VANITY FEA: Blog de notas de José Angel García Landa (Biescas y Zaragoza) - November 2013
personal robot
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Tight watch
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Blog de hoy AQUÍ
Sábado 30 de noviembre de 2013

Guitar Guy 2

Guitar Guy 2




Cognitive Bias Modification




How weary, stale, flat and unprofitable
Seem to me all the uses of this world!...







Shakespeare sessions


Hamlet – The Royal Shakespeare Company.
Dir. Gregory Doran. Cast: David Tennant, Patrick Stewart, Penny Downie, Oliver Ford Davies, Mariah Gale. 2009.
    http://youtu.be/1kuF1-tyaAE
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9OKGnrE8Sqo






The Tempest.
Dir. Julie Taymor, based on Shakespeare's play. Helen Mirren as Prospera. Premiere at Venice Festival, 2010. Online at YouTube (MotionPicturez) 25 Sept. 2013.
    http://youtu.be/jXoNHs3WOgM



—and the sleepwalking scene from Verdi's Macbeth, with Paoletta Marrocu:





Aquí la misma escena con Montserrat Caballé, ahora que está de moda en escenas de terror.



Hamlet marica



Viernes 29 de noviembre de 2013

Retrato de mi guitarra en mi playa

Retrato de mi guitarra en mi playa





Autoridad pública


No sé si soy autoridad pública o no. Otro día lo averiguo. Pero una ley que se presenta a sí misma como una nota a pie de página de otra... en fin; ni es clara ni produce claridad.





Hermenéutica española





A esta bibliografía parcial y trouvée habría que añadirle, como mínimo, mis propias publicaciones sobre hermenéutica... por ejemplo aquí van:


 


García Landa, José Ángel."Deconstructive Intentions: On the Critique of the Hermeneutics of Understanding." BELLS 5 (1994): 19-38.* http://www.ub.es/bells/1stseries.html#five
_____. "Tematización retroactiva, interacción e interpretación: La espiral hermenéutica de Schleiermacher a Goffman" Paper presented at the XXVI Congreso AEDEAN (Santiago de Compostela, Dec. 2002).
_____. "Tematización retroactiva, interacción e interpretación: La espiral hermenéutica de Schleiermacher a Goffman." In Hans-Georg Gadamer: Ontología estética y hermenéutica. Ed. Teresa Oñate y Zubía, Cristina García Santos and Miguel Ángel Quintana Paz. Madrid: Dykinson, 2005. 679-88.*
_____. "Retroactive Thematization, Interaction, and Interpretation: The Hermeneutic Spiral from Schleiermacher to Goffman / Tematización Retroactiva, Interacción e Interpretación: La espiral hermenéutica de Schleiermacher a Goffman (Spanish)." Online PDF at Social Science Research Network 17 June 2011.*
http://ssrn.com/abstract=1856424
2011
_____. "The Hermeneutic Spiral from Schleiermacher to Goffman: Retroactive Thematization, Interaction, and Interpretation." BELL (Belgian English Language and Literature) ns 2 (2004):  155-66.*
_____. "Retroactive Thematization, Interaction, and Interpretation: The Hermeneutic Spiral from Schleiermacher to Goffman." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 29 Nov. 2006.
http://garciala.blogia.com/2006/112902-retroactive-thematization-interaction-and-interpretation.php
2006-11-29
_____. "Retroactive Thematization, Interaction, and Interpretation: The Hermeneutic Spiral from Schleiermacher to Goffman." iPaper at Academia.edu
http://unizar.academia.edu/Jos%C3%A9AngelGarc%C3%ADaLanda/Papers/92673/Retroactive-Thematization--Interaction--and-Interpretation--The-Hermeneutic-Spiral-from-Schleiermacher-to-Goffman
2010
_____. "Retroactive Thematization, Interaction, and Interpretation: The Hermeneutic Spiral from Schleiermacher to Goffman." Online PDF in Zaguán 3 Feb. 2009.
http://zaguan.unizar.es/record/1986
2009
_____. "La espiral hermenéutica." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 13 July 2011.*
http://vanityfea.blogspot.com/2011/07/la-espiral-hermeneutica.html
2011
_____. "Crítica acrítica, crítica crítica." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 18 Aug. 2006.
http://garciala.blogia.com/2006/081801-critica-acritica-critica-critica.php
2006-09-03
_____. "Crítica acrítica, crítica crítica / Acritical Criticism, Critical Criticism." 2007. Online PDF at SSRN:
http://ssrn.com/abstract=1064721
2007
_____. "Crítica acrítica, crítica crítica." Online PDF at Zaguán 4 April 2009
http://zaguan.unizar.es/record/3228
2009
_____. "Acritical Criticism, Critical Criticism: Reframing, Topsight, and Critical Dialectics." Online PDF at Social Science Research Network (August 2008).
http://ssrn.com/abstract=1259696
2008
_____. "Acritical Criticism, Critical Criticism: Critical Interaction, Reframing and Topsight." In Con/Texts of Persuasion. Ed. Beatriz Penas et al. Kassel: Edition Reichenberger, 2011. 233-68.*
_____. "Crítica hegeliana de la hermenéutica de la sospecha." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 31 Jan. 2012.*
http://vanityfea.blogspot.com/2012/01/critica-hegeliana-de-la-hermeneutica-de.html
2012
_____. "From Philology to General Hermeneutics: Schleiermacher." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 5 Jan. 2013.*
http://vanityfea.blogspot.com.es/2013/01/from-philology-to-general-hermeneutics.html
2013
_____. "Anclaje narrativo y círculo hermenéutico en un texto de Polibio." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 5 Jan. 2013.*
http://vanityfea.blogspot.com.es/2013/01/anclaje-narrativo-y-circulo.html
2013-01-31

Jueves 28 de noviembre de 2013

Abstract Seagull

Abstract Seagull



History Research Network

Aún no existe, "sólidamente", la red de investigación histórica en el SSRN; es un "forthcoming network"—pero ya tiene casi nueve mil artículos sobre historia.

Y uno de ellos es mío —hoy cerca del final de la primera página del HISTORY RESEARCH NETWORK. Si ya no está ahí, búsquenlo con fecha 11 de noviembre. Fecha que me hace pensar, por analogía, en el nueve de noviembre—y de ahí al siete de septiembre vamos, remontándonos por la historia que acarreamos a cuestas.

Aquí mis demás artículos, y posicionamiento actual, en el SSRN:

My Papers
Jose Angel Garcia Landa
http://ssrn.com/author=889468

Jose Angel Garcia Landa Author Rank is 2,743 out of 240,831









Graham Harman on Heidegger and the Arts



Graham Harman, "Greenberg, Heidegger, McLuhan, and the Arts." Lecture at Pacific Northwest College of Arts (Oregon), 22 Jan. 2013.     http://youtu.be/W93DtzHCcnM




Infinite Space, Infinite Time (Anthony Aguirre)









Perspectivas matemáticas sobre los multiversos-burbuja y la cosmología más allá del Big Bang. Me temo que sus resultados dicen más en última instancia de los modelos matemáticos empleados que del objeto al que se aplican—el universo en que habitamos, que sigue siendo incognoscible cuanto más cerca estamos de sus límites, o cuando intentamos superarlos—y es modelable matermáticamente de muchas maneras. Aunque el que haya muchos modelos posibles no implica que haya muchos universos en el mismo sentido.





Miércoles 27 de noviembre de 2013

Niña de las rocas 2

Niña de las rocas 2



Santabárbara: Dónde están tus ojos negros






Aquí llegué a través de estas de Lorenzo Santamaría—también de aquellos felices setenta, cuando la vida estaba in the making:











Vuelve la Retroperspectiva


Vuelve, digo, mi artículo sobre Oscar Wilde, Polibio, y la hermenéutica de la historia—esta vez reaparece en un par de revistas de estudios clásicos de la Social Science Research Network—ahora mismo está en portada en esta

 Ancient Greek and Roman Literature eJournal.

Y también aparece en la revista electrónica de Teoría literaria y Crítica de este noviembre:

ssrnLTCnov13.jpg

Y con esto aparece el artículo en conjunto, aparte de su publicación en sólido en Otium cum dignitate, en estas revistas del SSRN:

eJournal Classifications
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
    
        

CRN Subject Matter eJournals
    
        

CRN Subject Matter eJournals
    
        

LIT Subject Matter eJournals
    

PRN Subject Matter eJournals
    
        
            


Retrospection: 
Perspectives on Narrative Theory, Hindsight, Hindsight bias, and the Dynamics of Narrativity











Martes 26 de noviembre de 2013

No Theory of Flight

Una de gaviotas


Roméo et Juliette - 1) Vérone










Comedy (Timothy J. Reiss)


Comedy
 By Timothy J. Reiss.
From the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry and Poetics.

I. DEFINITION
II. ANCIENT
III. RENAISSANCE AND MODERN EUROPEAN
IV. RELATION TO TRAGEDY

I. DEFINITION.  Like tragedy (q.v.), the Western tradition of comic theater is considered to have begun with the ancient Greeks. Such a claim is however less clear than that made on behalf of tragedy, if only because no known culture appears to lack some form of comic performance. This fact has inspired various speculative theses concerning laughter—like reason and speech—as one of the defining characteristics of humanity. As in the case of tragedy, therefore, we need to distinguish with some care between speculative generalizations about the "comic spirit," and that more precious historical description needed to annlyze the function of comedy in society.   We must also discriminate between such description and attempts to analyze the "psychology" of laughter, because the event of comedy and the eruption of mirth are by no means the same. (I should add that althought the term "comedy" has been applied to any literary genre that is humorous, joyful, or expresses good fortune, what follwos will concern above all the theater, even if some observations have a broader application.)

The name "comedy" comes from Comus, a Greek fertility god. In ancient Greece "comedy" also named a ritual springtime procession presumed to celebrate cyclical rebirth, resurrection, and perpetual rejuvenation. Modern scholars and critics have thus taken comedy to be a universal celebration of life, a joyous outburst of laughter in the face of either an incomprehensible world or a repressive socio-political order. Carnival, festival, folly, and a general freedom of action then indicate either an indifference to and acceptance of the first, or a resistance to the second. But scholars have taken such notions yet further: if tragedy represents the fall from some kind of "sacred irrationality," comedy on the contrary becomes the triumphant affirmation of that riotous unreason, marking some ready acceptance of human participation in the chaotic forces needed to produce Life. The comic protagonist's defeat is then the counterpart to the tragic protagonist's failure, both versions of some ritual cleansing by means of a scapegoat—in this case one representing life-threatening forces. Such speculations have been advanced in one form or another by classicists (F. M. Cornford, Jane Harrison, Gilbert Murray), philosophers (Mikhail Bakhtin, Susanne Langer), and literary critics (C. L. Barber, Northrop Frye), not to mention anthropologists and even sociologists.

How much these theories help us understand what comedies are is another, and perhaps a different, question. For in the last resort such arguments depend on the assumption that beneath all and any particular comedy is some kinde of profound universal "carnival", a common denominator of the human in all times and places. Recalling Nietzsche's Gay Science, Jean Duvignaud has thus spoken of 'laughter that for a fleeting moment pitches humans before an infinite freedom, eluding constraints and rules, drawing them away from the irremediable nature of their condition to discover unforeseeable connections, and suggesting a common existence where the imaginary and real life will be reconciled" (229-30). But theories of this sort depend upon the idea that one can obtain the deepest comprehension of comedies by removing them from their distinct historical moment and social environment. They forget that such carnival and such laughter aree themselves the creations of a particular rationality, just as Dante's Divine Comedy universalized a particular theology. Even so seemingly fantastic a theater as that of Aristophanes (ca. 485-385 B.C.) is misconstrued by a theory that neglects comedy's essential embedding in the social and political intricacies of its age and place (Athens during the Peloponnesian Wars).

Setting aside these broad metaphysical speculations, then, we must look at accounts of laughter as a human reaction to certain kinds of errors. By and large, these may be divided into two theories. The one asserts that laughter is provoked by a sense of superiority (Hobbes' "sudden glory"), the other that it is produced by a sudden sense of the ludicrous, the incongrous, some abrupt dissociation of event and expectation. The theory of superiority is the more modern one, developed mainly by Hobbes, Bergson, and Meredith. It presumes our joy in seeing ourselves more fortunate than others, or in some way more free. Bergson's notion that one of the causes of laughter is the an abrupt perception of someone as a kind of automaton or puppet, as though some freedom of action had been lost, is one version of this.

The theory of comedy as the ludicrous or as the dissociation of expectation and event has a longer pedigree. It begins with Aristotle and has come down to us via Kant, Schopenhauer, and Freud. In the Poetics, Aristotle mentions another work on comedy, now lost; what remains are a few comments. In Poetics 5 Aristotle remarks that comedy imitates people "worse than average; worse, however, not as regards any and every sort of fault, but only as regards one particular kind, the Ridiculous, which is a species of the Ugly. The Ridiculous may be defined as a mistake or deformity not productive of pain or harm to others" (tr. Bywater). Similar remarks exist in his Rhetoric and in a medieval Greek manuscript known as the Tractatus Coislinianus, Aristotelian in argument and possibly even an actual epitome of Aristotle's lost writing on comedy (ed. Janko, 1984). Save for suggesting some detail of dissociative word and action, this text adds little to what may be gleaned from extant texts of Aristotl. It does make a parallel between comedy and tragedy, however, by saying that catharsis (q.v.) also occurs in comedy "through pleasure and laughter achieving the purgation of like emotions." The meaning of such a phrase is not at all clear, although it suggests comedy as an almost Stoic device to clean away extremes of hedonism and to root out any carnivalesque temptations.

Although both theories involve the psychology of laughter, the superiority theory seems less particularly applicable to comedy than that of incongruity, for the latter seeks both to indicate devices specifically provocative of laughter and to explain their effect on a spectator. The "Aristotelian" analyses suggest several matters. First, their kind of laughter requires oddness, distortion, folly, or some such "version of the ugly," but without pain. Such laughter thus depends on sympathy. Second, although this theory is kinder than that of superiority, it too has its part  of cruelty, just because of the touch of ugliness. Third, theories of superiority and of incongruity both take laughter as means, as commentary upon or correction of what we may call the real or even "local" world_unlike metaphysical theories, which make mirth an end in itself and an escape into some "universality." Fourth, both these theories (which supplement rather than oppose one another) require the laughter to be aware of some disfiguring of an accepted norm. Comedy and laughter imply a habit of normality, a familiarity of custom, from which the comic is a deviation. It may indeed be the case that comedy, like tragedy, shows the construction of such order, but above all it demonstrates why such order must be conserved.

II. ANCIENT. The fourth theory would at least partly explain why comic competition was instituted at the Athenian Dionysia some 50 years after that for tragedy (in 486 B.C.). Aristtle has told us the first competition was won by Chionides, who with Magnes represented the first generation of writers of comedy. Around 455 a comic victory was won by Cratinus, who with Crates formed a second generation. Many titles have survived and some fragments, but these constitute near the sum total of extant facts about Athenian comedy until Aristophanes' victory with Acharnians in 425. We know that in this competition Cratinus was second with Kheimazomenoi, and Eupolis third with Noumeniai. These names tell us little, but we may perhaps assume that Aristophanic comedy was fairly typical of this so-called Greek "Old Comedy": a mixture of dance, poetry, song, and drama, combining fantastic plots with mockery and sharp satire of contemporary people, events, and customs. Most of his plays are only partly comprehensible if we know nothing of current social, political, and literary conditions.

Aristophanes did not hesitate to attack education, the law, tragedians, the situation of women (though it is clearly an error to take him for a "feminist" of any kind), and the very nature of Athenian "democracy." Above all he attacked the demagogue Cleon, the war party he led, and the war itself. This says much about the nature of Athenian freedoms, for Aristophanes wrote during the struggle with Sparta, when no one doubted at all that the very future of Athens was in question. Aristophanes' last surviving play (of 11, 44 being attributed to him) is Plutus (388), a play criticizing myth, but whose actual themes are avarice and ambition. Quite different in tone and intent from the preceding openly political plays, Plutus is considered the earliest (and only extant) example of Greek "Middle Comedy."

The situation of comedy was, however, quite different from that of tragedy, for anothe powerful tradition existed. This was centered in Sicilian Syracuse, a Corinthian colony, and claimed the earliest comic writer, Epicharmus, one of the authors at the court of Hieron I in the 470s. We know the titles of some 40 of his plays. Othe comic poets writing in this Doric tradition were Phormis and the slightly younger Deinolochus, but the Dorians were supplanted by the Attic writers in the 5th c. and survive only in fragments. The best known composer of literary versions of the otherwise "para-" or "ub-" literary genre of comic mime was another Sicilian, Sophron, who lived during the late 5th c. From the 4th c. we have a series of vase paintings from Sicily and Southern Italy which suggest that comedy still throve there. The initiative had largely passed, however, to the Greek mainland. Plutus is an example of that Middle Comedy whose volume we know to have been huge. Plautus' Latin Amphitruo (ca. 230 B.C.) seems to be a version of another one, and, if so, one characteristic was the attack on myth. (Aristophanes' earlier Frogs [405], attacking Euripides and Aeschylus, tried in the underworld, may well be thought a forerunner.)

By the mid 4th c., so-called "New Comedy" held the stage. Among its poets the most celebrated and influential was unquestionably Menander (c. 342-290 B.C.).  His "teacher" was a certain Alexis of Thurii in southern Italy, so we can readily see how the "colonial" influence continued, even though Alexis was based in Athens. He is supposed to have written 245 plays and to have outlived his pupil. We know of Philemon from either Cilicia or Syracuse, of Diphilos from Sinope on the Black Sea, and of Apollodorus from Carystos in Euboea—worth mentioning as illustrating the great spread of comedy. Until the 1930s, however, only fragments seemed to have survived. Then what can only be considered one of the great literary discoveries turned up a papyrus containing a number of Menander's comedies, complete or almost so. These plays deal not with political matters or criticism of myth, but with broadly social matters (sometimes using mythical themes). The situations are domestic, the comedy is of manners, the characters are stock.

The widespread familiarity of comic forms helps explain why comedy was soon diffused once again over the Greek and roman world. By the mid 3rd c., not only had itinerant troupes spread from Greece throughout the Hellenistic world, but already by 240, Livius Andronicus, from Tarentum in southern Italy, had adapted Greek plays into Latin for public performance. Like Gnaeus Naevius and later Quintus Ennius, this poet composed both tragedy and comedy. From the 3rd c. as well dates Atellan farce (named from Atella in Campania), using stock characters and a small number of set scenes, and featuring clowns (called Bucco or Maccus), foolish old men, and greedy buffoons. These farces were partly improvised, on the basis of skeletal scripts, much like the commedia dell'arte of almost two millennia later. The influence of Etrurian musical performance, southern Italian drama, Greek mime, New Comedy and Atellan farce came together in the comedies of Titus Maccius Plautus, who wrote in the late 3rd c. (he is said by Cicero to have died in 184). By him 21 complete or almost complete comedies have survived. A little later Rome was entertained by the much more highbrow Publius Terentius Afer (Terence), by whom six plays remain extant. These two authors provided themes, characters, and style for comedy as it was to develop in Europe after the Renaissance (though farces, sotties, and comic interludes [q.v.] were widely performed in the Middle Ages).

III. RENAISSANCE AND MODERN EUROPEAN. As in the case of tragedy comedy was rediscovered first in Italy. While humanist scholars published and then imitated both Plautus and Terence (see IMITATION), vernacular art developed alongside wuch efforts. The early 16th c. saw the publication of much school drama in both Latin and Italian, while just a little later there developed the commedia dell'arte, wholse influence was to be enormous.This was a comedy of improvisation, using sketchy scripts and a small number of stock characters—Harlequin, Columbine, Pantaloon, the Doctor and others—placing these last in various situations. These plots were as frequently derived from antiquity as they were from folk art. Later on, these two forms of comedy tented to feed one another; the popular Comédie italienne of the late 17th-c. France was one outcome. The Commedia's influence was equally visible in Marivaux (1688-1763) and Goldoni (1707-93), though in the case of the first, the Italienne was just as important. The Commedia survives vividly in our own time in the theater of the San Francisco Mime Troupe, which has put the old characters to work in the service of powerful political satire.

Apain vied with Italy on its development of comedy, starting with the late 15th-c. Celestina of Fernando de Rojas, written in Acts and in dialogue but never really intended for performance. By the late 16th c., Spain's theater was second to none in Europe. Lope de Vega (1562-1635), Calderón (1600-81) and a host of others produced a multitude of romantic and realistic comedy, dealing mainly with love and honor. They provided innumerable plots, themes, and characters for comic writers of France and England. These two countries started rather later than the South, but, like them, benefited from both an indigenous folk tradition and the publication of Latin comedy. The influence of Italian humanist comedy was significant in both nations during the 16th c., and that of Spain particularly in France in the early 17th c.

In France, humanist comedy gave way in the late 1620s to a romantic form of comedy whose threefold source was the prose romance and novella of Spain, Italy, and France, Spanish comedy (especially that of Lope and Cervantes), and Italian dramatic pastoral. The first influential authors in this style were Pierre Corneille (1606-84) and Jean de Rotrou (1609-50). Thew were followed by many, including Cyrano de Bergerac, Thomas Corneille , and the poet whom many consider the greatest writer of comedy of all times, Jean-Baptiste Poquelin Molière (1622-73). He wrote an enormous variety, in verse and prose, rangin from slapstick farce to something approaching bourgeois tragic drama. Comédie ballet, comedy of situation, of manners, of intrigue, and of character all flowed from his pern. He did not hesitate to write on matters that provoked the ire of religious dévots or of professional bigots, nor did he shirk the criticism of patriarchy, and many of his plays have political overtones. Having begun his theatrical career as leader of a traveling troupe, Molière made full use of folk tradition, of provincial dialect, of Commedia and of farce, as well as of Classical example. Many of his characters have become familiar types in French tradition (e.g. the "misanthrope," "tartuffe," "don juan"); many of his lines have become proverbial. While his plays do contain the now familiar young lovers, old men both helpful and obstructive, wily servants both female and male, sensible wives and mothers (whereas husbands and fathers are almost always foolish, headstrong, cuclolded, or downright obstructive); they bear chiefly upon such matters as avarice, ambition, pride, hypocrisy, misanthropy, and other such extreme traits. What interests Molière is how such excess conflicts directly with the well-regulated and customary process of ordered society.

Having followed a similar trajectory to that of its southern neigbours in the first half of the 16th c., England created a comic trad. unique in variety and longevity. The extraordinarily diverse comedies of Shakespeare (1564-1616) and the so-called comedy of humors (q.v.) favored by Jonson (1573-1637) seemed about to create two distinct comic traditions. Shakespeare wrote in almost every mode imaginable: aristocratic romance, bitter and problematic farce, comedy of character, slapstick farce, and the almost tragic Troilus and Cressida. If any comedy may be analyzed with some "metaphysical" theory it is no doubt Shakespeare's, with its concern for madness and wisdom, birth and death, the seasons' cycles, alove and animosity. Yet Shakespeare's comedies remained unique, and he had no successor in this style. Jonson's more urbane comedy of types and of character, satirizing manners and morals, social humbug and excess of all kinds, and falling more clearly into the forms already seen, was soon followed by the quite remarkable flowering of Restoration comedy, with a crowd of authors, including Dryden, Wycherley, Congreve, Behn, and Centlivre, among many others. They produced a brittle comedy of manners and cynical wit whose major impression is one of decayand an almost unbalanced self-interest. They were in turn suceeded by a widely varied 18th-c. comedy from the staunch complacency of Steele through the political satire of Gay to the joyous and mocking cynicism of Goldsmith, Inchbald, and Sheridan. This tradition was pursued thorugh the late 19th and early 20th centuries by a series of great Irish dramatists: Shaw, most notably, then Wilde, Yeats, Synge, and O'Casey.

During this period France was equally productive, but with few exceptions failed to attain the quality represented by the names just mentioned. At the turn of the 17th c., Regnard produced serious and significant social satire, as did Lesage (esp. in Turcaret, 1706). Marivaux dominated the first half of the 18th c., as Voltaire did the middle and Beaumarchais the end. If any new form appeared it was doubtless the comédie larmoyante, a sentimental drama whose main (and stated) purpose was to draw the heartstrings; in a way, it did for comedy what the later melodrama did for tragedy. In the 19th c. Musset produced his delicate comedy of manners, while Dumas fils and others strove to produce a comedy dealing with society's ills. This culminated on the one hand in Scribe's "well-made play," on the other in the "realist" drama of Zola and Antoine at the end of the century.

In other European lands, authors tended to be isolated: in late 19th-c. Norway, Ibsen, in early 20th-c. Russia, Chekhov; slightly later in Italy, Pirandello. To mention them so briefly is to be unjust, for they were all major creative figures. In many ways they foreshadowed that breakdown of traditional comedy that marks the mid to late 20th c. Laughter tends to become mingled problematically with that sense of discomfort in the world and uneas in the self which is perhaps a principal sign of our age. Among representative authors one might mention such as Witkiewicz, Mrozek, and Gombrowicz from Poland; Brecht, Dürrenmatt, and Handke from Germany; Switzerland, and Austria; Adamov, Ionesco, Arraabal, and Beckett in France; Capek, Fischerova, Havel, and Kohut in Czechoslovakia; Pinter, Arden, Bond, Stoppard, Benton, Hare, and Churchill in England; and Hellman, Albee, Baraka, and Simon in America. All have been writing plays that sport ironically with the political, social, and metaphysical dimensions of the human condition. Usually such issues are no longer held separate, and all are fair game for an ambiguous, perplexed, and uncertain derision. Such theater is now widely distributed, as strong in Latin America as in Czechoslovakia, in Italy or Spain as in Nigeria. It is almost as though comedy had lost a sense of that social norm to which we referrred at the outset, as if it were increasingly imbued with an inescapable sense of the tragic.

IV. RELATION TO TRAGEDY. Comedy had from the start a rather ambiguous relation to tragedy, and it was never difficult to see in Aristophanes' Thesmophoriazusai an inversion of Euripides' Bacchae, for example. A celebrated passage at the end of Plato's Symposium has Socrates obliging Agathon and Aristophanes to agree that comedy and tragedy have the same source. Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard has been played as both comedy and tragedy; so has The Merchant of Venice. Even the elements compounding the confrontation may be identical, as in Macbeth, Jarry's Ubu Roi, or Ionesco's Macbett. When the comic protagonist acquires attributes of typicality or of some absolute, then comedy may take on overtones of tragedy. A critic of Molière's Tartuffe (1667) remarked that whaterver "lacks extremely in reason" is ridiculous: anything contrary to a predictable reaction or an expected and habitual situation is absurd. This is of course straight from the Aristotelian tradition, but the emphasis on excess is significant. It shows just how close comedy always was to tragedy, explaining such comedies as Dom Juan or Le Misanthrope. Both focus on an idealism either misplaced or preposterous. Don Juan's ideal self is misplaced because it serves a violent and injurious sexuality; Alceste's self-righteous scorn becomes comic when he refuses even the most innocent concession, and his responses become inappropriate to his urbane surroundings. Yet if he lowered his tone to suit his milieu he would fall short of his ideal: the dilemma is that of dissonance between the dieal and the situation where it is expressed—incongruity again. The excessive ideal in this case contradicts society's needs and fails its norm.

Tragedy appears to require a world view such that a recognized human quantity may be pitted against a known but inhuman one (variously called Fate, the gods, the idea of some Absolute, etc.), permitting the "limits" of human action and knowledge to be defined. Comedy seems rather to oppose humans to one another, within essentially social boundaries. And if, as both the superiority and the incongruity theories hold, comedy is essentially a social phenomenon, then wherever humans are will be somehow conducive to it; whereas tragedy seems to signify a moment of passage from one sociocultural environment to another. That social nature of comedy may be why its characters sem to us so down-to-earth, pragmatic, and familiar. Even where a theater's real (and external) social context is very different, we can still recognize creatures of a social order. That is also why comedies are in league with their audience, obtaining their spectators' sympathy for what are given as the dominant social interests. Volpone menaces that order, as do Shylock, Tartuffe, and Philokleon (Aristophanes, Wasps). Volpone and Shylock are defeated in the name of the Venetian Republic, as is Tartuffe in that of the King, and Philokleon in that of a city longing for peace. In Palutus' Epidicus, the eponymous slave—archetypal outsider for 3rd c. Rome—is absorbed into and becomes a part of the social system. In Pirandello's Six Characters in Search of an Author, the actors remain at loose ends because they are unable to situate either themselves or a social order. Similarly, Beckett's two tramps remain despairingly expectant at the end of Waiting for Godot. Comedy has always emphasized the conservation of an order it may well have helped construct. When we can no more grasp or even envisage that order, then derisive irony may make us laugh, but it also leaves us painfully disturbed. See also BURLESQUE; DRMATIC POETRY; FARCE; GENRE; GREEK POETRY, Classical; PARODY; TRAGICOMEDY.


—oOo—

G. Meredith, An Essay on Comedy (1877; ed. W. Sypher, 1980); F. Nietzsche, The Gay Science (1882); H. L. Bergson, Laughter (1912; ed. W. Sypher, 1980); F. M. Cornford, The Origin of Attic Comedy (1914); S. Freud, Wit and Its Relation to the Unconscious (1916); L. Cooper, An Aristotelian Theory of Comedy (1922); M. A. Grant, The Ancient Rhetorical Theories of the Laughable (1924); J. Harrison, Themis (1927); K. M. Lea, Italian Popular Comedy, 2 v. (1934); J. Feibleman, In Praise of Comedy (1939); M. T. Herrick, Comic Theory in the 16th C. (1950), Italian Comedy in the Renaissance (1960); G. E. Duckworth, The Nature of Roman Comedy (1952); W. Sypher, Comedy (1956); Frye; S. Langer, Philosophy in a New Key, 3rd ed. (1957); A. Artaud, The Theatre and Its Double, tr. M. C. Richards (1958); C. L. Barber, Shakespeare's Festive C. (1959); E. Welsford, The Fool (1961); J. L. Styan, The Dark Comedy (1962); A., Nicoll, A History of English Drama, 1660-1900, 6 v. (1952-59), The World of Harlequin (1963); Theories of Comedy, ed. P. Lauter (1964); N. Frye, A Natural Perspective (1965); H. B. Charlton, Shakespearean Comedy (1966); W. Kerr, Tragedy and Comedy (1967); M. M. Bakhtin, Rabelais and His World, tr. H. Iswolsky (1968); E. Olson, The Theory of Comedy (1968); E. Segal, Roman Laughter: The Comedy of Plautus (1968); L. S. Champion, The Evolution of Shakespeare's Comedy (1970); G. M. Sifakis, Parabasis and Animal Choruses: A Contribution to the History of Attic Comedy (1971); W. M. Merchant, Comedy (1972); K. J. Dover, Aristophanic Comedy (1972); M. C. Bradbrook, The Growth and Structure of Elizabethan Comedy, 2nd ed. (1973); R. b. Martin, The Triumph of Wit: A Study of Victorian Comic Theory (1974); A. Rodway, English Comedy: Its Role and Nature from Chaucer to the Present Day (1975); M. Gurewitch, Comedy: The Irrational Vision (1975); F. H. Sandbach, The Comic Theatre of Greece and Rome (1977); A. Caputi, Buffo: The Genius of Vulgar Comedy (1978); E. Kern, The Absolute Comic (1980); R. Nevo, Comic Transformations in Shakespeare (1980); R. W. Corrigan, Comedy: Meaning and Form, 2nd ed. (1981); Trypanis; Fowler; K. H. Bareis, Comoedia (1982); D. Konstan, Roman Comedy (1983); E. L. Galligan, The Comic Vision in Literature (1984); R. Janko, Aristotle on Comedy (1984); J. Duvignaud, Le Propre de l'homme: histoire du comique et de la dérision (1985); K. Neuman, Shakespeare's Rhetoric of Comic Character (1985); E. W. Handley, "Comedy," CHCL, v. 1; R. L. Hunter, The New Comedy of Greece and rome (1985); W. E. Gruber, Comic Theaters (1986); T. Lang, Barbarians in Greek Comedy (1986); T. B. Leinward, The City Staged: Jacobean Comedy, 1603-1613 (1986); E. Burns, Restoration Comedy: Crises of Desire and Identity (1987); H. Levin, Playboys and Killjoys (1987); L. Siegel, Laughing Matters: Comic Traditions in India (1987).

La comedia romántica: renovarse y vivir









Teoría de la crítica: Bibliografía





También tengo otra bibliografía sobre crítica de la teoría, y otra sobre teoría de la práctica.







Lunes 25 de noviembre de 2013

Voladores


Voladores







Autour de Logiques des Mondes


Alain Badiou (audio), Ecole Normale Supérieure:

"Autour de Logiques des Mondes (L'Être et l'événement II)"

(2006)




Domingo 24 de noviembre de 2013

Our Life in Poetry: Gerard Manley Hopkins




Gerard Manley Hopkins





Mucha filosofía

Más de 300 conferencias sobre filosofía (en francés mayormente) en el sitio web de la École Normale Supérieure Savoirs en Multimédia. Digo filosofía, pero hay otras tantas más de humanidades diversas, letras, economía, ciencias sociales y naturales, etc. Vamos, que quien no oye a Badiou o a Bourdieu, o a lo que se lleve en la intelectualidad parisina actual, será porque no quiere.

Aquí una de una serie sobre la Nouvelle Phénoménologie en France.





Playa y cortina

Playa y cortinas




Bibliografía de Sigmund Freud


Que me psicoanalicen. Aquí hay una bibliografía de Freud, y mía, en 10 páginas web que vienen a ser unos 70 folios impresos:

SIGMUND FREUD (1856-1936)

—está en este sitio ruso, Convdocs, que me lo imagino gestionado íntegramente por robots, con alguna rusa quizá perdida entre ellos para echarles el aceite. También ésta procede de mi Bibliografía de Teoría Literaria, Crítica y Filología, entiéndase en sentido amplio, que luego incluyo bibliografías sobre la profecía, la prostitución, la protesta, el psicoanálisis....  A Freud sí que lo leí bastante por cuestiones literarias, ya desde 1980 más o menos, empezando por  La interpretación de los sueños. Recomiendo especialmente El malestar en la cultura.

En la bibliografía también hay otros listados sobre psicoanálisis, psicoterapia, crítica psicoanalítica, Lacan et al., etc.

Freud ante la esfinge






Sábado 23 de noviembre de 2013

What Darwin Never Knew



Más sobre neotenia.




Bird of Creation


Bird of Creation






Viernes 22 de noviembre de 2013

Babbage Differential Machine in Motion




Aquí hablando con los niños de Robur el Conquistador, de Gearworld y de la estética steampunk, hemos derivado hacia la máquina diferencial de Babbage....


El sueño de Ada Byron



Consilience & Retrospection: —Retrospectiva

Mi artículo sobre narratología evolucionista "Consilience and Retrospection" (aquí su historia y sustancia) ha sido retomado en varias revistas de la Social Science Research Network, SSRN, y aquí se echa de ver su enfoque interdisciplinar, pues está en redes de antropología, filosofía, literatura, y retórica. Me hace especial ilusión que aparezca en esta revista o revistilla de filosofía de la ciencia:

ssrnPOS13


Aquí están sus otras apariciones en el SSRN:

http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2344625


Date posted: October 24, 2013
Message
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
                          
Added to eLibrary
LIT Subject Matter eJournals
    
Distributed in Literary Theory & Criticism eJournal
Vol 3, Issue 10, November 11, 2013
PRN Subject Matter eJournals
             
Distributed in Philosophy of Science eJournal
Vol 6, Issue 49, November 21, 2013
RCRN Subject Matter eJournals
             
Distributed in Rhetoric of Academic Disciplines eJournal
Vol 2, Issue 1, November 18, 2013



Consiliencia y nichos ecológicos


History of the World in Two Hours

...—our brief instant to shine:





What remains unclear






Man Dwarfed by Nature at the Dawn of Time

Man dwarfed by nature in the dawn of time





The Human Family Tree







Jueves 21 de noviembre de 2013

Recurrida la Cátedra

Más información sale hoy sobre la reciente cátedra de nuestro departamento de Filología Inglesa, a la que se presentaron dos de las personas Acreditadas para ello— Chantal Cornut-Gentille y Marita Nadal. Pues bien, los Hados o los Resultados favorecieron a Marita Nadal, y según se echa de ver por esta noticia que sale hoy no todo el mundo está de acuerdo.

Vamos, que Chantal ha recurrido la oposición— y aquí lo dice un papel del Rectorado —estimando la decisión del tribunal, supongo, como injusta o no acorde a derecho.

Qué quieren que les diga, que yo también tengo práctica en estas reclamaciones, y puedo asegurar poniendo la mano en el fuego, que la cosa terminará en nada. Ahora, que sea indicativa de un mal hacer del tribunal, eso lo considerará indicativo cada cual según sus simpatías y afiliaciones, o según la información que tenga, que yo no tengo ni mucha ni poca, estando bastante aislado de los pasillos y otras fuentes de cotilleo de mi departamento. Sí observé que en esta ocasión el tribunal se cortó de otorgar los cien puntos que se daban alegremente en otros casos al currículum ganador—así a ojímetro, igual que se han dado también a ojímetro veinte puntos, o cero, cuando ha soplado el viento por allí, y todos contentos, el Rector el primero. No digo que sea una decisión injusta, porque no me se el currículum de mis colegas (aunque sí figuran ambas en mi bibliografía con algunas publicaciones). Lo que sí será, si ha sido como las anteriores cátedras en conflicto, es totalmente arbitraria, que no crean que hacen injusticias por sistema, no, la cosa sigue otras leyes más indiscernibles.

Si me preguntan por lo que tengo observado, el recurso no llegará a contencioso. Y en el ambiente local, la gente le suele dar la razón a quien gana la plaza, y al tribunal—por más argumentos que les eches, si haberlos haylos. Vae victis es la norma. Y más en un sitio con tanta práctica cogida como mi departamento, que se deshace en risitas simpáticas y buen rollito cuando abren la boca los catedráticos.

La Sentencia de la Cátedra (VI)






Mi Curriculum Vitae en 51 páginas web

Alguien lo ha localizado en un .doc que tenía yo en mi web, y lo ha colgado en un repositorio-acumulador de cosas llamado Convdocs. Aquí está...

... mi currículum vitae en 51 páginas web.

—oOo—
askmedallavenezia
Que vienen a ser unas 500 páginas
noweb.


También en Convdocs aparece, en la misma fecha, otra lista parecida: el listado bibliográfico "José Angel García Landa" procedente A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology. Con mi Opera Inconclusa en 56 páginas web. Para Vds., con un clic a su alcance, todo este exceso de tecleo...



—y esto precisamente ahora que Daniel Innerarity nos cuenta lo siguiente sobre la sobreinformación y también sobre el lado menos amable de la Web.




El cielo verde y naranja

El cielo verde y naranja



Macbeth (BBC Shakespeare)




Bibliografía sobre la novela histórica


Historical.novel by Alberto Barrantes Boulanger




Miércoles 20 de noviembre de 2013

Posterización de la camiseta enrollada
Posterización de la camiseta enrollada




Hard Times





Hard Times. (WITH ENGLISH SUBTITLES) Adapt. and dir. Peter Barnes. Based on Charles Dickens's novel. Cast: Alan Bates, Bob Peck, Diana Fairfax, Peter Bayliss, Timothy Bateson, Bill Paterson, Richard E. Grant, Harriet Walter, Beatie Edney, Alex Jennings, Dilys Laye, Christien Anholt, Emma Lewis, Jonathan Butterell. Photog. Rex Maidment. Prod. des. Bruce Macadie. Ed. Robin Graham Scott. Music by Stephen Deutsch. Prod. Richard Langridge. YouTube (WeezyMovieVEVO) 4 Feb. 2013.*
http://youtu.be/HrO3GC_Rkb4

Que curiosa casualidad. Estaba yo viendo esta película sobre Hard Times, cuando llaman al teléfono y me pregunta un señor, un lector muy aficionado a Dickens, para preguntarme por mi tesina sobre esta novela—tesina que escribí hace casi treinta años, sin que nadie se haya interesado por ella entretanto.

Cuando le he comentado la casualidad, se ha debido pensar o bien que le tomaba el pelo, o que llevo treinta años a ritmo continuo dedicado en cuerpo y alma a Hard Times. Tanto no, es cierto, aunque algo sí me la trabajé en su momento. La casualidad aquí queda, y la tesina aquí:

Aspectos de la técnica narrativa en Hard Times de Charles Dickens




Richard II with and without Shakespeare

From The History Today Companion to British History, ed. Juliet Gardiner and Neil Wenborn:

Richard II (1367-1400), King of England (1377-99). Son of EDWARD THE BLACK PRINCE and JOAN OF KENT, the fact that he was still a boy at his accession in 1377 evokes sympathy, even from historians. So does the image of Richard grieving over the death of his wife ANNNE OF BOHEMIA in 1394, as does the tragic finale portrayed in Shakespeare's Richard II. But most—though not all—historians follow FROISSART in criticizing the king while sympathizing with the man.

After displaying courage in the face of the PEASANTS' REVOLT, in the next few years the youthful king became difficult for the senior politicians around him, notably JOHN OF GAUNT, to deal with. In particular, his distribution of patronage, especially his generosity to Robert DE VERE, was ill judged. In 1386, he tried to defy PARLIAMENT, but was forced to yield and watch while his minister Michael DE LA POLE was impeached and a commission was appointed to control the following year's expenditure and patronage. His response was to elicit from a panel of judges a definition of the royal PREROGATIVE in terms that declared that the parliamentary proceedings of 1386 had been illegal and that those who had promoted them should be punished as traitors. When the judges' opinions were leaked, a brief civil war followed, culminating in the battle of RADCOT BRIDGE.

In consequence, Richard found himself at the mercy of the APPELLANTS, and had to endure the humiliation of the MERCILESS PARLIAMENT (Feb. 1388)—but at least he avoided deposition. In 1389, he formally resumed control of government and, with Gaunt's help, ruled peacefully for eight years, in 1396, he made a 28-year truce with Frnace. The war over, he set himself the task of making the crown independent of the COMMONS in Parliament. Some historians see this as a 'progressive' policy, but it went hand in hand with the pursuit of vengeance for what had happened in 1388. By 1399, he was indeed a very wealthy king, but he had dispossessed a third of the upper nobility and had hounded to death his old enemies (including his uncle THOMAS OF WOODSTOCK).

At this stage, having alarmed all his subjects, he went to Ireland, and when Bolingbroke (see HENRY IV) and the PERCYS struck, no one would lift a finger to save him. He lost two armies in two weeks and surrendered at Conway, perhaps hoping for a repeat of 1387-9. Instead he was coerced into abdicating on 29 Sept. 1399 and then imprisoned. The following Jan., a plot to rescue him only revealed how little support he had and probably precipitated Henry IV's decision to have him murdered. His body remained at King's Langley until HENRY V had it reburied in WESTMINSTER ABBEY.


—oOo—



From The Penguin Shakespeare Dictionary, ed. Sandra Clark [with corrections]:

Richard II [full title, The Tragedy of King Richard the Second]. A historical play by Shakespeare, produced probably in 1595, and published in 1597. The deposition scene carried particular significance for Queen Elizabeth (whose right to the throne was questioned by a fair number of her subjects for most of her reign) and it was omitted in the first quarto (1597); however, by the time of the fourth quarto (1608) it was restored. It was probably this play which was given a special performance at the Globe Theatre on 7 February 1601, the day before Essex started his rebellion. It was paid for by Essex's supporters, but none of the actors was punished for putting it on. Shakespeare took material for the play from a number of sourdes but his main source was Holinshed's Chronicles (second edition, 1587), from which he took most of the names and events in his play, following, with certain alterations, Holinshed's account of the end of Kin Richard's reign from April 1398 to March 1400. In several instances he telescoped and rearranged the sequence of events for greater dramatic effect; the death of Gaunt, Richard's departure for Ireland, and the return of Bolingbroke from banishment all take place in a single scene (II.i) whereas in Holinshed they happen over a matter of months, and the events of Act IV are also compressed. The accusations of Bagot and Fitzwater were made on separate occasions in October [1398] after the actual abdication of the king, which was in September, and the Abbot of Westminster's plan for conspiracy was not formed until December. Other changes from Holinshed reflect on Shakespeare's planning of the characterization in his play. He omits an episode in which Northumberland tricked Richard into an ambush on the way to Flint Castle that might have reflected badly on Bolingbroke, and he totally changes the ages of Northumberland's son, Henry Percy (Hotspur) and Bolingbroke's son, the future Henry V. Hotspur was in fact two years older than both Richard II and Bolingbroke, whereas in Richard II he is a yhouth; and Bolinbroke's son was only twelve in 1399, where Shakespeare has Bolingbroke speak of him as a dissolute young gallant. He used another chronicle, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (1548) by Edward Hall, for the point of departure of his play, since Hall's account of Richard II's reign also begins with the quarrel between Mowbray and Hereford, but for little otherwise. He knew the anonymous contemporary play, Woodstock, which deals with events from 1382 to 1899 and especially with the life of Richard II's uncle, Thomas of Woodstock, Earl of Gloucester, who is referred to several times in Richard II, although critics have differed as to how far this play influenced him. Shakespeare also knew A Mirror for Magistrates [1559] in which Richard II is presented as a proud and tyrannous king, a classic example of the idea that "lawles life, to lawles death ey drawes." Froissart's Chronicles, translated by Lord Berners in 1525, was also available to him, and from this he may have taken hints for the conception of Gaunt as a wise but rejected counsellor, for the important part Northumberland played in calling back Bolingbroke, and for Bolingbroke's popularity with the people, although he could have found these elsewhere. Two other French chronicles, the Chronique de la Traison et Mort de Richard Deux Roy Dengleterre and the Historie du Roy d'Angleterre Richard II by Jean Créton, both known to Holinshed and Hall, may have been used independently by Shakesepeare. The Traison is evidence of a tradition more favourable to Richard II than that of the Tudor chronicles, and it may have helped Shakespeare to form his relatively sympathetic portrait of Richard II, especially in the account of Richard's leave-taking from his Queen, although in the Traison this event takes place before Richard's departure for Ireland. From Créton may have come the comparison between Richard's betrayal and that of Christ. The Traison and Créton's account also influenced Samuel Daniel in his poem The First Fowre Bookes of the Civile Wars (1595), which is likely that Shakespeare knew and used. Many parallels between Riichard II and Daniel's poem may be incidental, but Shakespeare seems to owe to Daniel the concpetion of the Queen—she was in fact a child of nine at the time—and he may also have used Daniel for the account of the contrasted entries of Richard and Bolingbroke into London (V.ii). Marlowe's Edward II may well have provided some ideas and inspiration in its treatment of the fall of a weak monarch.

Dramatis Personae

King Richard II
John of Gaunt
Edmund of Langley, Duke of York
Henry Bolingbroke, Duke of Herefrod, later Henry IV
Duke of Aumerle
Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk,
Duke of Surrey
Earl of Salisbury
Lord Berkeley
Bushy
Bagot
Green
Earl of Northumberland
Henry Percy (Hotspur)
Lord Ross
Lord Willoughby
Lord Fitzwater
Bishop of Carlisle
Abbot of Westminster
Lord Marshal
Sir Stephen Scroop
Sir Pierce of Exton
Captain of a band of Welshmen
Queen to King Richard
Duchess of Gloucester
Duchess of York
Lady attending on the Queen
Lords, Heralds, Officers, Soldiers, Gardeners, Keeprs, Messenger, Groom, other Attendants
 
The Story. In the presence of the King, Bolingbroke accuses Mowbray of causing the death of the Duke of Gloucester. It is agreed that each man may defend his honour in a tournament, but just as each is about to attack the other, the king halts the proceedings and banishes them both. Sjhortly afterwards, upon the death of John of Gaunt (Bolingbroke's father), Richard seizes his estates in order to finance an Irish campaign. The additional evidence of Richard's disregard for the rights of his nobles arouses the ire of both York and Northumberland, and the latter, with other nobles, goes to join Bolingbroke (who has returned, despite his exile, to claim his dukedom). When Richard returns from Ireland, he learns that his army has dispersed and his favourites, Busby and Green, have been executed by Bolingbroke. Richard takes refuge in Flint Castle, and when Bolingbroke meets him there (ostensibly to claim his estates) submits to being taken as a prisoner to London. Before Parliament, he is forced to confess his crimes against the state, and despite the protests of the Bishop of Carlisle, he hands over his crown to Bolingbroke, who is already acting as King. Aumerle, the son of York, has meanwhile plotted against the new ruler. When York discovers this he hastens to inform Bolingbroke, but Aumerle and his mother, York's wife, plead for and are granted clemency. Richard is imprisoned in Pomfret Castle, where he is murdered by Sir Pierce of Exton (who believes that Bolingbroke wishes Richard's death). Bolingbroke expresses regret for the murder and vows to lead a crusade to ease his conscience. In its theme, the play explores an issue which was to tear England apart half a century later: the basis of royal authority, whether derived directly from God or from the consent of the people and the effective exercise of power.


—oOo—

 From the Oxford Dictionary of Shakespeare, by Stanley Wells with James Shaw.

Richard II Shakespeare's history play was first published in *quarto in 1597. Richard's abdication (IV. i. 153-323) was omitted, doubtless because of the contemporary political situation, in this and the two subsequent reprints of the quarto (both in 1598). After the succession issue had been resolved, the episode was considered less contentious, and it appeared in the fourth quarto, of 1608, advertised as having 'new additions of the Parliament scene, and the deposing of King Richard; as it hath been lately acted by the King's Majesty's servants, at the Globe.' The First *Folio text (1623) includes a better version of the deposition scene based probably on a prompt-book.

The date of the play is uncertain, but is unlikely to be later than 1595. It is based mainly on *Holinshed, and possibly also on Samuel *Daniel's First Four Books of the Civil Wars (1595). It is the first play in Shakespeare's second tetralogy based on English history. Written entirely in verse, it is stylistically very different from the other three. The first recorded performance is one specially commissioned by the Earl of *Essex's supporters on 7 February 1601 as a gesture of support for his rebellion the following day. The players argued that it was 'so old and so long out of use' that they would have 'small or no company at it'. but performed it nevertheless. A court case ensued but the company was exonerated. An improbable performance on a ship captained by William *Keeling is recorded in 1607. It was also given at the *Globe on 12 June 1631.

Nahum *Tate's adaptation, as The Sicilian Usurper, appears to have been played twice only, in 1681. Lewis *Theobald's adaptation appeared at *Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1719, with some success. Shakespeare's play was given at *Covent Garden in 1738, with revivals in the two following seasons. It was neglected until Edmund *Kean played a version by Richard Wroughton at *Drury Lane in 1815, revived from time to time till 1828. W. C. *Macready came closer to Shakespeare in his performances. The most successful nineteenth-century production was Charles *Kean's at the Princess's in 1857, which had eighty-five performances. It was scenically spectacular, archaeologically respectable, and textually short. F. R. *Benson was a distinguished Richard at Stratford-upon-Avon and elsewhere at the turn of the century; C. E. Montague's review of his performance in the Manchester Guardian has become a classic of theatre criticism, often anthologized. Beerbohm *Tree's spectacular version at His Majesty's in 1903 included a new version of the pageant of Bolingbroke's entry into London which Charles Kean had introduced, and also a coronation for Henry IV. *Granville-Barker had played Richard in 1899 in a performance in Elizabethan style directed by William *Poel. *Gielgud, perhaps the greatest exponent of the role in the twentieth century, played it first at the *Old Vic (1954, etc.), and the *Royal Shakespeare Company production by John *Barton (1973-4) in which Richard *Pasco and Ian *Richardson alternated as Richard and Bolingbroke. Jeremy Irons played a Christ-like Richard in 1986 (Stratford-upon-Avon) and Fiona Shaw played Richard in Deborah *Warner's *Royal National Theatre production (1995, televised 1997).

Richard II is an uneven play, and the scenes of Aumerle's rebellion against Bolingbroke have frequently embarrassed actors and directors, but the role of Richard himself offers unequalled opportunities to actors who can command pathos and speak verse.


Richard II, dir. David Giles




Estudios ingleses en la UZ

Aquí están los recursos para estudios ingleses de nuestra biblioteca de humanidades, la María Moliner. Y, por feliz casualidad, observen quién está el primero, cito la primera sección, "Bases de datos":

Hay luego muchas listas más, de corpus o corpora, diccionarios, páginas web sobre lingüística o literatura,  publicaciones periódicas, organismos y asociaciones, y otros recurso de interés. Pero en primera plana, "el menda." Será por lo del orden alfabético A, B—"A Bibliography"—que no se piensen que le puse el nombre al tuntún o por modestia, en lugar de, pongamos "The Bibliography," o, en francés, "Ze Bibliographie".

Otra cosa sí aparece de mi departamento—la revista Miscelánea, de la que, por cierto, también fui yo el que hizo la edición electrónica. O sea que aunque hay meses que tenga pocas clases, trabajar sí que trabajo, demasiado y todo—tanto, de hecho, que no hago carrera.


Otro enlace en Harvard









Martes 19 de noviembre de 2013

Bibliografía sobre brujas

Y brujerías.


Witchcraft - Universidad de Zaragoza.doc





Oliver Twist (BBC 2007)





Oliver Twist (Polanski




Painting of a Woman



Painting of a woman






Debate sobre la independencia de Cataluña hacia un año


Con Mikel Buesa, Alejo Vidal-Quadras y Mario Conde.










Profetas de la Ciencia Ficción: Mary Shelley




Mary as the Monster










Lunes 18 de noviembre de 2013

La máscara de la normalidad

          A book on masks, normalcy, and identity

 The Mask of Normalcy    


Book description:
Psychologists view well-adjusted behavior as conformity—the ability to navigate relationships and events within a framework of societal rules and regulations. George Serban argues that a better test is how well an individual is able to navigate adverse situations by handling conformity’s ambiguities and incongruities. He uses clinical findings and content analysis to explore the interface between social conformity and nonconformist behaviors.
The definition of the normal is itself problematic, since society’s expectations are sometimes controversial, arbitrary, or equivocal. As a result, people who have problems coping with social conformity choose between degrees of nonconformity or hiding under what Serban calls a "mask of normalcy." Further complicating matters is that some nonconformist attitudes are now seen as normal, supported by governmental policies tacitly favoring moral relativism. A multicultural society is crisscrossed by shades of controversial values and mores. New social codes of "correct" conduct blur the distinction between true and false, right and wrong; and social conflict simmers as a result.
What society perceives as well adjusted may even change within a society over time, depending on prevailing social values. Some noticeable variations have been within male-female relationships and sexual morality. Serban ultimately concludes that those who have learned how to manipulate social situations are viewed as well adjusted. Those who have not are seen as struggling or maladjusted.


El mundo social como presentación y re-presentación





Threesome 2

Threesome 2



Batalla Kampal


Nos presenta una nueva herramienta informática, nuestra Universidad, un mapa de la investigación que se llama Kampal. Y que trabaja sólo con los datos de SIDERAL, con lo cual no se incluye más que una parte pequeña de lo que se hace en la Universidad. Aparte, este Kampal parece presuponer que sólo se investiga en grupo, con lo cual los no agrupados o poco agrupados, como yo, ni aparecemos en la cuenta. De hecho, de todo mi departamento no aparece ningún dato—porque los criterios se basan en índices de citas que privilegian a las áreas científicas. O sea, que si se quieren hacer una idea más clara de lo que se trabaja en humanidades en mi universidad, o en mi órbita, no miren allí, que no verán nada.

Por ejemplo, todo lo contenido en mi memoria de actividades de 2013—o en la de 2012, o la del año que quieran—es invisible para este buscador miope o selectivo.

Igual la idea es que nos pongamos las pilas y nos atengamos a los criterios que nos harán aparecer allí... pero lo veo un poco improbable en mi caso.

Claro que no quiero ser demasiado negativo. Toda herramienta, por limitada que sea, puede tener su utilidad. Normalmente, en detrimento de alguien y a favor de alguien—seguro que en tiempos de magra financiación puede utilizarse como argumento adicional para priorizar a los que aparecen en Kampal que, además, aparecen en Kampal. Se viene a ratificar, una vez más, que la investigación individual sobra en la Universidad—y esto puede ser una herramienta útil para invisibilizarla más.


¿Y los demás investigadores?




John Keats


From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.

Keats, John (1795-1821), the son of the manager of a livery stables in Moorfields, who died when he was 8; his mother remarried, but died of tuberculosis when he was 14. The oldest of the family, he remained deeeply attached to his brothers George and Tom and to his sister Fanny. He was well educated at Clarke's school, Enfield, where he began a translation of the Aeneid, and in 1810 was apprenticed to an apothecary-surgeon. His first efforts at writing poetry appear to date from 1814, and include an 'Imitation of Spenser'; his school friend Cowden-*Clarke recorded the profound effect of early reading of *Spenser. In 1815 Keats cancelled his fifth year of apprenticeship and became a student at Guy's Hospital; to the same year belong 'Ode to Apollo' and 'Hymn to Apollo'. In 1816 he was licensed to practise as an apothecary, but in spite of precarious finances abandoned the profession for poetry. In 1816 he also met Leigh *Hunt, who published in the same year in the *Examiner Keats's poem, 'O Solitude', and in the course of a survey of young poets in the same journal he included Keats's sonnet 'On First Looking into Chapman's Homer'. Keats met *Shelley and *Haydon, began to plan *Endymion, and wrote 'I stood tiptoe upon a little hill' as a first effort towards that poem. His first volume of poems was published in March 1817. It included, among sonnets, epistles, and miscellaneous poems, 'I stood tiptoe upon a little hill' and 'Sleep and Poetry'. There were at first some pleasing reviews, but public interest was not aroused and sales were meagre; and in the autumn came the first of *Lockhart's harsh attacks in *Blackwood's, labelling Keats and his associates as members of the so-called *Cockney School. He finished the first draft of Endymion and during the winter of 1817-18 saw something of *Wordsworth and *Hazlitt, both of whom much influenced his thought and practice. In December Haydon gave his 'immortal dinner' whose guests included Wordsworth, *Lamb, and Keats. Endymion, dedicated to *Chatterton, whom Keats greatly admired, was published in the spring of 1818, and *'Isabella, or the Pot of Basil' finished in May. With his friend Charles Armitage Brown (1786-1842) Keats then toured the Lakes, spent July and August in Scotland, and included a brief visit to Northern Ireland. He had travelled frequently in southern England but he had never before seen scenery of rugged grandeur. It moved him deeply and he made full use of it when he came to write *Hyperion. Bitter attacks on Endymion came in the autumn from Lockhart in Blackwood's and from the *Quarterly Review. For the time being Keats concealed his pain and wrote to his brother George that, in spite o the review, 'I think I shall be among the English poets after my death', but his friends believe the wound was very deep. Meanwhile his brother Tom was vary ill and Keats spent much time with him. When Tom died in December Keats moved into his friend Brown's house in Hampstead, now known as Keats House. There, in the early winter, he met Fanny *Brawne, with whom he fell deeply in love, and with whom he remained in love until his death. During the course of the summer and autumn of 1818 his sore throats had become more frequent and persistent. Nevertheless September 1818 marked the beginning of what is sometimes referred to as the Great Year; he began Hyperion in its first version, abandoning it a year later; he wrote, consecutively, *'The Eve of St Agnes', 'The Eve of St Mark', the 'Ode to Psyche', *'La Belle Dame sans Merci', *'Ode to a Nightingale', and probably at about the same time the *'Ode on a Grecian Urn', 'Ode on Melancholy', and 'Ode on Indolence'; *'Lamia Part I', *'Othe the Great' (in collaboration with Brown); the second version of Hyperion, called The Fall of Hyperion, *'To Autumn', and 'Lamia Part II'. During this year he was beset with financial problems, both his own and those of his friends and relations, and intensely preoccupied with his love for Fanny, to whom he became engaged. In the winter of 1819 he began the unfinished 'The Cap and Bells', but he became increasingly ill with tuberculosis and his great creative work was now over.


Continuará...









Sinaptogénesis

Neurología evolutiva y circuitos cerebrales.

Una explicación, en parte, de cómo es que los humanos nos construimos nuestra propia realidad para habitar en ella

 Veo una noticia sobre neurología que no conocía, relativa a un estudio de la sinaptogénesis y sus diferencias entre los humanos y los demás primates, publicada hace un par de años en Genome Research. Copio de mi fuente en Diario Antropológico:

Khaitovich explicó que la sinaptogénesis , la base del aprendizaje y de la memoria en el cerebro en desarrollo, se caracteriza por la formación de sinapsis (forma de trasmitir la información entre neuronas), el fortalecimiento de conexiones útiles , y también la eliminación de las conexiones inútiles.
sinaptogénesis
Neuronas
Los autores encontraron que en los seres humanos, la expresión de los genes sinápticos en la corteza prefrontal se ha retrasado hasta la edad de cinco años, a diferencia de los chimpancés y los macacos, que ha sido en el primer año de vida.
Los autores señalaron que este cambio humano específico sólo se observó en la corteza prefrontal, y no en el cerebelo
“Nuestros hallazgos sugieren que el cerebro humano sigue siendo extremadamente plástico y susceptible a la entrada del medio ambiente durante los primeros cinco años de vida”, dijo Khaitovich .

Son estos años de plasticidad extrema los años en los que se crea esa fusión particular entre la estructura cerebral y el medio social (incluido el lenguaje) que caracteriza a la especie humana, y le hace habitar no tanto un universo sensorial cuanto un universo semiótico, una realidad virtual o caverna platónica generada por el entorno sociocultural y simbólico en el que el cerebro se termina de construir.

Esto me hace pensar que posiblemente se trata, en el caso de esta peculiar sinaptogénesis, de un aspecto más de la neotenia como motor de la evolución humana. En parte esta investigación que comento responde por anticipado a aquello que nos preguntábamos hace una temporada, sobre cuál era el gen que había que buscar que explicase las capacidades peculiares del pensamiento humano. Ahora bien, este tipo de desarrollo neoténico del cerebro tampoco termina de explicar del todo nuestras capacidades a la hora de elaborar y manejar representaciones complejas del tipo que se describen en este artículo de Mark Turner.

Seguiremos atentos por lo tanto a estas explicaciones neurológicas que ayuden a entender la conectividad particular que caracteriza al pensamiento humano y le permite elaborar y comprender las integraciones y fusiones conceptuales, las metáforas, los símbolos y los signos lingüísticos.

Conectando con Heráclito el Oscuro



Sinaptogénesis-  en Ibercampus
Teoría y literatura del matrimonio



Marriage - Universidad de Zaragoza.doc



Balance





Domingo 17 de noviembre de 2013

Myth of Sustainability  / The Collapse











I (—not me)

Aquí mi bibliografía sobre cosas que empiezan por "I". Reaparecida en Docstoc. Ciertamente, la gente (o los robots) recopilan, convierten y editan las cosas más increíbles. Pero ahí está, y quizá esta lista tonta tenga más visitas en Docstoc que en su sitio original:


 Motifs - Universidad de Zaragoza.doc





FREEOK 2013—Lawrence Krauss, "The Greatest Story Ever Told"




The title made me think for a minute of my own lecture earlier this year on "The Story Behind any Story".









Piscina de la casa


Piscina de la casa





Sábado 16 de noviembre de 2013

De antropología cognitiva vamos hoy

Aquí aparezco con algunos ilustres autores internacionales...

(que vienen de una Academia Presidencial rusa, de la University of California-Berkeley, del Instituto Max Planck, de la Universidad de Oxford, etc.—y de Zaragoza yo. ¿Extraerán ellos kudos o egorías de mi presencia en el vecindario?)

—en una de las revistas del Anthropology Research Network, en concreto Cultural Anthropology eJournal, sección de "Historia y Etnohistoria":

AARN Subject Matter eJournals
    


Cultural Anthropology eJournal - CMBO
        
AARN: History & Ethnohistory (Topic) - CMBO


El artículo en cuestión es aquél sobre "Retroperspectiva y perspicacia", a cuenta de Polibio y del curioso ensayo "The Rise of Historical Criticism" de Oscar Wilde. Y va a aparecer mi artículo, al parecer, en otras revistas de otras redes académicas—por interdisciplinar que no quede.


Anclaje narrativo y círculo hermenéutico en un texto de Polibio




Von Alfred Schütz zu George Herbert Mead—und Harold Garfinkel






Von Wolfgang Ludwig Schneider (Universtität Osnabrück).

So weit für heute.

George Herbert Mead und Harold Garfinkel







Aquí volando por las Cíes

Aquí volando por las Cíes



Lord Martin Rees, What Does the Future Hold?







Recursos en Internet para Teoría Literaria, Crítica y Filología


Literary Theory and Criticism - DOC






Viernes 15 de noviembre de 2013

Does Evolution Explain Human Nature?







Surface under the surface

Surface under the surface



Arresting Deconstruction

Arresting Deconstruction. on Gayatri Chakrevorty Spivak's Cultural Criticism by myatchitshin4121





Cost-constrained optimality


Paul Griffiths on cost-constrained optimality, natural selection, the evolution of cognition—and the search for truth:






And a critique of modular sociobiological explanations, by Richard Boyd.




Jueves 14 de noviembre de 2013

Fish Breaking Frame

Fish on the Wall





LitCrit, Consilience & Retrospection


Remember that paper of mine, "Consilience and Retrospection"— a narrative perspective (or retrospective) on the notion of consilience? On Whewell, Wilson, Gould & al. It's now being distributed by the SSRN, e.g. in the Literary Theory and Criticism eJournal:


SSRN litcrit-13


It's also to be found in the Science&Technology Studies section of the Anthropology Research Network (see under date 11 Nov. 2013).


A connection seems to suggest itself, ex post facto, between this paper and another one dealing with things hermeneutical,
Conectando con Heráclito el Oscuro. Only connect.

Consilience and Retrospection





Webster in Baugh


On the Jacobean dramatist John WEBSTER. From A Literary History of England, ed. Albert C. Baugh.
Book II (The Renaissance, 1500-1660) was written by Tucker Brooke and Matthias A. Shaaber.


John Webster (28) was no traditionalist, as Dekker and Heywood were, and cannot be grouped with them without some blurring of his uniqueness; but he cannot be classed, either, with the more typical Jacobeans. He was neither a satirist, a defeatist, nor an escapist, and the tone of his greatest works allies him more closely with Shakespeare and Marlowe than with any of his more exact contemporaries. The record of his life is almost non-existent and the bibliography of his writings exceptionally obscure and fragmentary; two strange facts, since his prefaces indicate that hardly even Jonson had a serener confidence in the merits of his work, and the emphasis the publishers gave his name on the title-pages is equal to that they gave to Shakespeare's. The complimentary verses which Middleton, Rowley, and Ford all wrote for The Duchess of Malfi are a rare tribute to great (and it would appear, broadly recognized) achivement.

Webster is first mentioned in Henslowe's Diary in 1602 as author of various plays which have now disappeared. One of them, Lady Jane (viz., Grey), can probably be traced in Sir Thomas Wyat, printed in 1607 as by Dekker and Webster. It is a loose chronicle play, in casual verse and prose, and is most akin to the first part of Heywood's If You Know Not Me, which it likewise resembles in being preserved in a very faulty text (29). In 1604 Webster wrote for Shakespeare's company the famous induction to Marston's Malcontent, which, unfortunately brief as it is, gives a priceless view of what went on during a performance at the Globe. About the same time he collaborated with Dekker again in two city comedies for the Children of Paul's, Westward Ho! and Northward Ho! The former received a notable accolade from Ben Jonson in the prologue of the oppositely-named Eastward-Ho!

For that was good, and better cannot be

They are lively and well-plotted pieces, both in prose and both dealing with the amorous amusements of London wives. It is naturally impossible to recognize in them the later Webster, but they do not appear to be overwhelmingly Dekker's work (30). They are quite devoid of the caustic satire which was the fashion of the day, and, though the language and situations are pungent enough, the moral in both plays is the unfashionable one that the citizens' wives are a good deal better than their reputations. The loss of Webster's play of Guise is much to be deplored. He evidently thought well of it, bracketing it with The White Devil and The Duchess of Malfi in the dedication of his Devil's Law-Case. It was most likely founded on Marlowe's Massacre at Paris and would probably emphasize the Maralovian strain in Webster. His fame rests now almost wholly upon the two tragedies just mentioned, which are like no other plays of the period.




The White Devil

The White Devil was acted by the Queen's Company (Heywood's) and printed in 1612. It concerns the rather recent case of Vittoria Accoramboni, Duchess of Bracciano, who lived from 1557 to 1585. By following the available accounts of her brief and stormy life Webster could have produced a much more plausible tragedy than the one he wrote (31); but Webster is never plausible, and when he varies from his sources usually does so in order to emphasize the brutal irrationality of life, and thus increases his constructional difficulties. Vittoria in his play is neither white nor a devil. Her complicity in her husband's murder, though morally certain, is not avowed, and in the great scene of Act III, in which she is arraigned before Cardinal Monticelso and the embarrassed ambassadors, Webster allows her all the honors of the conflict. It is a scene that John Fletcher may be thought to have done well to copy a year or two later, when he wrote Katharine of Aragon's defense of herself before Cardinals Wolsey and Campeius (32). Vittoria has a brother, Flamineo, who is one of the most bloodcurdingly real villains in English drama, and a mother, Cornelia, who is one of its most pathetic creations, a kind of ancient Ophelia. Webster works with terror and pity, undiluted, and in copious ouptorings. He employs ghosts and horrid dumbshows after the manner of the early Senecans, and has many of the grisliest stage deaths in literature. Isabella dies by kissing a poisoned picture of her husband. Camillo's neck is broken by his companions while vaulting, Brachiano is killed by a poisoned helmet (the pain driving him mad), Marcello is without warning run through the body by his brother in their mother's presence; Vittoria, Zanche, and Flamineo are all stabbed after a scene in which Flamineo has most horribly pretended to be shot with pistols. The deaths pile up so lawlessly that one is tempted to retort upon the author the last question of the play:


By what authority have yhou committed
This massacre?

But between these are small and moving voices that protest and point the pity of it; for instance, the boy Giovanni's talk with his uncle (III.i) and Cornelia's mad song (V. i),

Call for the robin readbreast and the wren,
Since o'er shady groves they hover,
And with leaves and flowers do cover
The friendless bodies of unburied men.




The Duchess of Malfi

The Duchess of Malfi, which was acted by Shakespeare's company about 1613 and revised a little later, is a better play because, along with as much terror, it has more pity, and so gives Webster's view of life in better balance. The plot, derived from Bandello through Painter and based on very early sixteenth-century history, has been made as absurd as possible. The duchess, contracting a marriage of love with her honest and knightly master of the household, must keep it secret from her two domineering brothers, who have planted a super-spy, Bosola, in her palace to inform them of just such matters. An average detective would do Bosola's business in a day, but in this play the obvious is never discernible. Years pass, while Bosola pries and plots. Children are born and almost grow to maturity in the way Sidney deplored, before the wicked brothers find a motive for their cruelty. The fourth act is wholly devoted to the duchess's death, and may well be the greatest death scene in Elizabethan literature. The fifth act, which presents six deaths more, should be anticlimax, but is kept aloft by Webster's mastery of the macabre.
brokensoul

The business of Webster's plays almost carries one back to the work of Kyd, but his strange art is far more intelligent. His style is curiously unrhythmic, except in the songs which crash in, like the trumpets of doom, upon the cacopohonies of mundane speech. His dialogue is often patched with sayings from Sidney, Montaigne, or Donne, which he had stored in his notebooks (33), and he sometimes introduces formal "characters" such as he was writing for the Overbury collection (34). His view of life is Elizabethan rather than Jacobean in the sharp distinction he maintains between good and bad and the straightforwardness with which he faces death and horror. He is one of the most romantic of dramatists. Life, he teaches, is a labyrinth. "Wish me good speed," says the Duchess near the beginning of her play,

For I am going into a wilderness,
Where I shall find no path nor friendly clue
To be my guide.

The only constant is death, up to which he leads his characters relentlessly, and dismisses them under tha glare of death's great illumination. He makes no theological assertions, but the reading of him is a kind of religious experience, and if any affinity for him must be sought among the Stuart writers, it will be found in such mystic poets as Herbert or Vaughan. Webster, too, seems constantly to be whispering,

Dear, beauteous death, the jewel of the just,
    Shining nowhere but in the dark,
What mysteries do lie beyond thy dust,
    Could man outlook that mark! (35)

No one, however, is more like him than Shakespeare's in the latter's darkest moods, and the play that most resembles Webster's two tragedies is King Lear. Lear says something very like "I am Duchess of Malfi still" (36), and Gloster parallels Bosola's cosmic despair,


We are merely the star's tennis-balls, struck and bandied
Which way please them. (37)

Webster's most famous line,

Cover her face; mine eyes dazzle; she died young,

may have had its cue in King Lear, v. iii. 242; and perhaps only Shakespeare can bedew his horror with such appeals to simple pity as the Duchess's

I pray thee, look thou giv'st my little boy
Some syrup for his cold, and let the girl
Say her prayers ere she sleep.

Webster's two later plays, The Devil's Law-Case (1623) and A Cure for a Cuckold (printed 1661)—the latter in unfortunate collaboration with Rowley—must be briefly dismissed; not because they are altogether inferior, but because Webster is here attempting tragicomedy and finds that medium too light for his hand. The chief figure of the Law-Case, Romelio, the wealthy merchant of Naples, who in one scene disguised as a Jew, is a not unworthy imitation of Marlowe's Barabas, and his mother and sister belong with Webster's greatest women. The long court scene (IV. ii), which occupies a fifth of the play, is comparable with the one in The White Devil, and some of Webster's most characteristic lines are in this play, as well as one of his greatest songs,

Courts adieu, and all delights,
All bewitching appetites!
Sweetest breath and clearest eye,
Like perfumes, go out and die.






Notes

(28) See F. L. Lucas, Complete Works of John Webster (4v., 1927); E. E. Stoll, John Webster (Cambridge, Mass., 1905): Rupert Brooke, John Webster and the Elizaethan Drama (1916).

(29). See M. F. Martin, "If You Know Not Me You Know Nobody and The History of Sir Thomas Wyat," Library, XIII (1932). 272-281; W. L. Halstead, "Note on the Text of  . . . Sir Thomas Wyatt," MLN XIV (1939). 585-589.

(30). See F. E. Pierce, The Collaboration of Webster and Dekker (1909).

(31). See B. Colonna, La nipote di Sisto V: il dramma di Vittoria Accoramboni (Milan, 1936), and Lucas's historical introduction, Works of Webster, I. 70-90.

(32). Henry VIII, III. i. Fletcher's additions to Holinshed's account may be presumed to come from Webster.

(33). See C. Crawford, Collectanea, I. 20-46, II. 1-63 (Stratford-upon-Avon, 1906, 1907).

(34). E.g. White Devil, III. ii 82-85) (ed. Lucas); Duchess of Malfi I. i. 157-166.

(35). Henry Vaughan, "They are all gone into the world of light."

(36). King Lear, IV. vi. 110, "Ay, every inch a king!"

(37). See King Lear, IV. i. 36 f.




John Webster (The Oxford Companion to Eng. Lit.)







Miércoles 13 de noviembre de 2013

Déjà vu en Dickens

Muchas cosas al (re)leer David Copperfield son un déjà vu, pero esta más:

"Todos nosotros hemos pasado por momentos en los que nos ha invadido súbitamente la sensación de que lo que estamos diciendo y haciendo en ese instante lo hemos dicho y hecho ya antes, en épocas muy lejanas . . . ; de que en confusos tiempos pasados nos hemos visto rodeados de los mismos rostros, de los mismos objetos y de las mismas situaciones . . . ; de que sabemos con exactitud lo que va a decirse acto seguido, como si nos hubiésemos acordado de ello repentinamente. Yo no había experimentado esa sensación en mi vida con tal viveza como un segundo antes de que pronunciase Micawber esas palabras."

Déjà vu






Entrada de una ría

Entrada de una ría




Alexander Pope



From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble

Pope, Alexander (1688-1744), the son of a Roman Catholic linen draper of London. His health was ruined and his growth stunted by a severe illness at the age of 12 (probably Pott's disease, a tubercular affection of the spine). He lived with his parents at Binfield in Windsor Forest and was largely self-educated. He showed his precocious metrical skill in his 'Pastorals' written, according to himself, when he was 16, and published in *Tonson's miscellany (vol. vi) in 1709. (For Pope's quarrel with Ambrose Philips on this subject see under PHILIPs, A.). He became intimate with *Wycherley, who introduced him to London life. His *Essay on Criticism (1711) made him known to Addison's circle, and his *'Messiah' was published in the Spectator in 1712. *The Rape of the Lock appeared in Lintot's Miscellanies in the same year and was republished, enlarged, in 1714. His Ode for Music on St Cecilia's Day (1713), one of his rare attempts at lyric, shows that his gifts did not lie in this direction. In 1713 he also published *Windsor Forest, which appealed to the Tories by its references to the Peace of Utrecht, and won him the friendship of *Swift. He drifted away from Addison's 'little senate' and became a member of the *Scriblerus Club, an association that included Swift, *Gay, *Arbuthnot, and others. He issued in 1715 the first volume of his translation in heroic couplets of Homer's *Iliad. This work, completed in 1720, is more *Augustan than Homeric in spirit and diction, but has nevertheless been much admired. *Coleridge thought it an 'astonishing product of matchless talent and ingenuity'. It was supplemented in 1725-6 by a translation of the *Odyssey, in which he was assited by William Broome and Elijah Fenton. The two translations brought him financial independence. He moved in 1718 with his mother to Twickenham, where he spent the rest of his life, devoting much time to his garden and grotto; he was keenly interested in *landscape gardening and committed to the principle 'Consult the Genius of the Place in all'.

In 1717 had appeared a collection of his works containing two poems dealing, alone among his works, with the passion of love. They are 'Verses to the Memory of an Unfortunate Lady', an elegy on a fictitious lady who had killed herself through hopeless love, and *'Eloisa to Abelard', in which Eloisa describes her inner conflicts after the loss of her lover. About this time he became strongly attached to Martha *Blount, with whom his friendship continued throughout his life, and to Lady Mary Wortley *Montagu, whom in later years he assailed with bitterness. Lady Mary left for Turkey in July 1716 and Pope sent her 'Eloisa to Abelard' with a letter suggesting that he was passionately grieved by her absence.

Pope assisted Gray in writing the comedy Three Hours after Marriage (1717) but made no other attempt at drama. IN 1723, four years after Addison's death, appeared (in a miscellany called Cytherea) Pope's portrait of *Atticus, a satire on Addison written in 1715. An extended version appeared as 'A Fragment of a Satire' in a 1727 volume of Miscellanies (by Pope, Swift, Arbuthot, and Gay)., and took its final form in An Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot (1735). In the same Miscellanies volume Pope published his prose treatise *Peri Bathous, or The Art of Sinking in Poetry, ridiculing among others Ambrose Philips, *Theobald, and John *Dennis. In 1725 Pope published an edition of Shakespeare, the errors in which were pointed out in a pamphlet by Theobald, Shakespeare Restored (1726). This led to Pope's selection of Theobald as hero of his *Dunciad, a satire on Dullness in three books, on which he had been at work for some time: the first volume appeared anonymously in 1728. Swift, who spent some months with Pope in Twickenham in 1726, provided much encouragement for this work, of which a further enlarged edition was published in 1729. An additional book, The New Dunciad, was published in 1742, prompted this time, it appears, by *Warburton. The complete Dunciad in four books, in which Colley Cibber replaces Theobald as hero, appeared in 1743. Influenced in part by the philosophy of his friend *Bolingbroke, Pope published a series of moral and philosophical poems, *Essay on Man (1733-34), consisting of four Epistles; and *Moral Essays (1731-5), four in number: Of the Knowledge and Characters of Men, Of the Characters of Women, and two on the subject Of the Use of Riches. A fifth epistle was added, addressed to Addison, occasioned by his dielogue on medals. This was originally written in Addison's lifetime, c. 1716. In 1733 Pope published the first of his miscellaneous satires, Imitations of Horace, entitled 'Satire I', a paraphrase of the first satire of the second book of Horace, in the form of a dialogue between the poet and William Fortescue, the lawyer. In it Pope defends himself against the charge of Malignity, and professes to be inspired only by love of virtue. He inserts, however, a gross attack on his former friend Lady Mary Wortley Montagu as 'Sappho'. He followed this up with his Imitations of Horace's Satires 2.2 and 1.2 ('Sober Advice from Horace'), in 1734, and of Epistles 1.6; 2.2; 2.1; and 1.1, in 1737.  Horace's Epistle 1.7 and the latter part of Satire 2.6 'imitated in the manner of Dr Swift', appeared in 1738. The year 1735 saw the appearance of the Epistle to Dr Arbuthnot, the prologue to the above Satires, one of Pope's most brilliant pieces of irony and invective, mingled with autobiography. It contains the famous portraits of Addison (ll. 193-214) and Lord *Hervey, and lashes his minor critics, Dennis, Cibber, *Curll, Theobald, etc. In 1738 appeared One Thousand Seven Hundred and Thirty Eight, two satirical dialogues. These satires, and the 'Satires (2 and 4) of Dr Donne Versified' (1735), with the New Dunciad, closed his literary career.

He was partly occupied during his later years with the publication of his earlier correspondence, which he edited and amended in such a manner as to misrepresent the literary history of the time. He also employed discreditable artifices to make it appear that it was published against his wish. Thus he procured the publication by Curll of his 'Literary Correspondence' in 1735, and then endeavored to disavow him.

With the growth of *Romanticism Pope's poetry was incresingly seen as artificial; Coleridge commented that Pope's thoughts were 'translated into the language of poetry'. *Hazlitt called him 'the poet not of nature but of art', and W. L. Bowles compared his work to 'a game of cards'; *Byron, however, was highly laudatory: 'Pope's pure strain / Sourght the rapt soul to charm, nor sought in vain.' Matthew *Arnold's famous comment, 'Dryden and Pope are not classics of our poetry, they are classics of our prose' (Essays in Criticism, 1880), summed up much 19th-cent. opinion, and it was not until *Leavis and *Empson that a serious attempt was made to rediscover Pope's richness, variety, and complexity.popealexander

Minor works that deserve mention are:

Verse: the Epistles 'To a Young Lady (Miss Blount) with the Works of Voiture (1712), to the same 'On her Leaving the town after the Coronation' (1717); 'To Mr Jervas with Dryden's Translation of Fresony's Art of Painting' (1716) and 'To Robert, Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer' (1721); 'Vertumnus and Pomona' , 'Sappho to Phaon', and 'The Fable of Dryope', translations from *Ovid (1712); *'January and May', 'The Wife of Bath, her Prologue', and The Temple of Fame, from *Chaucer (1709, 1714, 1715).

Prose: The Narrative of Dr Robert Norris (1713), a satirical attack on Dennis; A Full and True Account of a Horrid and Barbarous Revenge by Poison, on . . . Mr Edmund Curll (1716), an attack on Curll (to whom he had secretly administered an emetic).

The standard edn. of Pope's poetry is the Twickenham Edition, under the general editorship of J. Butt 811 vols. plus Index, 1940-69); see also G. Sherburn, The Early Career of Alexander Pope (1949); P.
*Quennell, Alexander Pope: The Education of a Genius (1968), M. Mack, The Garden and the City (1969) and Alexander Pope: A Life (1985); Morris R. Brownell, Alexander Pope and the Arts of Georgian England (1978).




The Rape of the Lock, a poem by *Pope, in two cantos, published in Linto's Miscellany 172 as "The Rape of the Locke"; subsequently enlarged to five cantos and thus published 1714.

When Lord Petre forcibly cut off a lock of Miss Arabella Fermor's hair, the incident gave rise to a quarrel between the families. With the idea of allaying this, Pope treated the subject in a playful *mock-heroic poem, on the model of *Boileau's Le Lutrin. He presents Belinda at her toilet, a game of ombre, the snipping of the lock while Belinda sips her coffee, the wrath of Belinda and her demand that the lock be restored, the final wafting of the lock, as a new star, to adorn the skies. The poem was published in its original form with Miss Fermor's permission. Pope then expanded the sketch by introducing the machinery of sylphs and gnomes, adapted from a light erotic French work, Le Comte de Gabalis, a series of five discourses by the Abbé de Montfaucon de Villars, which appeared in English in 1680; in his dedication he credits both Gabalis and the *Rosicrucians. (See also PARACELSUS). One of Pope's most brilliant performances, it has also been one of his most popular: Dr.*Johnson called it 'the most attractive of all ludicrous compositions', in which 'New things are made familiar and familiar things are made new'.



Essay on Man, a philosophical poem in heroic couplets by *Pope, published 1733-34, part of a larger poem projected but not completed.

It consists of four epistles addressed to *Bolingbroke, and perhaps to some extent inspired by his fragmentary philosophical writings. Its objective is to vindicate the ways of God to man; to prove that the scheme of the universe is the best of all possible schemes, in spirte of appearances of evil, and that our failure to see the perfection of the whole is due to our limited vision. 'Partial Ill' is 'universal Good', and 'self-love and social' are directed to the same end; 'All are but parts of one stupenduous whole / Whose body Nature is, and God the soul.' The epistles deal with man's relations to the universe, to himself as an individual, to society, and to happiness. D. *Stewart thought the Essay 'the noblest specimen of philosophical poetry our language affords' (Active and Moral Powers, 1828), but Dr *Johnson commented, 'Never were penury of knowledge and vulgarity of sentiment so happily disguised.' Pope's attempts to prove that 'Whatever is, is right' anticipate the efforts of Pangloss in *Voltaire's Candide.



 



Análisis del discurso: Gramáticas, contextos, conversaciones, estilos




THE INDIAN QUEEN







Dryden seriamente purgado en esta versión, quizá con justicia poética. Queda la música de Purcell. Aquí puede oírse, pero hagan abstracción (también) de india de la imagen. Las indias eran indias occidentales:













Martes 12 de noviembre de 2013

Repair work in autobiography

(A comment I add to a thread in PsyArt, as an answer to questions further discussed in Celia Hunt's 'Therapeutic Effects of Writing Fictional Autobiography', Life Writing, Vol. 7, No. 3, pp.231-244).

One might contend, perhaps, that the conscious BUT UNACKNOWLEDGED decision to beautify, streamline, skip, or otherwise "improve" the autobiographical truth by means of distortions, additions, or whatever, need not breach the autobiographical pact, in the sense that if the work is presented as an autobiography, the pact holds vis à vis the reader, and the writer keeps his cake and eats it. It is only when the accuracy of the portrayal is somehow publicly contested (more or less publicly, that is) that the autobiographical pact is dissolved, but even in this case the dissolution may not be complete, being rather more akin to a local weakening or a more generalized fading or blurring of the generic conventions. As to the possible therapeutic effects of intended distortions, it is rather a form of remedial work on the social face of the individual. To the extent that this face is or might be damaged unless the remedy is applied, this is preventive health care rather than therapy. Unconscious repair work may have additional dimensions, but anyway, a relevant question is, who does the evaluation? —from whose (reliable) viewpoint are these distortions to be defined as such?


Momentous Events and Turning Points





Two on a Rock Two

Two on a Rock Two




Lunes 11 de noviembre de 2013

Descomplementados y atornillados

Nos pasan esta comunicación los sindicalistas de Comisiones Obreras de nuestra universidad. Más recortes, menos en las horas de clase, que por ahí no recortan:

CCOO INFORMA

El PDI de la Sección Sindical de CC.OO. en la UZ ha decidido por
unanimidad:

1. Instar al Consejo de Dirección de la UZ a asegurar el mantenimiento
de nuestros ya recortados complementos retributivos autonómicos: VAMOS A
SER LOS ÚNICOS FUNCIONARIOS DE ESTA COMUNIDAD AUTÓNOMA CON UN NUEVO E
IMPORTANTE RECORTE SALARIAL(20%)EN ENERO DE 2014.

2. Hacer público su rechazo unánime a la propuesta del Rectorado de
aumento de la dedicación docente máxima del profesorado de la
Universidad de Zaragoza.

Saludos cordiales,
Sección Sindical CC.OO. UZ (PDI)







Twelfth Night (1969)

William Shakespeare, Twelfth Night. Joan Plowright, Alec Guinness, Tommy Steele, Ralph Richardson. Prod. John Dexter. 1969.

 






Señalando a la Roca del Abad

East of west:
Pointing there



El catalán como lengua vehi-cular


Leyendo un estudio aparecido en el último número de Hermeneus sobre la comunicación entre la Administración y los inmigrantes en Cataluña, o Catalunya según se mire:

Vargas-Urpí, Mireia, Anna Gil-Bardají, and Marta Arumí Ribas (U Autónoma de Barcelona). "Inmigrantes en Cataluña: ¿Una comunicación efectiva en los servicios públicos?" Hermeneus 15 (2013): 291-322

No va para nada el estudio sobre una comparación entre las ventajas del español o del catalán como lengua vehicular de la Administración ni ahora ni en la futura o hipotética nación catalana. Pero algunos de los datos que da son para dar que pensar a los nacionalistas, si los datos de cualquier género les diesen que pensar. Cito de la p. 300, sin comentarios aparte de la negrita añadida:

"Por otro lado, los usuarios se comunican con el personal de los servicios públicos a través de recursos y estrategias distintos. La mayoría (73%) afirma comunicarse en castellano simplificado. Un 44,4% recurre también a la ayuda de familiares y/o amigos que conocen el castellano o el catalán, mientras que un 25,4% se comunica o se ha comunicado en alguna ocasión con el personal de los servicios públicos con la ayuda de intérpretes-mediadores. Un 17,5% se comunica a través de gestos, un 14,3% utiliza el inglés y un 9,5% mediante dibujos y/o notas. El material informático bilingüe lo suele utilizar un 7.9% de la muestra y, finalmente, un 6,3% utiliza otras lenguas, siendo el catalán, el chino y el árabe las principales.


La falacia de la lengua oficial "no propia"




AlcorZe

Este AlcorZe es el buscador remozado de la Biblioteca Universitaria de Zaragoza, y ahora incluye en sus listados no sólo libros de los fondos de la biblioteca, sino también capítulos de libro, artículos, e incluso los documentos PDF subidos al repositorio Zaguán.

Y salen allí a estas alturas, según esta búsqueda, 166 publicaciones mías de diverso pelaje y entidad. Vamos, too much of a good thing. Les recomiendo que, de ir a leer alguna, seleccionen las mejores, o en su defecto, las más breves; si no, no acabaremos nunca, ni nos concentraremos en el presente. Que es lo que importa según los informes emitidos por las mejores autoridades.

Cinco mil páginas de blog




Domingo 10 de noviembre de 2013

Gender, I-deology

Una publicación electrónica mía—en colaboración y, supongo, en Amazon. Anuncian allí una edición electrónica de este libro, Gender, I-deology, de la cual no tenía noticia este sufrido autor/editor, que lo editó para Rodopi en 1996.

Traduciendo, más o menos, viene a ser Género e ideología del yo: Ensayos sobre teoría de la representación, literatura de ficción y cine. Mi capítulo introductorio sobre "Gender, I-deology and Addictive Repressentation—The Film of Familiarity" creo que está entero, salvo un par de páginas de bibliografía. Aquí abajo puede verse, o aquí en Google Play.








Gender, I-deology


El Mundo de Mañana





Un documental hipotético a partir de la situación presente y sus tendencias, que presenta una perspectiva malthusiana sobre lo que será el estado de insostenibilidad de la humanidad hacia la segunda mitad del siglo XXI. Minuto 2.55.00: EL HIPERCONFLICTO.




Niña y su madre oteando

El futuro, quizá.


Niña y su madre oteando by JoseAngelGarciaLanda
Niña y su madre oteando, a photo by JoseAngelGarciaLanda on Flickr.



Hamlet's Human Nature


Muchos ensayos incluidos en el libro Reading Human Nature de Joseph Carroll están disponibles en la página de ensayos recientes de su sitio web.

Aquí hay a título de ejemplo un PDF de un ensayo evolucionista sobre Hamlet: "Intentional meaning in Hamlet: An Evolutionary Perspective." Ahora que estoy con el último año de docencia de la asignatura con nombre de persona, "Shakespeare", me intriga saber qué añade Carroll a la visión de Hamlet del hombre, el primero entre las bestias—un animal que no le agrada al príncipe. Ni la mujer tampoco, por si alguno se pensaba otra cosa.



Sábado N/N de 2013

The sea, all sparkle and surface

The sea, all sparkle and surface




Naturalism and Its Implications

A dialogue between Owen Flanagan (left) and Alex Rosenberg (right). On naturalism, i.e. the philosophical view that the natural sciences provide the framework for the setting of problems in philosophy and the human sciences.
 

Consiliencia: La unidad del saber




Hegel's Phenomenology of Mind


Joe Rouse's lecture on Hegel's Phenomenology of the Spirit:





And I'm subscribing to Brad Younger's philosophy channel on YouTube.

La idea central de la Fenomenología del Espíritu







Treinta años de escritos

Alguien ha subido a CoolEssays esta lista de mi bibliografía. Digo de mi bibliografía en mi bibliografía—pues entre otros muchos filólogos y académicos la Bibliografía de Teoría Literaria, Crítica y Filología (http://bit.ly/abiblio) me incluye a mí mismo, y no en pie de igualdad y falsa modestia, sino con atención privilegiada por ser yo quien soy, nadie especial pero sí el Autor.

Y en fin, allí aparece, en 35 páginas web, una larga lista de escritos míos, tecleados a lo largo de treinta años, cuando aún era una joven promesa y no un gris cincuentón. Desde mis trabajos de curso de cuando era estudiante a principios de los 80, hasta los posts del blog de principios de 2010—pasando por publicaciones académicas de años intermedios, todo ello con abundantes enlaces, gratis et amore, caviare to the general. Y terminamos con una bibliografía secundaria, muy secundaria—una lista de reseñas sobre mí y referencias a mis escritos, escasas pero en general favorables.

Así que ahí queda lo que hice en lo que fue mi vida ya pasada...— for what it's worth.


pintor muerte




The Incomplete Workes



Cultura digital, cultura en red CFP

Nos pasa esta noticia el Decano:

Entre los días 20 y 22 de noviembre tendrá lugar en Zaragoza el V Congreso Iberoamericano de Cultura, Cultura digital, cultura en red. Nacidos en 2008 y con una periodicidad anual estos Congresos repasan aspectos clave para el mundo cultural iberoamericano en un contexto rápidamente cambiante. La I edición tuvo lugar en México D.F. (México) en 2008 en torno al cine y el audiovisual. En 2009, fue Sao Paulo (Brasil) con el tema Cultura y transformación social. En 2010 fue Medellín (Colombia) sobre el ámbito musical iberoamericano. En 2011, el Congreso se realizó en Mar de Plata (Argentina) analizando las relaciones entre cultura, política y participación. Finalmente este de Zaragoza en 2013 acogerá los debates sobre Cultura digital, cultura en red. Creemos que es una buena oportunidad para los miembros de la Facultad poder participar en un foro de estas características al que acuden reconocidos profesores, comunicadores e investigadores en el ámbito de la cultura. La estructura del congreso, el concurso Emprende con Cultura y la propuesta de actividades culturales lo hacen muy atractivo. La inscripción es gratuita y debe hacerse en la página web correspondiente hasta el 10 de noviembre. Para el personal universitario que lo solicite se otorgará un diploma de asistencia. Así mismo se informa de que desde la Organización del Congreso se ha organizado un servicio gratuito de transporte para los inscritos. El servicio saldrá del centro de la ciudad. Los puntos de salida pueden consultarse en la página de la Organización http://www.culturaiberoamerica.org






Shakespeare - Julius Caesar (RSC, 2012)










Viernes 8 de noviembre de 2013

La Pocalipsis

Alguien ha cogido mi trabajillo de curso sobre Los Cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis, de Blasco Ibáñez, de hace casi (o sin casi) treinta años, y lo ha colocado de introducción a una edición electrónica del libro, en "Libros Tauro", y de ahí a Scribd... poniéndole mal el título. La Apocalipsis, la llaman, o la Apolacipsis.... En fin, yo ya ni protesto por estas cosas, además las protestas a Rita.

Mejor lo consideraré mi primera publicación argentina, y no es la menos indicada por cierto.

Sobre Los Cuatro Jinetes del Apocalipsis, de Blasco Ibáñez






Nave viene nave va


Nave viene nave va






Contra la excepcionalidad humana

Contra "el mito de la humanidad", un nuevo libro de Henry Gee, La especie accidental:

Henry Gee,  The Accidental Species: Misunderstandings of Human Evolution. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 2013.
Aquí una reseña en Forbes.


 Nuestras falsas reconstrucciones, normalmente pensadas para favorecer nuestra imagen, dependen de la falacia retrospectiva que Gee llama "the Beowulf effect", basado en la carencia de información y la sobrevaloración de la existente:

‘The Beowulf Effect’: The tendency to build a pleasing narrative history out of what is actually a very small sample. By analogy, he points out how utterly dependent the existing literature of Old English is on the sparse number of written lines that have survived.
The few fragments of Old English literature that have come down to us from that remote yet immense period have survived thanks only to blind chance. For example, 30,000 lines of Old English poetry are known to us–all that’s left of more than six hundred years of poetry and song. For comparison, Shakespeare’s plays total some 150,000 lines, written over a period of twenty-four years. What’s more, almost all Old English verse is found in just four surviving manuscripts, all written in the West Saxon dialect of Old English around the year 1000—which does not mean that we knew who originally composted them, nor in what language. [p. 59]
 Y termina el libro, claro, con una meditación (à la Stephen Jay Gould) sobre las consecuencias éticas de la gratuidad humana, y de nuestra implausibilidad. Nuestra libertad y capacidad de autogestión.

Lo que desde luego es excepcional es plantearse el problema de la no excepcionalidad como tal—y el de la gratuidad de la existencia, perspectiva atea y ateleológica. No se hace tanto como se dice. Debe ser que, como dice Gee, asusta no tener certidumbres, y asusta... no tanto ser como los demás, sino saber que se es como los demás. En lo de saberlo, sí que hay una excepcionalidad, me parece, aporética si se quiere.

Y es que nos gusta ser la excepción, porque ser la medida de todas las cosas.... no es excepcional. Es la regla.




No evolucionaremos








Jueves 7 de noviembre de 2013

Pasa un ferry hacia Bueu

Pasa un ferry hacia Bueu





Memoirs of an English Officer

From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.

Memoirs of Captain Carleton, a narrative published 1728 as The Memoirs of an English Officer, by Captain George Carleton. It was once thought to be by *Defoe, but is now known not to be by him or *Swift, to whom the work was sometimes groundlessly attributed. Captain Carleton, who unquestionably existed, is the subject of an attractive tale of soldierly adventure. Sir Walter *Scott, who regarded the Memoirs as Carleton's own work, brought out a new edition in 1808.

Carleton volunteers on board the London on the declaration of war with the Dutch in 1672. In 1674 he enters the service of the prince of Orange, remaining there until the peace of Nijmegen. Returning to England, he receives a commission from James II and serves in Scotland and then in Flanders until the peace of Ryswick. The most interesting part of the memoir follows. Carleton embarks with Lord Peterborough for Spain in 1705, and gives a stirring narrative of the siege, capture, and subsequent relief of Barcelona and of the campaign by which Peterborough, with scanty resources, temporarily placed the Archduke Charles on the throne of Spain. This is followed by some account of various parts of Spain visited by the author as a prisoner of war. See Steig Hargevick, The Disputed Assignment of 'Memoirs of an English Officer' to Daniel Defoe (2 vols; 1972, 1974).


Daniel Defoe





What Is Narratology?


He aquí un libro, el primero de la serie "Narratologia: Contributions to Narrative Theory", en el que se me cita en diversas ocasiones. Al parecer lo ha scribdizado Iryna Holodiuk—no sé quién lo desescribdizará; ni siquiera sé si existen los desescribdizadores.

La pregunta "¿Qué es la narratología?" aparece como desamparada y solitaria, y casi parece desalentar una posible respuesta, aquí en primera página—pero no hay tal, porque recibe abundantes respuestas en el resto del libro.
3110178745Narratology by Iryna Holodiuk




Miércoles 6 de noviembre de 2013

Pareo verde 5
Pareo verde 5




Daniel Defoe


From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.

DEFOE, Daniel (1660-1731), born in London, the son of James Foe, a butcher. He changed his name to Defoe from c. 1695. He attended Morton's academy for Dissenters at Newington Green with a view to the ministry, but by the time he married Mary Tuffley in 1683/4  he was established as a hosiery merchant in Cornhill, having travelled in France, Spain, the Low Countries, and possibly Italy and Germany; he was absorbed by travel throughout his life. He took part in Monmouth's rebellion, and in 1688 joined the advancing forces of William III. His first important signed work was An Essay upon Projects (1697), followed by The True-Born Englishman (1701), an immensely popular satirical poem attacking the prejudice against a king of foreign birth and his Dutch friends. In 1702 appeared The Shortest Way with Dissenters, a notorious pamphlet in which Defoe, himself a Dissenter, ironically demanded the total and savage suppression of dissent; for this he was fined, imprisoned (May-Nov. 1703) and pilloried. While in prison he wrote his Hymn to the Pillory, a mock-Pindaric *ode which was sold in the streets to sympathetic crowds. Meanwhile various business projects (the breeding of civet cats, marine insurance, a brick works) had come to grief, and Defoe's fortunes were revived by Harley, the Tory politician, who arranged a pardon and employed him as a secret agent; between 1703 and 1714 Defoe travelled around the country for Harley and Godolphin gathering information and testing the political climate. Defoe wrote many pamphlets for Harley, and in 1704 began the Review; in the same year appeared his pamphlet Giving Alms No Charity and in 1706
daniel defoe True Relation of the Apparition of One Mrs Veal, a vivid report of a current ghost story, probably by Defoe. Certain anti-Jacobite pamphlets in 1712-13 led to his prosecution by the Whigs and to a brief imprisonment. He now started a new trade journal, Mercator, in place of the Review. In 1715 he was convicted of libelling Lord Annesley (by implying that he was a Jacobite); he escaped punishment through the intervention of Townshend, the Whig secretary of state.

Defoe was an extremely versatile and prolific writer, and produced some 250 books, pamphlets, and journals, many anonymously or pseudonymously, but the works for which he is best known belong to his later years. *Robinson Crusoe appeared in 1719, the Farther Adventures following a few months later. The next five years saw the appearance of his most important works of fiction: Captain *Singleton in 1720, *Moll Flanders, A Journal of the *Plague Year, and *Colonel Jack in 1722; *Roxana, the *Memoirs of a Cavalier (now considered to be certainly by Defoe), his tracts on Jack *Sheppard, and A New Voyage round the World in 1724; The Four Voyages of Capt. George Roberts in 1726. His Tour through the Whole Island of Great Britain, a guidebook in three volumes (1624-26), is a vivid first-hand account of the state of the country, gleaned from his many travels, the last of which he appears to have taken in 1722. His last principal works were The Complete English Tradesman (1726), Augusta Triumphans (1728), A Plan of the English Commerce (1728) and The Complete English Gentleman, not published until 1890. He died in his lodgings in Ropemaker's Alley, Moorfields, and was buried in what is now Bunhill Fields. Defoe's influence on the evolution of the English novel was enormous, and many regard him as the first true novelist. He was a master of plain prose and powerful narrative, with a journalist's curiosity and love of realistic detail; his peculiar gifts made him one of the greatest reporters of his time, as well as a great imaginative writer who in Robinson Crusoe created one of the most familiar and resonant myths of modern literature. Important work on the Defoe canon by P. N. Furbank and W. R. Owens includes The Canonisation of Defoe (1988), Defoe De-Attributions (1994) and A Critical Biography of Daniel Defoe (1998).


The Review,  a periodical started by *Defoe in 1704, under the title of A Weekly Review of the Affairs of France, which after various transformations became A Review of the State of the British Nation in 1707, it lasted until 1713. It was a non-partisan paper, an organ of the commercial interests of the nation: it appeared thrice weekly and was written, practically in its entirety, by Defoe himself, who excpressed in it his opinions on all current political topics, thus initiating the political leading article. It also had lighter articles on love, marriage, gambling, etc.: Defoe's attitude to his readers was that he strove to 'wheedle them in (if it may be allowed that expression) to the knowledge of the world; who, rather than take more pains, would be content with their ignorance, and search into nothing'.



footprint


The Life and Strange and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, a romance by *Defoe, published 1719.


In 1704 Alexander Selkirk, who had run away to sea and joined a privateering expedition under *Dampier, after a quarrel with his captain was put ashore on the uninhabited island of Juan Fernández. He was rescued in 1709 by Woodes *Rogers. Defoe was probably familiar with several versions of this tale, and added many incidents from his own imagination to his account of Crusoe, presenting it as a true story. The extraordinarily convincing account of the shipwrecked Crusoe's successful efforts to make himself a tolerable existence in his solitude first revealed Defoe's genius for vivid fiction; it has a claim to be the first English novel. Defoe was nearly 60 when he wrote it.

The author tells how, with the help of a few stores and utensils saved from the wreck and the exercise of infinite ingenuity, Crusoe built himself a house, domesticated goats, and made himself a boat. He describes his struggle to accept the workings of Providence, the perturbation of his mind caused by a visit of cannibals, his rescue from death of an indigenous native he later names Friday, and finally the coming of an English ship whose crew are in a state of mutiny, the subduing of the mutineers, and Crusoe's rescue.

The book had immediate and permanent success, was translated into many languages, and inspired many imitations, known generically as 'Robinsonades', including *Philip Quarll, *Peter Wilkins, and *The Swiss Family Robinson. Defoe followed it with The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe (1719), in which with Friday he revisits his island, is attacked by a fleet of canoes on his departure, and loses Friday in the encounter. Serious Reflections . . . of Robinson Crusoe . . . with His Vision of the Angelick World, which is more a manual of piety than a work of fiction, appeared in 1720, and was never as popular. The influence of Robinson Crusoe has been very great. *Rousseau in Émile recommended  it as the book that should be studied by a growing boy, *Coleridge praised its evocation of 'the universal man', and *Marx in Das Kapital used it to illustrate economic theory in action.

In recent years 'Man (later Girl) Friday' came to describe a lowly assistant performing a multiplicity of tasks.

In The Rise of the Novel (1957) and other essays ian Watt provides one of the most controversial modern interpretations, relating Crusoe's predicament to the rise of bourgeois individualism, division of labour, and social and spiritual alienation. See David Blewett, The Illustration of Robinson Crusoe, 1719-1920 (1995).


Adventures of Captain Singleton, a romance of adventure by Defoe, published 1720.

Singleton, the first-person narrator, having been kidnapped in his infancy is sent to sea. Having 'no sense of virtue or religion', he takes part in a mutiny and is put ashore in Madagascar with his comrades; he reaches the continent of Africa and crosses it from east to west, encountering many adventures and obtaining much gold, which he dissipates on his return to England. He takes once more to the sea, becomes a pirate, carrying on his depredations in the West Indies, Indian Ocean, and China Seas, acquires great wealth, which he brings home, and finally marries the sister of a shipmate.



The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders, a romance by *Defoe, published 1722.

This purports to be the autobiography of the daughter of a woman who had been transported to Virginia for theft soon after her child's birth. The child, abandoned in England, is brought up in the house of the compassionate mayor of Colchester. The story relates her seduction, her subsequent marriages and liaisons, and her visit to Virginia, where she finds her mother and discovers that she has unwittingly married her own brother. After leaving him and returning to England, she is presently reduced to destitution. She becomes an extremely successful pickpocket and thief, but is presently detected and transported to Virginia in company with one of her former husbands, a highwayman. With the funds that each has amassed they set up as planters, and Moll moreover finds that she has inherited a plantation from her mother. She and her husband spend their declining years in an atmosphere of prosperity and ostensible penitence.



A Journal of the Plague Year, a historical fiction by *Defoe, published 1722.

It purports to be the narrative of a resident in London during 1664-5, the year of the Great Plague; the initials 'H.F.' which conclude it have been taken to refer to Defoe's uncle Henry Foe, a saddler, from whom the author may have heard some of the details he describes. It tells of the gradual spread of the plague, the terror of the inhabitants, and the steps taken by the authorities, such as the shutting up of infected houses and the prohibition of public gatherings. The symptoms of the disease, the circulation of the dead-carts, the burials in mass graves, and the terrible scenes witnessed by the supposed narrator are described with extraordinary vividness. The general effects of the epidemic, notably in the closing down of trading and the flight from the city, are also related, and an estimate of the total number of deaths is made. The Journal embodied information from various sources, including official documents; some scenes appear to have been borrowed from *Dekker's The Wonderfull Yeare (1603). Defoe's subject was suggested by fears of another outbreak, following the one in Marseilles in 1721 which occasioned Sir Robert *Walpole's unpopular Quarantine Act. *Hazlitt ascribed to the work 'an epic grandeur, as well as heart-breaking familiarity'.


Colonel Jack, The History and Remarkable Life of Colonel Jacque, Commonly Call'd, a romance of adventure by *Defoe, published 1722.

The supposed narrator, abandoned by his parents in childhood, falls into bad company and becomes a pickpocket. His profession grows distasteful to him, he enlists, and presently deserts to avoid being sent to serve in Flanders. He is kidnapped, sent to Virginia, and sold to a planter. He is promoted to be an overseer, is given his liberty, becomes himself a planter, and acquires much wealth. He returns home and has a series of unfortunate matrimonial adventures, but finally ends in prosperity and repentenace.


Roxana, or The Fortunate Mistress, a novel by *Defoe, published 1724.

This purports to be the autobiography of Mlle Beleau, the beautiful daughter of Prench Protestant refugees, brought up in England and married to a London brewer, who, having squandered his property, deserts her and her five children. She enters upon a career of prosperous wickedness, passing from one protector to another in England, France, and Holland, amassing much wealth, and receiving the name Roxana by accident, in consequence of a dance that she performs. She is accompanied in her adventures by a faithful maid, Amy, a very human figure. She marries a respectable Dutch merchant in London and subsequently lives as a person of consequence in Holland. When one of her daughters appears on the scene in London, Roxana dares not acknowledge her, fearing that her past life will be revealed to her new spouse and her life of security will be ruined. When Amy says she will murder the girl, if necessary, to silence her inquiries about Roxana's identity, Roxana is filled with horror and relief. Both Amy and the girl disappear, and Roxana, miserable and apprehensive, is tormented by her conscience. Her husband discerns her iniquity and soon thereafter dies, leaving her only a small sum of money. In the company of her alter ego Amy, Roxana descends into debt, poverty, and remorseful penitence.


Memoirs of a Cavalier, a historical romance most probably by Defoe, published 1724.

The pretended author, 'Col. Andrew Newport', a young English gentleman born in 1608, travels on the Continent, starting in 1630 goes to Vienna, and accompanies the army of the emperor, being present at the siege and sack of Magdeburg, which is vividly presented. He then joins the army of Gustavus Adolphus, remaining with it until the death of that king and taking part in a number of engagements which he describes in detail. After his return to England he joins the king's army, first against the Scots, then against the forces of Parliament, being present at the battle of Edgehill, which he fully describes, the relief of York, and the battle of Naseby.



Memoirs of an English Officer






Twelfth Night (Renaissance theatre)







The University Wits


From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.

John Lyly

Lyly, John (?1554-1606), the grandson of William *Lily. He was educated possibly at the King's School, Canterbury, then at Magdalen College, Oxford. He studied also at Cambridge. He wa MP successively for Hindon, Aylesbury, and Appleby (1589-1601), and supported the cause of the bishops in the *Martin Marprelate controversy in a satirical pamphlet, *Pappe with an Hatchet (1589). The first part of his *Euphues, the Anatomy of Wit appeared in 1578, and the second part, Euphues and His England, in 1580. Its peculiar style came to be known as 'Euphuism'. Among Lyly's plays, all of which were written for performance by boy actors to courtly audiences, are Alexander, Campaspe and Diogenes (see under Campaspe, its later title); Sapho and Phao (1584); Endimion (1591); Midas (1592), Mother Bombie (1594, see under Bumby). The attractive songs in the plays, including such well-known lyrics as 'Cupid and my Campaspe played', were first printed in Blount's collected edition of 1632; it is doubtful to what extent theyh are the work of Lyly. Although Euphues was Lyly's most popular and influential work in the Elizabethan period, his plays are now admired for their flexible use of dramatic prose and the elegant patterning of their construction. R. W. Bond edited Lyly's works in 1902, and there is a good study of him by G. K. Hunter, John Lyly: The Humanist as Courtier (1962).


George Peele

Peele, George (1556-96), the son of James Peele, clerk of Christ's Hospital and author of city pageants and books on accountancy. He was educated at *Christ's Hospital, Broadgates Hall (Pembroke College), and Christ Church, Oxford. From about 1581 he was mainly resident in London, and puruing an active and varied literary career. He was an associate of many other writers of the period, such as Thomas *Watson and Robert *Greene. His works fall into three main categories: plays, pageants, and 'gratulatory' and miscellaneous verse. His surviving plays are *The Araygnement of Paris (1585), Edward I (1593), *The Battle of Alcazar (1594); *The Old Wives Tale (1595); and *David and Fair Bethsabe (1599). His miscellaneous verse includes *Polyhymnia (1590) and The Hounour of the Garter (1593), a gratulatory poem to the Earl of Northumberland. Peele's work is dominated by courtly and patriotic themes, and his technical achievements include extending the range of non-dramatic blank verse. The jest book The Merrie Conceited Jests of George Peele (1607) seems to bear little relation to Peele's actual personality. His Life and Works were edited by C. T. Prouty (3 vols, 1952-70).



Robert Greene

Greene, Robert (1558-92), born in Norwich, educated at St John's College and Clare Hall, Cambridge, from 1575 until 1583, and incorporated at Oxford in 1588. From about 1585 he lived mainly in London. Although he liked to stress his connections with both universities, his later literary persona was that of a feckless drunkard, who abandoned his wife and children to throw himself on the mercies of tavern hostesses and courtesans; writing pamphlets and plays was supposedly a last resort when his credit failed. He is said to have died of a surfeit of Rhenish wine and pickled herrings, though it may more likely have been plague, of which there was a severe outbreak in 1592. Greene was attacked at length by Gabriel *Harvey in Foure Letters (1592) as the 'Ape of Euphues' and 'Patriarch of shifters'; *Nashe defended him in Strange Newes in the same year, acknowledging Greene to have been a drunkard and a debtor, but claiming that 'Hee inherited more vertues than vices.' Greene's 37 publications, progressing from moral dialogues to prose romances, romantic plays, and finally realistic accounts of underworld life, bear out Nashe's assertion that printers were only too glad 'to pay him deare for the very dregs of his wit'. The sententious moral tone of his works suggests that his personal fecklessness and deathbed repentance may have been partly a pose.

Among the more attractive of his romances are the Lylyan sequel Euphues his Censure to Philautus (1587); *Pandosto: The Triumph of Time and Perimedes the Blacke-Smith (1588); *Menaphon (1589). Among his 'repentance' pamphlets are Greenes Mourning Garment and Greenes Never too Late (1590) and the work attributed to him *Greenes Groats-Worth of Witte (1592). Greenes Vision (1592) is a fictionalized acccount of his deathbed repentance in which he receives advice from *Chaucer, *Gower, and King Solomon. The low-life pamphlets include A Notable Discover of Coosenage (1591) and three 'conny-catching' pamphlets in the same years 1591-2. His eight plays were all published posthumously. The best known are Orlando furioso (1595), *Frier Bacon and Frier Bongay (1594) and *James the Fouth (1598), of which there are editions by J. A. Lavin and N. Sanders.

Greene is now best known for his connections with Shakespeare. The attack on him in the Groats-Worth of Witte (below) as an 'upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers' is the first reference to Shakespeare as a London dramatist, and his Pandosto provided Shakespare with the source for *The Winter's Tale. The voluminousness of Greene's works and the supposed profligacy of his life have caused him to be identified with the typical Elizabethan hack writer; he probably provided a name and a model for the swaggering Nick Greene in Virginia *Woolf's Orlando (1928) . Green's works were edited in 15 volumes by *Grosart (1881-6).

Greenes Groats-Worth of Witte, Bought with a Million of Repentance, a prose tract attributed to Robert *Greene, but edited and perhaps written by Henry *Chettle, published 1592.

It begins with the death of the miser Gorinius, who leaves the bulk of his large fortune to his elder son Lucanio, and only 'an old groat' to the younger, Roberto (i.e. the author), 'wherewith I wish him to buy a groatsworth of wit'. Roberto conspires with a courtesan to fleece his brother, but the courtesan betrays him, subsequently ruining Lucanio for her sole profit. The gradual degradation of Roberto is then narrated, and the tract ends with the curious 'Address' to his fellow playwrights *Marlowe, *Lodge, and *Peele, urging them to spend their wits to better purpose than the making of plays. It contains the well-known passage aobut the 'upstart Crow, beautified with our feathers', the *'Johannes fac totum¡, who 'is in his owne conceit the onely Shake-scene in a countrey', which probably refers to Shakespeare as a non-graduate dramatist newly arrived in London.


Thomas Lodge

Lodge, Thomas  (1558-1625), son of Sir Thomas Lodge, lord mayor of London, educated at Merchant Taylors' School, London, and Trinity Colelge, Oxford. He was a student of Lincoln's Inn in 1578. In 1579 he pubished an anonymous Defence of Poetyr, Music, and Stage Plays, a reply to *Gosson's Schoole of Abuse, and in 1584 An Alarum against Usurers (dedicated to Sir Philip *Sidney), depicting the danger that moneylenders present to young spendthrifts. Appended to it was a prose romance Forbonius and Prisceria. *Scillaes Metamorphosis, an Ovidian verse fable, was published in 1589. In about 1586 Lodge sailed on a privateering expedition to the Terceras and the Canaries, and in 1591-3 to South America. On the earlier voyage he wrote his best-known romance *Rosalynde (1590), 'hatcht in the stormes of the Ocean, and feathered in the surges of many perillous seas'. After four more minor prose romances he published Phillis: Honoured with Pastorall Sonnets, Elegies, and Amorous Delights (1593), including many poems adapted from Italian and French models , to which was appended 'The Complaynt of Elstred', the story of the unhappy mistress of King *Locrine. His play The Wounds of Civill War (1594), about Marius and Sulla, had been performed by the Lord Admiral's Men; he also wrote A Looking Glasse for London and England (1594), in collaboration with Robert *Greene. It is not clear whether he wrote any other plays. A Fig for Momus (1595) was a miscellaneous collection of satirical poems including epistles addressed to Samuel *Daniel and Michael *Drayton. Wits Miserie, and the Worlds Madnesse: Discovering the Devils Incarnate of this Age was published in 1596, as was a remarkable romance, *A Margarite of America, written during his second voyage, under Thomas Cavendish, while they were near the Magellan Straits. Lodge soon after this became a Roman Catholic, and studied medicine at Avignon; he was incorporated MD at Oxford in 1602, and in the next year published A Treatise of the Plague. He completed two major works of translation: The Famous and Memorable Works of Josephus (1602), which was frequently reprinted, and The Workes of Lucius Annaeus Seneca (1614). His last work was a translation of Goulart's commentary on *Du Bartas (1621). Lodge is now mainly remembered for Rosalynde and for the lyrics scattered throughout his romances. His works were edited by E. *Gosse (4 vols, 1883).





Other "University Wits":

Thomas Nashe

Thomas Watson


Thomas Kyd

Christopher Marlowe


 







Martes 5 de noviembre de 2013

Tres veleros y dos islas

Tres veleros y dos islas




Women.&Lit


Mi bibiografía sobre mujeres y literatura, y mujeres en la literatura, procedente de... mi bibiografía. Donde hay otras listas complementarias: sobre mujeres novelistas, personajes femeninos, estudios de mujeres, crítica feminista, etc.  Vamos, que cualquier día me convierto en una referencia o incluso una autoridad en lo que se refiere a mujeres.

Women.&Lit "escribdizada" por Maria Carmen Perez












Lunes 4 de noviembre de 2013

Cognitive Anthropology (Top Ten)

Mi artículo Hierarchically Minded: Levels of Intentionality and Mind Reading ha sido distribuido en una revista de antropología del Social Science Research Network, Psychological Anthropology eJournal,  y ahora figura en esta lista de top ten de "Antropología cognitiva".




The Twins who Share a Body








Sentiments and Spectators: Adam Smith's Moral Philosophy



A lecture by Geoffrey Sayre-McCord, "Sentiments and Spectators: Adam Smith's Moral Philosophy." (The Human Nature Tradition in Anglo-Scottish Philosophy: History and Future Prospects. The Shalem Center, Jerusalem, Dec. 14-17, 2009). YouTube (gsmunc)
         http://youtu.be/oxXeDFjxRUw
       





Señoras tomando el sol

Señoras tomando el sol 



Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded



From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.

Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded, a novel by *Samuel Richardson, published 1740-1.

The first of Richardson's three novels, Pamela consists, like them, entirely of letters and journals, of which Richardson presents himself as the 'editor'.

He believed he had hit upon 'a new species of writing' but he was not the inventor of the *epistolary novel, several of which already existed in English and French. He did however raise the form to a level hitherto unknown, and transformed it to display his own particular skills.

There are six correspondents in Pamela, most with their own particular style and point of view, but Pamela herself provides most of the letters and journals, with the 'hero', Mr B., having only two. Pamela Andrews is a handsome, intelligent girl of 15 when her kind employer Lady B.  dies. Penniless and withou protection, Pamela is pursued by Mr B., Lady B.'s son, but she repulses him and remains determined to retain her chastity and her unsullied conscience. Letters reveal Mr B's cruel dominance and pride, but also Pamela's half-acknowledged tenderness for him, as well as her vanity, prudence, and calculation. Angrily Mr B., separates her from her friends, Mrs Jervis the housekeeper and Mr Longman the steward, and dispatches her to B— Hall, his remote house in Lincolnshire, where she is imprisoned, guarded, and threatened by the cruel Mrs. Jewkes. Only the chaplain, Mr Williams, is her friend, but he is powerless to help. For 40 days, allowed no visits or correspondence, she keeps a detailed journal, analysing her situation and her feelings, and at the same time revealing her faults of prudence and pride. She despairs, and begins to think of suicide. Mr B., supposing her spirit must now be broken, arrives at B— Hall, and thinking himself generous, offers to make her his mistress and keep her in style. She refuses indignantly, and he later attempts to rape her and then to arrange a mock-marriage. Two scenes by the pond mark a turning point in their relationship. Both begin to be aware of their faults, and of the genuine nature of their affection. However, Pamela again retreats and refuses his proposal of marriage. She is sent away from B— Hall, but a message gives her a last chance. Overcoming her pride and caution, she decides to trust him, accepts his offer, and they are married. In the remaining third of the book Pamela's goodness wins over even lady Davers, mr. B's supercilious sister, and becomes a model of virtue to her circle of admiring friends; but (as in Pamela, Part II) the author's creative drive becomes overwhelemed by his urge to moralize.

The book was highly successful and fashionable, and further editions were soon called for. Richardson felt obliged to continue his story, not only becaue of the success of Pamela but because of the number of forged continuations that began to appear. Pamela, Part II appeared in 1741. Here Pamela is exhibited, thorugh various small and separate instances, as the perfect wife, patiently leading her profligate husband to reform; a mother who adores (and breastfeeds) her children, and a friend who is at the disposal of all, and who brings about the penitence of the wicked. Much space is given over to discussion of moral, domestic, and general subjects.

*Shamela (1741, almost certainly by *Fielding) vigorously mocked what the author regarded as the hypocritical morality of Pamela; and Fielding's Joseph Andrews, which begins as a parody of Pamela, appeared in 1742.


Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded: A Study Guide





Alan Macfarlane on (Academic) Writing




Domingo 3 de noviembre de 2013

Christopher Hitchens on Why Orwell Matters












Totalitarismo, historia retroactiva y control interiorizado





An Apology for Actors

Not the one written by Thomas Heywood, but an apocryphal apology for actors and theatre, in the context of a conversation on 16th-century London, put in Shakespeare's mouth by Christopher Rush, in his novel Will (2007).

Whores and actors are not so far apart—both faking it for cash, and both die and rise again. But the Puritans accepted the whores as they could never accept the actors. Whores descended from Eve, theology sound as Genesis. The prostitue was easy to understand and to embrace. She was recognizable—her feet go down to death, her steps take hold on hell, her cunt is a cauldron of unholy lusts, and there is no whore without Eve. No Eve, no sin; no sin, no damnation; no damnation, no redemption—no Christ, no Church, no Pope. And no Pope, no Reformation, no Puritan to oppose the Great Whore herself, Babylon the great. The whores of London, kept the Puritan in his post, gave him his living. The Puritan could not exist without the whore. Whoredom was as needful to his church as it was to fallen man, fornicating his life away in London.poor urich

'And the players?'

With the players it was the contrary. Actors descend from neither Adam nor Eve but from Satan, who came onto the world's stage disguised as a serpent. It was the first costume and the devil the original actor, and a good one too. His tongue dropped honey and Eve was taken in. She fell down and worshipped him and her suddenly naked navel became the entrance to the theatre. That's why Puritans and players could never live together. Our false idols lined the route to hell—Dick Tarleton, Ned Alleyn, Bill Kempe popular as primroses—and so the player was far more damnable than the whore.

'Mass magic'

Your whore can take only one man at a time. If a dozen a day go through her she's doing well by doing ill. But a single player, he could command an entire theatre of spectators in one speech. In one world.

'Why, they would hang on him—'

As if increase of appetite had grown by what it fed on. One word? I tell you even a word was not necessary. Windy suspiration of forcèd breath, a sweeping gesture, your fingers on your lips I pray, yes, even silence. Even the very thought of silence. To die: to sleep; no more.

'No more.'

And that's how it was done. Nailed them to the ground and galleries and kept them from the pulpits, lured them to the theatres instead, to applaud the actors to the very echo that should applaud again, to wait breathless in the London afternoon for the next word, for the very next syllable. Oh yes, the player could do all this, all this and more. He was the god of the groundlings, idol of the aristocrats. The Puritan, though he played the orator as well as Nestor, could never sermonise an audience into such submission. Even the silver-tongued friar who made the fields his pulpit—the audiences walked over his ghost, trampling him into daisies, and streamed straight into the theatres. Fear had been the weapon up till now. But now seduction was stronger than fear, and seduction was in the air—no, it was in the air, the very air we breathed. And all the Puritan could do was rage.

'Conscience, morality, divine reason?'

It was the theatres that brought men's humanity out of chests and closets and whispering chambers and placed it up on stage, where a handful of poor players, with four or five most vile and ragged foils, right ill disposed in brawl ridiculous, blazoned it to the world. As for right reason, the fear of God, wisdom, understanding, the knowledge of the holy—ah, these are not the stuff as dreams are made on, these are but pale shadoes of people beside the player's ability to be a walking mirror to everyman, to show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, and the very age and body of the time his form and pressure, to make every spectator in that wooden circle see himself standing up there, standing up in the world for exactly what he is: man, tragical-comical, historical-pastoral, aspiring-despairing, delighted-deluded, in love, in hate, in heaven, in hell, a thing of darkness and of light, a lover, a tyrant, a madman, a poet, a dragon, a worm. So the poor player that struts and frets his hour upon the stage was rich in that one enormous regard, his ability to see himself and present himself in the round and inside out by a species of sorcery that left the Puritan gaping.

    For the player was the man who showed you life as it is, not as it ought to be, who said what he felt, not what he ought to say.

'Truth's a dog must to kennel, I remember from somewhere.'

But a man's occulted guilt can itself unkennel in one speech, and guilty creatures sitting at a play are struck so to the soul that suddenly their spirits are off the leash and barking out the theatre, howling through the world. Did the spectator leave the theatre a purged and purer person? Or did he leave it corrupted? All a player can say is that he sent the theatre-goer out more human than he'd come in—which is the end of art and no bad boast: to make us more ourselves, not less ourselves, as the Puritans would have had it, by plucking us out of the murk and mire of humankind.

    Whatever the truth, the Puritan feared the player. And he feared the play, which staged several players, and the playhouse, which put out many plays. Theatres were outposts of hell, Satan's garrisons. Hell was an occupying force in England and its legions were in London, where the traffic of the stage took two thousand to hell in two hours. A frightening figure. Worse—with half a dozen plays running on any given afternoon the theatres were capable of ushering the entire cast of London into hell in ten days flat—which ought to have pleased your Puritan. So many souls bound straight for hell, with damnèd speeches buzzing in their ears, surely all the greater space for the elect and élite of God in their silent white heaven. But that perhaps is what they feared most—being with themselves.

'So you hated them, Will.'

The very name's a lie. Puritan. To the Puritan all things were impure. They could find no good in man, nor any god in man, and they lashed man himself and his eternal companion and corrupter, woman, for all evils. Even the queen was not spared. And puritan Stubbes, who pamphleteered against her, had his offending hand cut off. But in all their accusations they never accused themselves, though within their snow-broth blood there bubbled the same old cauldron of unholy appetites. Your Puritan wants to fuck the thing he fears and then to kill the thing he fucks—or, if he cannot have it, he must kill it to ease his fury. What was he really? At best he was a boil on the bum, spoiling your seat in the theatre: at worst a wild beast in the bowels. The ultimate revenge is to put him in the play, show him sick of self-love and laugh him to scorn—or stop the laughter and make the people hate him for what he is: ambassador of death, killer of laughter, a syphilis in the soul, a negation of all that is human and lovely and of good report.

'And graven images—?'

Are what we want—and what the players give us. We long for imitation. We long to be happy. Only the gods are bored. And the Puritans wanted us to be as gods. So I gave them instead unregenerate man, incapable of their Jesus: the poor wild Bedlam who ate the old rat in the fury of his heart, and the darkness that was Caliban. I gave them not their strait and narrow gateway to God, but the broad primrose way, the playhouse way. For the theatre was the only place in London you could go to outside the ale-house to hear an honest comment on our lives, uncolored by fear of God or the grave. Here the players were indeed the only men. Their theatres were islands of art rising out of the crude sea of corruption that surrounded them on all sides. They were the clear bright bells of London, beating loudly and sweetly over the sodden city.

(Christopher Rush, Will, Beautiful Books, 2007, pp. 200-204).

'Like a Comet I Was Wonder'd At': Shakespeare y las supernovas






Enunciación, ficción y niveles semióticos


ENUNCIACIÓN, FICCIÓN Y NIVELES SEMIÓTICOS — scribdizado por Mariana Augello Ortiz

Everything and Nothing


Second Sight 2



Second Sight 2





Sábado 2 de noviembre de 2013

Alan Macfarlane on Adam Smith






An excellent overview, with awful sound. Someone, possibly me, should transcribe and translate this. I have just subscribed to Alan Macfarlane's YouTube channel.

More Smith:

Why Is The Wealth of Nations So Important? Adam Smith and Classical Economics. (Book TV – C-Span2). 2010. YouTube (The Film Archives) 17 Aug. 2013.
    http://youtu.be/pOksHxsR_2w




Muqaddimah






Zirano Cúpula en Dialnet

Dialnet

Zirano Cúpula, una aplicación de las variables conceptuales de la semántica conceptual multilenguaje




google.com/+JoséAngelGarcíaLanda

Es mi nueva URL de Google Plus,

http://google.com/+JoséAngelGarcíaLanda

De momento no me cobran por ella, pero "podrían empezar a cobrarme." En fin, hasta ahora Google me sale barato, en relación calidad/precio.

Y un aviso del mañana contra estas cosas, contra el síndrome TMI (Too Much Information), y contra el Colossus GoogleBot, straddling the world— a cargo de Dave Eggers y Margaret Atwood. "What happens to us if we must be 'on' all the time? Then we’re in the twenty-four-hour glare of the supervised prison. To live entirely in public is a form of solitary confinement."


Mi perfil de Google




My First-born Son



My eldest son




Viernes 1 de noviembre de 2013

Irrelevance Theory

A la memoria me ha venido un trozo de mi fallida memoria de oposición a cátedras—que me lo he encontrado re-electrocutado en CoolEssay. Se titula así:

"Filología, Lingüística y Teoría Literaria: Sobre 'Subáreas' e Interfaces en Filología Inglesa."

 Últimamente sólo hay que meter el brazo en la red a ver qué encuentras, y sacas alguna versión reconvertida o pirateada o multiplicada de tus propias publicaciones, subida por algún servicial robot, o un sufrido y pálido humano, a algún repositorio de China o de Rusia. En este caso los gráficos no han pasado bien la conversión. Mejor se ven en esta revista electrónica, que es de donde habrá venido el artículo:

Cognitive Linguistics: Cognition, Language, Gesture eJournal

ver fecha de 20 de julio de 2012.

Hay que decir que el razonamiento escéptico con las subáreas y los subareantes no convenció nada al tribunal, partidario decididamente de oposiciones basadas en una oposición estricta y excluyente entre lingüistas y literatos. Digo que no los convenció, suponiendo que se leyesen algo de esto, que mucha prisa se tenían que haber dado. Más bien estaba la cosa ya bastante decidida de antemano.

Tiene una companion piece, si les interesa, titulada:

"La Filología y la Lingüística inglesa en el marco de los estudios universitarios en Zaragoza."

Tampoco agradó. Menos agradó todavía mi defensa de mi candidatura, en la que se me acusó de jactarme demasiado de mis méritos. Y eso que el tribunal admitió que tenía muchos.... y que estábamos en la parte de la oposición vulgarmente llamada autobombo, en la que debería haber obtenido yo algún éxito. Pues hasta eso estaba de más. Es que cuando hay oposición, es difícil sacarla, o claramente imposible, y los méritos acumulados se vuelven irrelevantes. Cuando no la hay, en cambio, los méritos se vuelven (también) irrelevantes. In my experience.

Tolkien Talking




En el Consorcio

Salgo referenciado o catalogado, según veo, en la Biblioteca Nacional de España. Y en un consorcio internacional de bibliotecas asociadas a ella, que figura en esta página llamada VIAF (Fichero de Autoridades Virtual Internacional):




También hacen constar ahí otros datos, como mis coautores, principales editores y demás. 

Lo del Consorcio me ha recordado a esta pareja, y al Cantinero de Cuba:

 




Foundations of Modern Social Thought


A video course at Yale University:
Iván Szelényi,  Foundations of Modern Social Thought (SOCY 151).  YouTube (YaleCourses) 4 March 2011.
    http://youtu.be/hd33BahdAjs
   











The Screen and the Curtain

The Screen and the Curtain



Microblog de noviembre 2013



30 nov 13, 20:26
JoseAngel: ¡Fuera estos tíos del gobierno, y de la política, y que no vuelvan nunca más!
30 nov 13, 20:26
JoseAngel: Un grave atentado del gobierno de Rajoy a la libertad de expresión: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-11-30/sin-complejos-programa-completo-30112013-66881.html
29 nov 13, 08:37
JoseAngel: Y hoy unos títulos de y sobre Ovidio: http://es.convdocs.org/docs/index-5586.html
28 nov 13, 15:46
JoseAngel: Bibliography on a Shakespeare comedy—THE TAMING OF THE SHREW: http://es.convdocs.org/docs/index-47548.html
28 nov 13, 00:45
JoseAngel: Gray's Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard Study Guide: http://www.cummingsstudyguides.net/ThoGray.html
27 nov 13, 13:13
JoseAngel: CARTA - What Is Theory of Mind? http://youtu.be/TFTe3z5ISGo
25 nov 13, 21:16
JoseAngel: Grande Marlaska hizo su trabajito sucio... y ya ha ascendido, como el corcho blanco.
25 nov 13, 21:00
JoseAngel: La enseñanza del arte como fraude: http://esferapublica.org/nfblog/?p=23857
25 nov 13, 09:22
JoseAngel: Crítica sobre cine por países: http://kk.convdocs.org/docs/index-192668.html
24 nov 13, 12:24
JoseAngel: Anthropology Comes to Life (Tim Ingold) http://savoirsenmultimedia.ens.fr/expose.php?id=884
23 nov 13, 22:42
JoseAngel: Solución imaginaria a problema real: http://garciala.blogia.com/2013/112304-solucion-imaginaria-a-problema-real.php
23 nov 13, 15:04
JoseAngel: Purcell: Rondeau from Abelazer suite: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dGINE0i1a4E
22 nov 13, 22:28
JoseAngel: Estoy en portada del LITERARY THEORY & CRITICISM EJOURNAL: http://www.ssrn.com/link/English-Lit-Theory-Criticism.html
22 nov 13, 21:54
JoseAngel: Cárceles y mundos de la mente: http://garciala.blogia.com/2013/112202-carceles-y-mundos-de-la-mente.php
21 nov 13, 23:58
JoseAngel: TOMÁS MORO, de Shakespeare et al., en el Principal: http://moncayo.unizar.es/unizara/actividadesculturales.nsf/1f352c678bece1b3c1256cdd006ad325/c3ea0a9a894bc4f7c1257c27003625ea?OpenDocument
21 nov 13, 20:06
JoseAngel: Daniel Innerarity sobre "El lado menos amable de la Red" http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1311/131121_z0_2.pdf
21 nov 13, 12:37
JoseAngel: Jose Angel Garcia Landa Author Rank is 2,753 out of 240,282
17 nov 13, 16:03
JoseAngel: Habermas on Myth and Ritual: http://youtu.be/qA4iw3V0o1c
20 nov 13, 00:09
JoseAngel: La colonización PARTIDISTA del CGPJ: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2013-11-19/editorial-de-luis-herrero-la-renovacion-del-cgpj-66416.html
17 nov 13, 16:03
JoseAngel: Habermas on Myth and Ritual: http://youtu.be/qA4iw3V0o1c
17 nov 13, 15:38
JoseAngel: Alfred Schütz (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy): http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/schutz/
16 nov 13, 16:13
JoseAngel: Intersubjektivität bei Alfred Schütz: http://youtu.be/tVUYFAVq-UQ
16 nov 13, 11:35
JoseAngel: Estoy en las Wikipedias: http://garciala.blogia.com/2013/111606-estoy-en-las-wikipedias.php
15 nov 13, 22:01
JoseAngel: Dickens para TV, OLIVER TWIST (BBC 2007): http://youtu.be/Rbd7HD0uo8M
14 nov 13, 23:50
JoseAngel: A list on Abandoned Lovers: http://es.scribd.com/doc/150576017/
14 nov 13, 22:14
JoseAngel: Aquí aparezco en el Classics Research Network: http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/JELJOUR_Results.cfm?form_name=journalbrowse&journal_id=948047
11 nov 13, 09:26
JoseAngel: Mi bibliografía sobre Cleanth Brooks, ese que fue "New Critic" http://www.docstoc.com/docs/150153447/
11 nov 13, 00:34
JoseAngel: Gender, I-deology & Addictive Representation: http://www.unizar.es/departamentos/filologia_inglesa/garciala/publicaciones/genderideology.html
9 nov 13, 10:37
JoseAngel: Por aquí mi bibliografía de cosas que empiezan por R: http://coolessay.org/docs/index-98990.html
8 nov 13, 10:57
JoseAngel: Thomas Kyd: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Kyd
7 nov 13, 12:46
JoseAngel: Y también en esta tesis un tanto litúrgica: http://es.scribd.com/doc/56517884/Let-All-Creation-Rejoice-Orthodoxy-and-Creation-Between-Liturgical-Expression-and-Contemporary-Reality
7 nov 13, 12:40
JoseAngel: Me citan en este artículo sobre creación audiovisual en cine y TV: http://es.scribd.com/doc/90883118/La-creacion-audiovisual-en-la-investigacion-en-television
5 nov 13, 16:46
JoseAngel: Guy Fawkes, de espantajo público a héroe de los Indignados, vía V de Vendetta. Ahora hasta Felipe Froilán vende sus máscaras.
5 nov 13, 10:41
JoseAngel: Dozo doce horas de clase - ahora voy a la primera.
4 nov 13, 17:50
JoseAngel: Recuerdos desde Zaragoza.
3 nov 13, 12:05
JoseAngel: A real Sunday.
2 nov 13, 22:12
JoseAngel: Tenemos a Vitoré de visita.
2 nov 13, 14:02
JoseAngel: Una publicación poco celebrada de Bécquer: http://www.20minutos.es/galeria/3057/0/0/borbones/pelota/becquer/
1 nov 13, 22:39
JoseAngel: Aquí en día de difuntos viendo viejos vídeos caseros, versión moderna de las apariciones.
1 nov 13, 14:07
JoseAngel: No tengo conversación.
1 nov 13, 11:48
JoseAngel: El rey a las víctimas del terrorismo: No os rindáis, que para eso ya estamos nosotros.