remarkable piece of virtuosity. The antiquarian, the Platonic mystic, the Christian moralist, and the artist all contribute to the total effect, but the artist is generally in the ascendant. "We whose generations are ordained in this setting part of time, are providentially taken off from such imaginations; and being necessitated to eye the remaining particle of futurity, are naturally constituted unto thoughts of the next world, which maketh Pyramids pillars of snow, and all that's past a moment." The artifice here is patent, as it is in the well-known passage beginning "What Song the Syrens sang, . . ." which includes the remarkable sentence: "But to subsist in bones, and be but Pyramidally extant, is a fallacy in duration." The Garden of Cyrus, in its riot of speculation concerning the quincunx pattern in heaven and earth, combines a scientific air with a poetic tone in a strange and fascinating way. Sometimes, the vocabulary is almost a parody of the scientific: "The Reticulum by these crossed cells makes a further digestion in the dry and exuccous part of the Aliment perceived from the first Ventricle." But more characteristic is the famous paragraph which begins the concluding movement of the work:

But the Quincunx of Heaven runs low, and 'tis time to close the five ports of knowledge; we are unwilling to spin out our awaking thoughts into the phantasms of sleep, which often continueth precogitations; making Cables of Cobwebs, and Wildernesses of handsome Groves. Beside Hippocrates hath spoke so little, and the Oneirocritical Masters have left such frigid Interrpetations from plants, that there is little encouragement to dream of paradise itself. Nor will the sweetest delight of Gardens afford much comfort in sleep; wherein the dullness of that sense shakes hands with delectable odours; and though in the Bed of Cleopatra, can hardly with any delight raise up the ghost of a Rose.

No more fascinating evidence exists of the coexistence in the seventeenth century of new scientific ideas and old notions of authority, and of the "hydroptic thirst" for all knowledge, ancient and modern, than the vast encyclopedic treatise by Robert Burton (1577-1640), The Anatomy of Melancholy, published in 1621, with several revised editions between 1625 and 1651. This work, now regarded as a rich anthology of curious notions, picturesque anecdotes, and varied quotations from both ancients and moderns, was intended as a scientific examination of the various distempers of the mind to which Burton gives the generic name "melancholy"—a medical and psychological work in which all known knowledge on the subject would be presented. If it has long been valued as a source of quaint or suggestive quotations or as a work to be dipped into and relished for its oddity,this is because the comprehensiveness of Burton's aim, the transitional nature of the age he lived in, and his own mixture of sympathy, curiosity, erudition, superstition, and common sense, gives his work a texture and a flavor that can be found neither in the medieval world nor in the modern scientific world after the foundation of the Royal Society.
anatomy of melancholyThe organization of the book into discussion of the symptoms, causes, and cure of different kinds of melancholy is logical enough, but no central principles provide coherence to the whole. Unbounded curiosity about man and a humane and sensible concern for his welfare are perhaps Burton's chief qualities; they are sufficient to give a tone but not to provide a method or a principle of integration to his work. The elaborate and detailed synopses to each "partition" of the work testify to Burton's methodological intentions, but the digressions and the illustrative anecdotes remain the most memorable parts of his book. The long section on "heroica or love melancholy," with its powers, causes, symptoms, and cures, is the richest part of the book to modern eyes, and its quizzical yet sympathetic tone, its profusion of information with a refusal to come down on any side of a controversy, is characteristic of Burton. We must not forget, however, that Burton was an Anglican priest by profession, and when he discusses religious melancholy, as he does in his final section, he mingles religious consolation with the humanist advice to avoid extremes and extravagances. "Thy soul is eclipsed for a time, I yield, as the sun is shadowed by a cloud; no doubt but those gracious beams of God's mercy will shine upon thee again, as they have formerly done: those embers of faith, hope and repentance, now burned in ashes, will flame out afresh, and be fully revived." This is a somewahat different Burton from the writer who, discoursing on the "prognostics" of love melancholy, remarks:

Go to Bedlam for examples. It is so well known in every village, how many have either died for love, or voluntarily made away themselves, that I need not much labour to prove it; Nec modus aut requies nisi mors reperitur amoris [love knows no limit or escape save death]: death is the common catastrophe to such persons.

Mori mihi contingat, non enim alia
Liberatio ab aerumnis fuerit ullo pacto istis.

[Would I were dead, for nought, God knows,
But death can rid me of these woes.]

But quotation can give no conception of the variety and multiplicity of Burton's extraordinary work, in which religion and science intermingle, medicine and psychology are set against a cosmic background, and ironic observations of the human comedy are made the excuse for a display of an almost irresponsible erudition. Burton's prose style is flexible and varied; he can be colloquial, pedantic, picturesque, or epigrammatic. The perpetual interlarding of his English with Latin quotations produces a strange mosaic effect. Perhaps it can be said that Burton had no style: there is too much variety and digression. The Anatomy of Melancholy is, however, a remarkable work, a significant symptom of the times and a tour de force without parallel in English literature.


Leviathan








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The Wave



The wave


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Domingo 2 de noviembre de 2014


Antonio Vega: Tu voz entre otras mil




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Gabinete Caligari, "Camino Soria" (Directo 1988)




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Francis Bacon




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Francis Bacon, "Of Truth"




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Movimientos narrativos

"Movimientos narrativos" (Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 4) - http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2510225

Reference Info: Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva (Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza) (1992)

Se encuentra ahora este capítulo en estas revistas y páginas del SSRN (Date posted: October 17, 2014) en las redes de ciencia cognitiva y de literatura.

eJournal Classifications
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
             
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
                          
LIT Subject Matter eJournals
             

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Sábado 1 de noviembre de 2014


Arènes de Lutèce

Un poema de Samuel Beckett. La expresión "miscellaneous rubbish" también es suya.


Arènes de Lutèce



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5 Most Incredible Photos from Mars




500 most incredible photos





Vista de Vigo desde lejos


Vista de Vigo desde lejos

 
 
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¿Podemos con la corrupción?


El Sin Complejos de hoy, con la política corrupta de esta semana—y con Podemos convirtiéndose en segunda fuerza política, camino de ser la primera quizá:





Y Monsieur de Sans-Foy debate con Fray Josepho sobre si acabará Podemos con la corrupción.



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The Mysterious Mr Webster





—y audiolibros de sus dos principales dramas, The White Devil  y The Duchess of Malfi.

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Introducción a Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva

La introducción a mi libro sobre Beckett aparece ahora en estas páginas y revista electrónica de la SSRN:

Reference Info: "Samuel Beckett y la Narración Reflexiva." Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 1992
beckett
http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2505110

Y en la fecha correspondiente, aquí (Date posted: October 06, 2014):

 LIT Subject Matter eJournals
             

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Biblioestadísticas



Monthly Stats Report: 1 Oct - 31 Oct 2014
Project: A Bibliography of Literary T.
URL: http://www.unizar.es/departamentos/filologia_inglesa/garciala/bibliography.html

Summary


Page Loads Unique Visits First Time Visits Returning Visits
Total 704 520 497 23
Average 23 17 16 1





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Microblog de noviembre 2014


Roca en el mar

14 nov 14, 23:27
JoseAngel: Mogwai: Music for a Forgotten Future: http://youtu.be/-BKguJEUObY
14 nov 14, 22:17
JoseAngel: Pagan Rationality and Religious (Dis)Order in 'Paradise Lost': https://www.academia.edu/9272396/Pagan_Rationality_and_Religious_Dis_Order_in_Paradise_Lost
14 nov 14, 18:14
JoseAngel: Purcell, THE INDIAN QUEEN: http://youtu.be/hKXN_6NSiq4
14 nov 14, 16:13
JoseAngel: Dido & Aeneas: http://youtu.be/jweNnjeY-Q0
14 nov 14, 14:10
JoseAngel: El Gobierno de Aragón elimina la partida de infraestructuras de la Universidad. Nos quedamos sin reforma. http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1411/141114_z0_epa11.pdf
14 nov 14, 13:41
JoseAngel: El gobierno sigue sin denunciar el 9-N: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-11-14/tertulia-de-federico-el-gobierno-sigue-sin-denunciar-el-9n-80973.html
14 nov 14, 09:33
JoseAngel: Federico a las 6: La cobardía de Rajoy: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-11-13/federico-a-las-6-la-cobardia-de-rajoy-80919.html
13 nov 14, 19:12
JoseAngel: Cambia de sitio EL GRAN TEATRO DEL MUNDO: https://www.facebook.com/elgranteatrodelmundo
13 nov 14, 15:10
JoseAngel: Ramón Rodríguez sobre el silencio del cuerpo en la fenomenología de la percepción de Heidegger: https://herafunizar.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/cartel-ii-seminario-heraf-8.pdf
13 nov 14, 01:09
JoseAngel: Y el viernes, 12,30, homenaje a Guillermo Fatás en el Aula Magna.
13 nov 14, 01:09
JoseAngel: Jueves 13, 19,30, EL CHICO: http://www.unizar.es/actualidad/vernoticia_ng.php?id=20858&idh=5412&pk_campaign=iunizar20141112&pk_kwd=20858
13 nov 14, 00:53
JoseAngel: Mi periódico llamado GARCIALANDIA: https://paper.li/JoseAngelGLanda/1411163489?edition_id=1481fc60-6ab7-11e4-9c9a-002590721287&utm_campaign=paper_sub&utm_medium=email&utm_source=subscription
13 nov 14, 00:16
JoseAngel: La política espectacular de JULIO CÉSAR: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2523598
12 nov 14, 19:31
JoseAngel: ¿Una cita de Marx? Pablo asalta el cielo: http://www.elmundo.es/blogs/elmundo/elblogdesantiagogonzalez/2014/10/21/una-cita-de-marx-pablo-asalta-el-cielo.html
12 nov 14, 19:13
JoseAngel: Cataluña es ya independiente: http://www.elmundo.es/blogs/elmundo/consejoeditorial/2014/11/12/cataluna-es-ya-independiente.html
11 nov 14, 13:51
JoseAngel: Hegel en La Aventura del Pensamiento: http://youtu.be/GMqolnJbdbg
11 nov 14, 13:42
JoseAngel: The Fleeting Systems Lapse Like Foam: http://garciala.blogia.com/2014/111102-the-fleeting-systems-lapse-like-foam.php
11 nov 14, 01:12
JoseAngel: Minuto 6: más sobre el referéndum y la dejación del gobierno de España: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-11-10/tertulia-de-dieter-actuaron-bien-los-mossos-en-el-9n-80803.html
10 nov 14, 23:07
JoseAngel: Ah, ¿que a tí no te citan, dices, o qué? Cómo son.
10 nov 14, 20:44
Pilar: Eres un pedante
10 nov 14, 20:32
JoseAngel: Me citan (Acción, Relato, Discurso) en esta tesis sobre el cuento criollista en Cuba: https://es.scribd.com/doc/245824734/
10 nov 14, 18:24
JoseAngel: Me citan en este artículo sobre crítica literaria postmoderna: https://es.scribd.com/doc/245863045/15-Juan-Ignacio-Oliva-pdf
10 nov 14, 17:41
JoseAngel: Qué cosa más vomitiva, oír a la cadena SER sobre el referéndum catalán. De esta bazofia se alimenta la mente del españolito medio.
10 nov 14, 16:37
Nak Tau Rahsia: Buat Duit RM117 Setiap Bulan Melalui HP anda? Saya akan ajar anda segera. Jom klik website untuk info lanjut
10 nov 14, 10:41
JoseAngel: Hobbes (In Our Time): http://youtu.be/VRmBZXAwOv8
10 nov 14, 08:06
JoseAngel: Pedro J, "El estafermo de la Moncloa" https://medium.com/@pedroj_ramirez/carta-de-un-arponero-ingenuo-2a2e945f5556
9 nov 14, 23:50
JoseAngel: He's So Cute: http://youtu.be/84DLT4yRcy4
9 nov 14, 21:29
JoseAngel: A ver si aclaramos la cosa. Según la ley española no ha habido un referéndum. Según la ley de los sediciosos catalanes sí. Así es la sedición. Lo que pasa es que esta es TOLERADA.
9 nov 14, 21:23
JoseAngel: Fiscal General del Estado, LACAYO TRAIDOR.
9 nov 14, 21:22
JoseAngel: Rajoy, TRAIDOR.
9 nov 14, 21:16
JoseAngel: Garcialandia Is Out: https://paper.li/JoseAngelGLanda/1411163489
9 nov 14, 20:01
JoseAngel: Hemos estado de excursión por Alhama de Aragón—de balnearios.
8 nov 14, 09:03
JoseAngel: Sigue el culebrón de la Infanta: http://www.cesarvidal.com/index.php/Podcast/escuchar-podcast/las_noticias_del_dia_7_11_14
7 nov 14, 23:40
JoseAngel: Hoy con mami en la clínica Quirón. Ha salido bien, parece, la operación de menisco.
6 nov 14, 21:32
JoseAngel: Lo de Pablemos en su portada es, aparte de una bromita, un delirio de grandeza de tamaño HITLERIANO.
6 nov 14, 21:31
JoseAngel: Montserrat Caballé defraudó a Hacienda 500.000 euros. Total, nada, 15 años de sueldo de profesor, detallitos.
6 nov 14, 20:39
JoseAngel: Atom Heart Mother: http://youtu.be/veSyrtnPLnM
6 nov 14, 07:44
JoseAngel: Mira que estudiamos gente con el Alexander... https://es.scribd.com/doc/221709254/English-New-Concept-Alexander-L-G
6 nov 14, 00:33
JoseAngel: El lado oscuro del amor: http://www.cesarvidal.com/index.php/Podcast/escuchar-podcast/nuestra_psicologa_de_guardia_5_11_14
5 nov 14, 12:44
JoseAngel: Rings the world with the vain stir. I sum up half mankind and add two-thirds of the remaining half, and find the total of their hopes and fears dreams, empty dreams.
4 nov 14, 21:48
JoseAngel: Si de nuestras vidas eliminamos ficciones, ilusiones sin base e imaginaciones gratuitas, nos quedamos con muy poco o con nada.
4 nov 14, 21:24
JoseAngel: I SAW myself at ISAW: http://planet.atlantides.org/isaw-resources/
4 nov 14, 16:52
JoseAngel: Take this Lollipop: http://www.takethislollipop.com/
4 nov 14, 10:15
JoseAngel: Figuro en esta colección de artículos sobre religiones antiguas: http://ancientworldonline.blogspot.com.es/2014/10/open-access-journal-ancient-religions.html
3 nov 14, 23:35
JoseAngel: Bibliografía (atrasada) de Hélène Cixous: https://es.scribd.com/doc/245334791/Cixous-H
3 nov 14, 21:43
JoseAngel: The Fickle Farce: Communion between Comedies: http://theficklefarce.com/
3 nov 14, 18:30
JoseAngel: Paradise Lost Book 4 (Gollum): http://www.dartmouth.edu/~milton/reading_room/pl/book_4/text.shtml
3 nov 14, 14:11
JoseAngel: Dinner for One 1963: http://youtu.be/YFL-AxQK4tE
2 nov 14, 23:51
JoseAngel: забавно жить от фильма до фильма и от книги до книги, ведь там всё намного интересней, чем у тебя
2 nov 14, 14:51
JoseAngel: Noticias de hoy en Sin Complejos: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-11-02/noticias-021114-80494.html
2 nov 14, 12:29
JoseAngel: Un comentario en "I Didn't See It Coming" http://pjreece.ca/i-didnt-see-it-coming/comment-page-1/#comment-8135
1 nov 14, 02:39
JoseAngel: Ivo y Oscar a los seis años, dibujando guarradas: http://www.unizar.es/departamentos/filologia_inglesa/garciala/z06-3.html#anchor1333048
1 nov 14, 02:02
JoseAngel: Pink Tones, SHINE ON YOU CRAZY DIAMOND: http://youtu.be/zgP4akGRptU
1 nov 14, 02:02
JoseAngel: EL GRAN TEATRO DEL MUNDO: https://storify.com/JoseAngel/el-gran-teatro-del-mundo



Microblog de octubre 2014




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