a la Literatura Inglesa

3º de Grado en Lenguas Modernas (UZ)
José Angel García Landa
Curso 2017-18
Guía docente de la asignatura - 30432  
Dirección de esta web:
Horario de clases: Lunes y martes, 17,30-19,30

Horario de tutorías
(Despacho 45a de Filología Inglesa)
Lunes y martes 12-13,30;
miércoles y jueves, 17-19

Empezamos con la literatura norteamericana del siglo XIX.... traed las lecturas de Washington Irving y de Fenimore Cooper.

Ya podéis realizar en red las encuestas de esta asignatura (y de otras que tengáis abiertas). La campaña finalizará el día 12 de enero de 2018. En la página web < >  se puede consultar la información relativa al uso de la plataforma, cuestionarios, resultados de las encuestas de otros cursos académicos así como un apartado de Preguntas Frecuentes. ¡Animaos a participar, que aunque no cuesta nada, la mayoría de la gente no lo hace!


HENRY JAMES         (1843-1916)

_____. Roderick Hudson. Novel. 1876.
_____. The American. Novel. 1877.
_____.  The Europeans: A Sketch. 1878.
_____. Daisy Miller. Novella. 1879.
_____. The Portrait of a Lady. Novel. 1881.
_____. Washington Square. Novel. 1881.
_____. The Aspern Papers. Novel. Atlantic (March-May 1888).
_____. The Bostonians. 1886.
_____. The Princess Cassamassima. Novel. 1886. .
_____. "The Real Thing." Story.
_____. "The Middle Years." Story. 1893.
_____. Guy Domville. Play. 1895.
_____. "The Figure in the Carpet." Story.
_____. The Spoils of Poynton. Novel. 1897.
_____. What Maisie Knew. Novel. 1897.
_____. The Turn of the Screw. Novel. Collier's (January-April 1898).
_____. The Awkward Age. Novel. 1899.
_____. The Wings of the Dove. Novel. 1902.
_____. The Ambassadors. Novel. 1903.
_____. The Golden Bowl. Novel. 1904.
_____. "The Jolly Corner." Story. In James, The Ghostly Tales.
_____. Notes on Novelists. 1914.
_____. A Small Boy and Others. Memoir.
_____. The Middle Years. Memoir. Online at Project Gutenberg.*
The Art of the Novel: Critical Essays
. 1934.

 Henry James, US/British novelist and essayist; b. New York, son of Henry James, Sr.; brother of William and Alice James; irregular international education, st. law at Harvard; writer for US periodicals, friend of W. D. Howells; l. Britain 1875-, 1st London, 1898 moved to Rye; unmarried, repressed homosexual, no sentimental attachments, inveterate socialite; author of psychological novels, theorist of narrative point of view and the art of fiction.

Richard Gray, a chapter on American 19th-c. realism and Henry James: Capturing the Real Thing.



A film by James Ivory based on  THE BOSTONIANS
- with Spanish subtitles.

On Henry James and the art of fiction: Narrative perspective and psychological realism: On Henry James's Theory of the Novel


A la vuelta de Navidades trataremos rápidamente algunos de los principales autores norteamericanos de la segunda mitad del XIX: Hawthorne, Melville, Walt Whitman; Mark Twain, y Henry James.   Entretanto, aquí hay algunas notas sobre los autores que no veremos en clase:

STEPHEN CRANE    (1871-1900)

(US journalist and man of letters, b. New Jersey, youth in upstate New York, st. Lafayette College and Syracuse U, no degree, reporter in NY City for the Herald and Tribune; sucess with Red Badge, war reporter; expedition to Cuba and shipwreck; reporter in the Greco-Turkish war and the Spanish Civil War; back to NY, common-law wife Cora, bohemian atmosphere, notorious; travelled to England, reporter at the Spanish-American war in Cuba, decreased power as writer, d. of tuberculosis while on cure in Germany)


Crane, Stephen. Maggie: A Girl of the Streets.  Novel. 1893.
_____. The Red Badge of Courage: An Episode of the American Civil War. Novel. 1895.
_____. The Black Riders and Other Lines. Poems. New York: Copeland and Day, 1895.
_____. The Little Regiment and Other Stories of the American Civil War. Stories. 1896.
_____. George's Mother. Novel. 1896.
_____. The Open Boat, and Other Tales of Adventure. 1898.
_____. "The Monster" and Other Stories. New York and London : Harper, 1899.
_____. War is Kind. Poems. 1899.
_____. Whilomville Stories. 1900.
_____. Wounds in the Rain. Stories and sketches. 1900.

Notes on Stephen Crane from The Oxford Companion to American Literature. 

Stephen Crane. In The Literature Network

_____. The Red Badge of Courage. Online at Project Gutenberg.

A poem from Stephen Crane's The Black Riders (1895):







huckleberry finn
Iremos acabando el curso con unos pocos autores norteamericanos:  Whitman,  Mark Twain,  Henry James...  De todos los demás autores del siglo XIX voy dejando algún apunte por la web, pero en su defecto acudid a los manuales para tener al menos una noción general de su figura y estilo.  Recordad que la literatura del siglo XX no entrará para tema; sólo para comentario o traducción, y para preguntas cortas.

MARK TWAIN         (1835-1910)

_____. The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Calaveras County and Other Sketches. 1867.
_____. The Innocents Abroad. Satirical travel narrative. 1869.
_____. Roughing It. Frontier sketches. 1872.
_____. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. Children's novel. 1876.
_____. A Tramp Abroad. 1880.
_____. The Prince and the Pauper. Historical novel. 1882.
_____. Life on the Mississippi. 1883.
_____. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Novel. 1884.
_____. A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur's Court. Fantasy novel. 1889.
_____. The Tragedy of Pudd'nhead Wilson. Detective story. 1894.
_____. Following the Equator. Travel sketches. 1897.
_____. What Is Man? Philosophical dialogue. 1906.
_____. The Mysterious Stranger. 1916.
_____. Letters from the Earth. Ed. Bernard De Voto. 1963. (Satan as foreign visitor).
_____. Autobiography. Uncensored ed. Pub. 2010, 2013.
Twain, Mark, and C. D. Warner. The Gilded Age. Novel. 1873.

Mark Twain, pseudonym of Samuel Langhorne Clemens, US novelist, journalist and humourist; b. Florida, Missouri; childhood in Hannibal; l. Philadelphia, St. Louis, Hartford, etc.; printer and popular writer, affluent; friend of  William Dean Howells; bankrupt 1894 though bad printing investments; travelled round the world as successful lecturer; frontier humorist, evolves from American optimism to disillusioned pessimism, critic of imperialism and religious beliefs, d. Hartford, CT.

Hart and Leininger. "Mark Twain." (From the Oxford Companion to American Literature):

La autobiografía de Mark Twain, obra póstuma recientemente publicada, en el sitio del Mark Twain. Una presentación: El blog de Mark Twain.

Y pensamientos anticristianos de Mark Twain sobre Dios y la religión.

Un texto en red de The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn



A lecture on The Wit and Wisdom of Mark Twain


EMILY DICKINSON    (1830-1886)
_____.  "After Great Pain, a Formal Feeling Comes." Poem.
_____. "Because I Could Not Stop for Death."
_____. "There's been a Death, in the Opposite House."
_____. "The Soul Selects."
_____. "There is no Frigate like a Book."
_____. "I felt a Funeral, in my Brain."
_____. "I started Early—Took my Dog."
_____. "Much Madness is Divinest Sense."
_____. "A Light exists in Spring."
_____. Poems by Emily Dickinson.  1890-96, etc.

Emily Dickinson, US poet, spinster, recluse. Daughter of Edward Dickinson, lawyer in Amherst, MA; st. Amherst Academy, and Mount Holyoke Female Seminary; l. secluded at home from 1862, intense frienships and epistolary relationship with Benjamin F. Newton, Rev. Charles Wadsworth, T. W. Higginson and others; did not publish in her lifetime, wrote for herself.



Advanced level:  "Our Life in Poetry: Emily Dickinson." Panel discussion at the Philoctetes Center. YouTube (Philoctetes Center)

Hay una película reciente, A Quiet Passion (Historia de una pasión) sobre Emily Dickinson, que es una de las pocas autoras de nuestro programa. Quizá la podáis localizar. Película lenta, poética y triste, aviso.

WALT WHITMAN   (1819-1892)
_____. "Song of Myself." In Whitman, Leaves of Grass. 1855.
_____. Leaves of Grass. 1855-1892.
_____. "Song of the Broad-Axe."
_____. "Starting from Paumanok."
_____. "Once I Passed through a Populous City."
_____. "O Captain! My Captain!" Elegy on Lincoln. From Drum Taps & sequel 1867.
_____. "Pioneers! O Pioneeers."
_____. Democratic Vistas. Prose.  1871. (American literature; Transcendentalism; Politics; Commerce; Nature; Nature of literature)
_____. Memoranda during the War. Prose. 1875.
_____. "Whoever You Are Holding Me Now in Hand." Poem.
_____. "Years of the Modern." From  Leaves of Grass.

Walt Whitman, US poet, writer of celebratory free verse; democrat, patriot and homosexual.



Wood, Barry. "Walt Whitman's Song of the Soul." Video lecture at YouTube (University of Houston) 17 Feb. 2010.*

Walt Whitman: American Experience. Online at YouTube:

Et, en français: Une vie, une œuvre - Walt Whitman (audio France Culture).


Nivel avanzado: Harold Bloom, a lecture on Walt Whitman.



HERMAN MELVILLE         (1819-1891)

_____. Typee. Novel. 1846.
_____. Omoo: A Narrative of Adventures in the South Seas. Novel. 1847.
_____. Redburn: His First Voyage. Novel. 1848.
_____. Mardi: And a Voyage Thither. Novel. 1849.
_____. White-Jacket; or, The World in a Man-of-War. Novel. 1850.
_____. Moby-Dick: or, The Whale. Novel. 1851.
_____. Pierre, or the Ambiguities. Novel. 1852.
_____. "Benito Cereno." Story. In Melville, The Piazza Tales. 1856.
_____. "Bartleby the Scrivener." Story. In The Piazza Tales. 1856.
_____. The Confidence-Man: His Masquerade. Satirical narrative. 1857.
_____. Clarel: A Poem and Pilgrimage to the Holy Land. Long poem. 1876.
_____. Billy Budd, Sailor. Novel. Posth. 1924.

Herman Melville, US novelist, b. New York, sailor in the Atlantic and the Pacific 1839-44, l. Boston, schoolteacher and customs officer, friend of Nathaniel Hawthorne, traveled Holy Land, commercially unsuccessful after early best-sellers, frustrated man of letters.

Herman Melville on Wikipedia

Moby Dick, or, The Whale. Online at Project Gutenberg.*

White whales are rare. But they do exist.


The Scarlet Letter. Una película de 1934 sobre la novela de Hawthorne.


Hawthorne and Melville, from Richard Gray's History of American literature.


Una lección sobre The Scarlet Letter de Hawthorne—de la Universidad de Houston.


_____.  Fanshawe: A Tale. 1828.
_____. "Young Goodman Brown." Story. 1835
_____. "The Minister's Black Veil." Story. 1837.
_____. "Wakefield." Story. 1837.
_____. "Endicott and the Red Cross." Story. 1837.
_____. Twice-Told Tales. 1837, enlarged 1842.
_____. "
Rappacini's Daughter."
Story. In Mosses from an Old Manse.
_____. "Roger Malvin's Burial."
Story. In Mosses from an Old Manse.
_____. Mosses from an Old Manse. Stories. 1846.
_____. The Scarlet Letter. Romance. 1850.
_____. "Ethan Brand." Story. 1851.
_____. The House of the Seven Gables. Romance. 1851.
_____. The Blithedale Romance. 1852.
_____. A Wonder Book. Children's stories. 1852.
_____. Tanglewood Tales. Children's stories. 1853.
_____. The Marble Faun, or the Romance of Monte Beni. 1860.
_____. Our Old Home. Essays on England. 1853.
_____. Dr. Grimshawe's Secret. Romance. 1882.

Nathaniel Hawthorne, New England romance and short story writer, b. Salem, of an old Puritan family—orig. Hathorne, wife Sophia, 3 children, customs officer, and diplomat in England, d. Plymouth.

Some notes on Hawthorne



HENRY DAVID THOREAU        (1817-1862)

(US writer, naturalist, Transcendentalist-anarchist-primitivist-pacifist; b. Concord, MA; grad. Harvard 1817, influenced by E. T. Channing, Jones Very and Bronson Alcott; friend, employee and disciple of Emerson, l. lived in a hut in the woods in Walden 1845-47; teacher and anti-slavery activist, unmarried, probably repressed homosexual, met John Brown and Whitman, travelled to the Great Lakes and Mississippi 1861, d. of tuberculosis)


Thoreau, Henry David. "Resistance to Civil Government." 1849. Retitled "Civil Disobedience."
_____. A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers. 1849. New York: Modern Library, 1946.
_____. "Slavery in Massachusetts." 1854.
_____. Walden or Life in the Woods. 1854.
    Walden, Audiobook.
_____. "A Plea for Captain John Brown." Lecture. 1859.
_____. Excursions. 1863.
_____. Journal. 14 vols. 1906.

A lecture on Thoreau's Walden:

—and a dissenting view: Pond Scum

WALDEN audiobook - complete text.

The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau


RALPH WALDO EMERSON        (1803-1882)

(New England Transcendentalist thinker, poet and essayist, came from a Unitarian family; soon widowed, abandoned the Church, influential and prolific lecturer and diarist, emphasizes first-hand apprehension of religion and experience)

_____. Journals. 1820-
_____. "Brahma." Poem.
_____. "The American Scholar: An Oration."  1837.
_____. "Divinity School Address". 1838.
_____. "The Transcendentalist." In Essays.
_____. "History."
In Essays.
_____. "Self-Reliance." In Essays.h
_____. "The Over-Soul." In Essays.
_____. "Character."  In Essays.
_____. "The Poet." In Essays.
_____. Essays: First and Second series. 1841, 1844.
_____. "Emancipation in the West Indies." 1844.
_____. "John Brown." 1859.
_____. "Thoreau." 1862.


Some notes on Emerson
(Oxford Companion to American Literature)

"Ralph Waldo Emerson." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia

Wood, Barry. "Emerson and Transcendentalist Religion." Video lecture at YouTube (University of Houston).


EDGAR ALLAN POE         (1809-1849)
Works: Poems
_____.  Al Aaraaf, Tamerlane, and Minor Poems. 1829.
_____. Poems by Edgar A. Poe 1831. ("Israfel," "To Helen," "The City in the Sea," etc.).
_____. The Raven and Other Poems. 1845.
_____. A Complete Collection of Poems by Edgar Allan Poe.

Works: Individual tales
_____. "Morella." Short story. 1835.
_____. "Berenice." Short story. 1835.
_____. "Ligeia." Short story. 1838.
_____. The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym of Nantucket. 1838.
_____. "The Fall of the House of Usher." Short story. 1839.
_____. "William Wilson." Story. (1839).
_____. Tales of the Grotesque and the Arabesque. 1840.
_____. "Eleonora." Story. In Poe, The Gift. 1842.
_____. "The Murders in the Rue Morgue." Short story. 1841.
_____. "The Masque of the Red Death." Short story. Graham's Magazine (1842).
_____. "The Pit and the Pendulum." Short story. The Gift. 1843.
_____. "The Gold-Bug."  (1843).
_____. "The Tell-Tale Heart." Short story.  (1843).
_____. "The Balloon-Hoax." 1844.
_____. "The Purloined Letter." Short story. 1845.
_____. "The Black Cat." Short story. 1843.
_____. "The Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar."
_____. "The Premature Burial."
_____. Tales. 1845.

_____. "The Philosophy of Composition."  (1846).
_____. "The Poetic Principle." 1848.
_____. Eureka: A Prose Poem. 1848.

Edgar Allan Poe, US short story writer, poet and critic; b. Boston, son of British actress Elizabeth Arnold Poe and American actor David Poe, father left, mother died 1811, lived with tobacco exporter John Allan and wife, renamed Edgar Allan Poe, not adopted; travel to Britain with Allans, school in England 1815-20, attends U of Virginia 1826, gambler, leaves U; quarrels with Allan over debts, enlists in the Army, reconciled with Allan after wife's death, expelled from West Point military academy for gambling, disobedience and drink; lives with aunt Maria Clemm, Baltimore, 1831-35, miserable life, journalist, poverty; Allan dies 1834 leaving him nothing; journalist at Southern Literary Messenger, marries 13-year old cousin Virginia Clemm 1835/6; l. New York 1837-38, then Philadelphia, and back to NY; editorial jobs at Burton's Gentleman's Magazine, Graham's Magazine, New York Evening Mirror, Broadway Journal; distressed by young wife's ill health, widowed 1847; alcoholic, deep-seated emotional conflicts, 1848-49, in love with poet Sarah Helen Whitman and Mrs. Charles Richmond, engaged to his teenage love Sara Royster Shelton; d. Baltimore after a fit of drunkenness.


_____. "Poe's Big Bang." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 25 Nov. 2012.*




_____. Precaution. Novel. 1820.
_____. The Spy: A Tale of the Neutral Ground. Historical romance. 1821.
_____. The Pioneers; Or, The Sources of the Susquehanna. Romance. 1923.
_____. The Pilot. Romance. 1823.
_____. The Last of the Mohicans. Novel. 1826. (Leatherstocking series, 2nd part).
_____. The Prairie: A Tale. 1827. (Leather-Stocking series, part 5).
_____. The Red Rover. Romance. 1827.
_____. Notions of the Americans. Essay. 1828.
_____. The Wept of Wish-ton-Wish. Romance. 18
_____. The Water-Witch. Romance. 1830.
_____. A Letter to General Lafayette.  Discourse. 1831.
_____. The Bravo. Historical romance. 1831.
_____. The Heidenmauer, or, The Benedictines. Historical romance. 1832.
_____. The Headsman, or, The Abbaye des Vignerons. Romance. 1833.
_____. A Letter to His Countrymen. Discourse. 1834.
_____. The Monikins. Satirical allegory. 1835.
_____. The American Democrat, or Hints on the Social and Civil Relations of the United States of America. Political theory. 1838.
_____. Homeward Bound; or, The Chase. Novel. 1838.
_____. Home as Found. Novel. 1838. (Sequel to Homeward Bound).
_____. History of the Navy. History. 1839.
_____. The Pathfinder, or The Inland Sea. Romanc
e. 1840. (Leather-stocking series, part 3)
_____. The Deerslayer. Novel. 1841. (Leatherstocking series, Part 1).
_____. Wing-and-Wing. Romance. 1842.
_____. Le Mouchoir. 1843. Retitled The Autobiography of a Pocket-Handkerchief.
_____. Wyandotté, or the Hutted Knoll. A Tale. 1843.
_____. Afloat and Ashore. Romance. 1844.
_____. Miles Wallingford. Romance. 1844. (Sequel to Afloat and Ashore).
_____. Satanstoe. Novel. 1845. (Littlepage Manus
cripts, 1).
_____. The Chainbearer. Novel. 1845. (Littlepage Manuscripts, 2).
_____. The Redskins, or, Indian and Injin. Novel. 1846. (Littlepage Manuscripts, 3).
_____. The Crater. 1848. (Social utopia).
_____. The Oak Openings, or, The Bee-Hunter. Romance. 1848.
_____. The Ways of the Hour. Novel. 1850.

James Fenimore Cooper, US novelist, b. Burlington, NJ, son of William Cooper, founder of Cooperstown; dismissed from Yale; seaman for several years, married, gentleman farmer, successful novelist, moved to New York City, US consul at Lyons, travelled in Europe 1826-33, defender of republicanism in Europe and conservative aristocratic Federalist back in USA; moved back to Cooperstown, father of Susan Fenimore Cooper.

"James Fenimore Cooper." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

–o en esta introducción del Oxford Companion to American Literature sobre su vida y obras: James Fenimore Cooper.



En la Universidad de Houston hay un curso en red sobre literatura norteamericana temprana. Allí se pueden oír videolecciones sobre estos autores, por ejemplo esta sobre Washington Irving y James Fenimore Cooper.

THE LAST OF THE MOHICANS. Online audiobook at YouTube (GreatestAudioBooks). 2012.*

last of the mohicans

_____. "El Gran Viaje en El último Mohicano." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 4 Jan. 2015.*

Empezando con la literatura norteamericana en el tema 5....    para quien quiera ver más autores fuera de programa, aquí hay An Overview of American Literature.

Y, más sintetizada, Una pequeña visión introductoria a la literatura norteamericana hasta 1800.

En estos enlaces aparecen introducciones a los autores, también los títulos de las principales obras, y otros enlaces de interés para quienes deseen leer más al respecto. Todo excurso, por supuesto, es nivel avanzado o gratuito.




Atención: los autores de literatura norteamericana del siglo XIX, aunque veremos algunos de ellos antes de fin de curso, no entrarán como tema de examen, aunque sí para traducción/comentario o preguntas breves—es decir, los pasamos a la Sección B.

Insisto, —ahora que tenéis tiempo, por favor, haced las encuestas online de la asignatura, que nos las exigen en la Universidad. Cuesta cinco minutos, aquí.

Para estudio propio quedan la sección B (autores del siglo XX), y aquellos autores norteamericanos del XIX que no podremos ver en clase: los pasamos a la sección B todos. Incluiremos aquí materiales sobre todos ellos, antes de Navidades, pero para completar conocimientos recordad que tenéis un manual, o dos.

Uno de los manuales recomendados, el de Alexander, está aquí en vista previa:

—pero es más que recomendable que compréis manuales y los tengáis para uso vuestro.

WASHINGTON IRVING        (1783-1859)

_____. "Letters of Jonathan Oldstyle, Gent." Morning Chronicle (1802-3). (Satires on New York society).
_____. Salmagundi; or, The Whim-Whams and Opinions of Launcelot Langstaff, Esq., and Others. Satirical sketches. Periodical pamphlets, 1807-8. Book, 1808. (Pseudonymous writings, in collaboration with William and Peter Irving, and with brother-in-law J. K. Paulding).
_____. A History of New York, from the Beginning of the World to the End of the Dutch Dynasty, by Diedrich Knickerbocker. 1809. Rev. 1812, 1819, 1848. (Ps. "Diedrich Knickerbocker").
_____. "Westminster Abbey." In Irving, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 1819-20.
_____. "The Christmas Dinner." In Irving, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 1819-20.
_____. "Stratford-on-Avon." In Irving, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 1819-20.
_____. "John Bull." In Irving, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 1819-20.
_____. "The Stage-Coach." In Irving, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 1819-20.
_____. "Rip van Winkle." In Irving, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 1819-20.
_____. "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow." In Irving, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 1820.
_____. "English Writers of America." In Irving, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 1819-20.
_____. "Traits of Indian Character." In Irving, The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. 1819-20.
_____. The Sketch Book of Geoffrey Crayon. Miscellany of tales and essays. Serialized in USA, 1819-20.
_____. (Ps. "Geoffrey Crayon, Gent.") Bracegirdle Hall; or, The Humorists: A Medley. Tales and sketches. 1822.

_____. Tales of a Traveller. 1824.
_____. History of the Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus. 1828. (Based on Navarrete).
_____. The Alhambra: A Series of Tales and Sketches of the Moors and Spaniards. 1832.  1852.
_____. A Tour of the Prairies. Travel book. Vol. 1 of The Crayon Miscellany. 1835.
_____. Legends of the Conquest of Spain. Vol. 2 of The Crayon Miscellany. 1835.
_____. The Crayon Miscellany. 3 vols. 1835.
_____. Astoria. 1836. Rev. 1849. (History of John Jacob Astor; written with Pierre Irving).
_____. The Adventures of Captain Bonneville, U.S.A. 1837. (Sequel to Astoria).
_____. The Life of Oliver Goldsmith. 1840.
_____. A Book of the Hudson. Sketches. 1849.
washington irving
_____. Mahomet and His Successors. Biographies. 2 vols. 1849-50.
_____. Life of Washington. 5 vols. 1855-59.

Washington Irving, US man of letters, b. New York city, wealthy middle class, Revolutionary family background; youngest of 11 children; wrote after brothers William and Peter; law career; traveller in upper NY and Canada; journalist at Peter's Morning Chronicle and Corrector; satirical sketches of NY society, left legal profession, travelled in Europe 1804-6, pursued lit. career in NY, Federalist ideology, celebrated author; fiancée Matilda Hoffman died (and Irving never married); political involvement during the War, then took charge of Liverpool family business, went bankrupt; wrote for a living, met Scott, Byron, Moore, travelled in Paris, in Germany, loved Emily Foster in Paris, lived in England, France, courted Mary Shelley; diplomat in Madrid, travels in Spain; diplomat again in London, and back to Sunnyside, NY, after 17 years; tour on the Western frontier; political connections, returned as ambassador to Spain, retired to Sunnyside, turned historian, celebrated as classic.

Washington Irving: Vida y obras.

American literature before 1800

Alvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca. Naufragios y Comentarios. 1542.

Richard Hakluyt (the younger, 1552-1616). Discourse Concerning Western Planting. c. 1600.

Whitaker, Alexander. (fl. 1617). Good Newes from Virginia. 1617.

Smith, John. (1580-1631). A True Relation of Virginia. 1608.
_____. A Description of New England. 1616.
_____. The Generall Historie of Virginia, New England, and the Summer Isles. 1624.
_____. The True Travels, Adventures, and Observations of Captaine John Smith. 1630.

Bradford, William. (1590-1657). Of Plymouth Plantation. 1630.

Winthrop, John. (1588-1649). A Modell of Christian Charity. 1630.

Cotton, John, et al. The Bay Psalm Book. 1640.

Anne Bradstreet. (1612?-1672). The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America. London, 1650.

Taylor, Edward. The Poetical Works of Edward Taylor. c. 1680, pub. 1939.

Mather, Cotton. Magnalia Christi Americana, or the Ecclesiastical History of New England. 1702.

Cook, Ebenezer. The Sot-Weed Factor. 1708.

Edwards, Jonathan. (1703-58). A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God. 1737.

Franklin, Benjamin. (1706-1790). Autobiography. (Posth.). 1818.

Freneau, Philip. (1752-1832). The Rising Glory of America. 1771. Rev. 1786.

Paine, Thomas. Common Sense. 1776.

Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. 1787.

Wheatley, Phillis. Poems. London, 1773.

Occom, Samson. (1723-1792). Collection of Hymns and Spiritual Songs. 1774.

Equiano, Olaudah. The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself. 1787.

Hammon, Jupiter. (1711-1806?). Address to the Negroe: In the State of New York. 1787.

Barlow, Joel. The Columbiad. Epic. 1807.

Tyler, Royall. The Contrast. Drama. 1787.

Brackenridge, Hugh Henry. (1746-1816). Modern Chivalry. Sketches. 1792-1815.

Brockden Brown, Charles. Wieland: or, The Transformation. Novel. 1798.


Nivel avanzado... para quien quiera ver más autores fuera de programa, aquí hay An Overview of American Literature.

Y, más sintetizada, Una pequeña visión introductoria a la literatura norteamericana hasta 1800.

En estos enlaces aparecen introducciones a los autores, también los títulos de las principales obras, y otros enlaces de interés para quienes deseen leer más al respecto. Todo excurso, por supuesto, es nivel avanzado o gratuito.

11-12 diciembre. Empezamos con George Eliot y Gerard Manley Hopkins; seguiremos con Oscar Wilde y H. G. Wells.

H. G. WELLS         (1866-1946)

_____. The Time Machine. Novel. 1895.
_____. The Island of Doctor Moreau. Novel. 1896.
_____. The Invisible Man. Novel. 1897.
_____. The War of the Worlds. SF novel. Serialized 1897.
_____. The First Men in the Moon. Novel. 1901.
_____. The Food of the Gods. Novel. 1904.
_____. Kipps. Novel. 1905.
_____. The War in the Air. Novel. 1908.
_____. Ann Veronica. Novel. 1909.
_____. Tono-Bungay. Novel. 1909.
_____. A Short History of the World. 1922.
_____. The Shape of Things to Come. New York: Macmillan, 1935.
_____. The Mind at the End of Its Tether. 1945.

(Herbert George Wells, British man of letters,  modest middle-class origins; self-educated; journalist and activist,
science fiction and realist fiction writer and leading socialist intellectual; married Jane Wells, 2 children, lover of Rebecca West, had a son by her, Anthony West; apostle of free love and cult of progress; pro-Stalinist apologist)

Unos apuntes sobre la obra de H.G. Wells

En el blog iré poniendo materiales adicionales, pero como pregunta de tema para examen entrarán únicamente los principales autores que aprarecen abajo, en el programa, en negrita.  Alguna pregunta corta sí que puede caer sobre autores del siglo XX, así como traducción/comentario.

H.G. Wells: Una película sobre su vida.   Y aquí una película "retrofuturista" basada en su novela Things to Come.

En Mind at the End of its Tether,
H. G. Wells reflexiona, al final de su vida, sobre la naturaleza y límites de las ilusiones humanas como guías para la acción, y concluye con un escepticismo desolador ante la muerte de las ilusiones que sustentan el mundo en que vivimos—que tiene de ilusión colectiva más de lo que solemos sospechar.

Una introducción a Oscar Wilde.

OSCAR WILDE        (1854-1900)

(Anglo-Irish writer and dandy, b. Dublin, st. Trinity College, Dublin, and Magdalen College, Oxford; l. London; journalist, poet, prose writer and dramatist, brilliant conversationalist and socialite, m. Constance Lloyd 1884 (d. 1898); loved Lord Alfred Douglas; imprisoned for homosexuality 1895-97; d. Paris)

_____. Poems. 1881.
_____. The Duchess of Padua. Tragedy. 1883.
_____. The Happy Prince and Other Tales. 1888.
_____. The Picture of Dorian Gray. Novel. 1890.
_____. Intentions. Essays. 1891.
_____. Lord Arthur Savile's Crime and Other Stories. 1891.
_____. A House of Pomegranates. Stories. 1891.
_____. Lady Windermere's Fan. Drama. 1892.
_____. Salomé. Drama. 1892.
_____. A Woman of No Importance. Drama. 1893.
_____. The Sphinx. Poem. 1894.
_____. Poems in Prose. 1894.
_____. An Ideal Husband. Drama. 1895.
_____. The Importance of Being Earnest. Comedy. 1895.
_____. The Ballad of Reading Gaol. 1898.
_____. Epistola: In carcere et vinculis / De Profundis. Memoir/letter to Lord Alfred Douglas. 1896.


And a BBC documentary on Oscar Wilde:


Sección B:

Unas notas sobre Philip Roth, novelista judío norteamericano.


Wells fue sólo el primero de una larga serie de ilustres y populares autores de ciencia ficción británicos y norteamericanos. Aquí unas notas sobre Arthur C. Clarke en su centenario.

Y un artículo mío sobre Olaf Stapledon: An Apocalypse of Total Communication.



_____. "The Wreck of the Deutschland."
_____. "Pied Beauty."
_____. "The Kingfisher."
_____. "The Windhover."
 _____. "God's Grandeur".
_____. "Carrion Comfort."
_____. "No Worst, There is None."
_____. "Nature Is a Heraclitean Fire."

_____. Poems. Ed. Robert Bridges. 1918.

(Victorian poet, st. Oxford, converted to Catholicism after Newman, became Jesuit priest, repressed homosexual, inner torments and acute health problems, burnt early poems, spiritual poems were published posthumously by Robert Bridges; proto-Modernist stylist, cultivated 'sprung rhythm')

Leemos su soneto "No Worst, there is none"

  Una introducción a Hopkins

Nivel AVANZADO: una mesa redonda sobre Gerard Manley Hopkins.


GEORGE ELIOT     (1819-1880)
_____.  trans. (unsigned). The Life of Jesus, Critically Examined. By David Friedrich Strauss. 1846.
_____, trans. The Essence of Christianity. By Ludwig Feuerbach. London, 1854.
_____. Scenes of Clerical Life. Stories. 1857.
_____. Adam Bede. Novel. 1859.
_____. The Mill on the Floss. Novel. 1860.
_____. Silas Marner. Novel. 1861.
_____. Romola. Novel. Serialized in the Cornhill Magazine. 1863.
_____. Felix Holt, the Radical. Novel. 1866.
_____. Middlemarch: A Study of English Provincial Life. Novel. 1871/2.
_____. Daniel Deronda. Novel. 1874-76.

George Eliot, pseudonym of Mary Ann [later Marian] Evans, English novelist, b. Warwickshire; quarrelled with her father on her leaving the Church; self-taught in Continental writing and philosophy, infatuations and love affairs with intellectual men, some married; assistant ed. Westminster Review 1851; lived with G. H. Lewes c. 1854-1878; realist novelist and skeptic moralist; fist ostracised and then successful socialite, m. John Walter Cross 1879, no children.

Y sobre George Eliot.

Resumen de Middlemarch .

George Eliot: A Scandalous Life


NIVEL AVANZADO: George Eliot (audio at Oxford University).

A lecture by Rebecca Mead on Middlemarch.

ALFRED LORD TENNYSON     (1809-1892)

Tennyson, Alfred (Lord). Poems, Chiefly Lyrical. 1830.
_____. "The Lady of Shalott." Poem. 1832, 1842.
_____. "Morte d'Arthur." Written 1833-38. In Poems. 1842.
_____. "Ulysses." Poem. Written 1833, pub. in Poems. 1842.
_____. Poems. 1842 (including material from 1830 and 1832).
_____. The Princess. Poem. 1847.
_____. In Memoriam A. H. H. Poem. 1850.
_____. "Ode" on the Death of Wellington. 1852.
_____. "The Charge of the Light Brigade." Poem. 1854.
_____. Maud, and other Poems. 1855.
_____. The Idylls of the King. Poems. 1859-1885.
_____. Enoch Arden etc. Poems. Moxon, 1864.
_____. The Holy Grail and Other Poems. 1869.
_____. Queen Mary. Drama. 1875.
_____. Harold: A Drama. 1876.
_____. Ballads and Other Poems. 1880.
_____. The Falcon. 1884.
_____. The Cup. 1884.
_____. Becket. Drama. 1884.
_____. The Works of Alfred Tennyson, Poet Laureate.  1884.
_____. Tiresias, and Other Poems. 1885.
_____. Demeter and other Poems. 1889.


Alfred, Lord Tennyson: Una panorámica sobre su obra.

Canción de Loreena McKennitt sobre uno de los poemas artúricos de Tennyson, The Lady of Shalott:


—y aquí material más detallado, NIVEL AVANZADO de la Cambridge History of English Literature:

Grierson, Herbert J. C. "II. The Tennysons." In The Cambridge History of English and American Literature, vol. XIII (English) The Victorian Age, part One: The Nineteenth Century, II. Ed. A. W. Ward and A. R. Waller. Online at


CHARLES DICKENS         (1812-1870)

_____. Sketches by Boz. Serialized in Old Monthly Magazine. 1836-37.
_____. The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club. Serialized novel. 1836-37.
_____. The Adventures of Oliver Twist. Novel. 1837-8.
_____. The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby. Novel. 1838-9.
_____. The Old Curiosity Shop. Novel. Serialized in Master Humphrey's Clock. 1840-1.
_____. Barnaby Rudge. Novel. Serialized in Master Humphrey's Clock. 1841.
_____. American Notes. 1842.
_____. A Christmas Carol. 1843. (Other Christmas stories in the 40s, 50s and 60s).
_____. Martin Chuzzlewit. Novel. 1844.
_____. Pictures from Italy. Travel book. 1846.
_____. Dombey and Son. Novel. 1846-1848.
_____. David Copperfield. Novel. Serialized 1849-1850.
_____. Bleak House. Novel. Serialized 1852-1853.
_____. Hard Times. Novel. Serialized in Household Words, 1854.
_____. Little Dorrit. Novel. Serialized 1855-1857.
_____. A Tale of Two Cities. Novel. 1859.
_____. Great Expectations. Novel. Serialized 1860-1861.
_____. Our Mutual Friend. Novel. 1864-5.
_____. The Mystery of Edwin Drood. Unfinished novel. 1870.

Charles John Huffham Dickens, Victorian novelist, playwright and journalist; b. near Portsmouth; run-down middle-class family, son of a clerk in the Navy pay office, father imprisoned for debt, unhappy childhood experience when forced to work as a child in a factory, apprenticed clerk, stenographer at Parliament, journalist at the Morning Chronicle, married Catherine Hogarth; world success and fortune as writer of serialized novels; friend of John Forster, Wilkie Collins, etc., energetic socialite and amateur actor;  travels in USA and Italy; anti-slavery advocate in America, philanthropist and social reformer, launched periodicals, many children; in love with sister-in-law, soon dead; lover of young actress Ellen Ternan, separated from Catherine 1858; popular entertainer with public reading tours of his novels, d. of heart failure.

Life of Dickens
—and main works—from the Oxford Companion to English Literature. AND Cazamian on Dickens as a social novelist.

Charles Dickens (Victorian Values)—some notes from Stephen Coote's handbook.



  Otra posible película para ver sobre una obra de Dickens: David Copperfield

También se puede ver (en baja calidad) A Christmas Carol.


Para ir abriendo boca con Dickens se puede ver una película de Oliver Twist, por ejemplo este viejo clásico inglés:

Quien guste de ver más cine literario, quizá disfrute con esta versión de A Tale of Two Cities, novela de Dickens ambientada en la época de la Revolución Francesa.

O la versión musical de Oliver! —uno de los clásicos de Hollywood.


4-5 diciembre: Veremos textos de Mary Shelley, y luego de Dickens, George Eliot, y Tennyson.

MARY SHELLEY    (1797-1851)

_____.  (Anon. pub.). Frankenstein, or, The Modern Prometheus. Novel. 1818. Online at Project Gutenberg.

_____. Valperga. Novel. 1821.
_____. The Last Man. Novel. 1826.
_____. The Fortunes of Perkin Warbeck. Novel. 1830.
_____. Essays and Letters. 1839.
_____. Rambles in Germany and Italy. Travel book. 1844.

Mary Shelley, née Mary Godwin, English woman of letters, novelist and prose writer; daughter of Mary Wollstonecraft and William Godwin; m. Percy Bysshe Shelley 1816.

Una pequeña introducción a Mary Shelley.

Sobre Mary Shelley y Frankenstein, nos remitiremos además a este documental de la serie "Profetas de la Ciencia Ficción":


Mary as the  Monster



Vamos terminando la sección B incluida en el programa (literatura del siglo XX) con unas palabras sobre literatura norteamericana desde 1960-, mencionando a:

John Barth,

Anne Sexton,

—y a Toni Morrison.

Recordad que en poesía norteamericana también tenemos un Premio Nobel reciente, Bob Dylan. Aquí algunas de sus canciones en un concierto de los años setenta:


27-28 noviembre. Necesitaremos los textos de los autores de principios del XIX: Wordsworth, Austen, Scott, Byron y Keats.


HE INDICADO EN LA LISTA DE AUTORES DEL PROGRAMA A PIE DE ESTA PÁGINA, EN NEGRITA, LOS PRINCIPALES AUTORES, LOS QUE PUEDEN ENTRAR COMO UNO DE LOS DOS TEMAS DE EXAMEN. (LAS PREGUNTAS CORTAS PUEDEN REFERIRSE A CUALQUIER AUTOR DEL PROGRAMA). Recordad que el examen consta de: varias preguntas tipo test, de elección múltiple; dos temas a elegir uno—un autor de la mencionada lista, en negrita, o una pregunta más general sobre un género literario en una determinada época, en la que se pueden tratar distintos autores y obras). Y un comentario de texto, que es la pregunta más importante (60%), de uno de los textos de lectura obligatoria. (Para comentar, o para traducir—sin diccionario).

Uno de los manuales recomendados, el de Alexander:




Other romantic poets:

PERCY BYSSHE SHELLEY     (1792-1822)

English romantic poet; b. Sussex, st. U College, Oxford; rebellious student, eccentric, vegetarian, radical and freethinker; expelled from college, eloped with Harriet Westbrook, m. 1811, travels, radical activist, 2 children. An improvident husband, he abandoned his family; he eloped abroad with Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin and Claire Clairmont; wife committed suicide 1816, Shelley married Mary W. Godwin, thereafter Mary Shelley; back to England, lost custody of his children. Friend of Peacock, Leigh Hunt, Keats, Hazlitt; pursued by creditors, travels in Italy 1818-, daughter and son by Mary Shelley died there, Pisa 1820-21, friend of Byron, in love with young Maria Viviani; moved with Mary Shelley to Lerici 1822, drowned in his boat there. Shelley was a radical idealist, the poet of passion, cosmic ambition and despair, much given to self-pitying excesses of emotion and dejection.

_____.  "Queen Mab; A Philosophical Poem." 1813, pub. 1816.
_____. The Necessity of Atheism. Essay. With T. J. Hogg.
_____. "Alastor; or, The Spirit of Solitude." Poem. 1815, pub. 1816.
_____. "Mont Blanc." Poem. 1816, pub. 1817.
_____. "Stanzas Written in Dejection—December 1818, near Naples." 1818, pub. 1824.
_____. "England in 1819." 1819,
_____. "Ode to the West Wind." 1819, pub. 1820 in Prometheus Unbound.
_____. Prometheus Unbound: A Lyrical Drama in Four Acts. Written 1819, pub. 1820.
_____. "Adonais: An Elegy on the Death of John Keats, Author of Endymion, Hyperion, etc." 1821, pub. 1829.
_____. A Defence of Poetry. 1821, pub. 1840.
_____. "The Triumph of Life." Poem. 1822, pub. in Posthumous Poems. 1824.
_____. Poetical Works. Ed. Mary Shelley. 1839.


_____. Poems on Various Subjects. 1796.
_____. Poems. 1797.
_____. "The Rime of the Ancient Mariner." Poem, w. 1797. In Wordsworth and Coleridge, Lyrical Ballads. 1798.
_____. "Kubla Khan: Or, A Vision in a Dream. A Fragment." Poem. c. 1797-98, pub. 1816.
_____. Christabel. Poem. 1816.
_____. Biographia Literaria : Or Biographical Sketches of My Literary Life and Opinions. 1817.
_____. The Friend. 3rd. ed. London, 1837.
_____. Shakspeare Lectures. 1818, etc.

  THE ROMANTICS - Audios from In Our Time (BBC).


JOHN KEATS     (1795-1821)

_____.  Poems by John Keats. London: Ollier, 1817.
_____. Endymion. 1818.
_____. "The Fall of Hyperion: A Dream." Fragmentary epic poem. 1819, pub. 1857.
_____. "Ode to Autumn."  pub. 1820 with:
_____. "Ode on Melancholy."
_____. "Ode on a Grecian Urn."
_____. "Ode to a Nightingale."
_____. Lamia, Isabella, The Eve of St. Agnes, and Other Poems.  1820.
_____. The Letters of John Keats, 1814-1821.

English romantic poet; lower middle class family, apprenticed and licensed as apothecary 1816, friend of Leigh Hunt and Shelley, travelled to the Lakes, Scotland and Ireland with Charles Armitage Brown and settled with him 1817; in love with Fanny Brawne; financial problems, suffered from tuberculosis, attacked by Lockhart and other reviewers; travelled to Italy, d. Rome. BIOGRAPHY OF JOHN KEATS.

Podéis intentar ver una excelente película sobre Keats: Bright Star, de Jane Campion.

Una panorámica sobre la vida y obra de Keats.

Un audio en français sur la vie et l'œuvre de Keats:

LORD BYRON         (George Gordon, 1788-1824)

_____. Hours of Idleness. Poems.
_____. Childe Harold's Pilgrimage. 1812-1818.
_____. The Giaour. Verse romance. 1813.
_____. The Corsair. Verse romance. 1814.
_____. The Bride of Abydos. Verse romance.
_____. "Darkness." Poem. 1816.
_____. Domestic Pieces. 1816.
_____. "Prometheus." Poem. 1816.
_____. Manfred: A Dramatic Poem.  1817.
_____. Beppo. Verse romance. 1818.
_____. Mazeppa. 1819.
_____. Don Juan, an Epic Satire. Satirical epic. 1818-23, pub. 1919-24.
_____. Cain. Tragedy. 1821.
_____. "The Vision of Judgment." Poem. 1822.
_____. "January 22nd. Missolonghi: On This Day I Complete my Thirty Sixth Year." Poem. 1824.

George Gordon Noel, Lord Byron, English romantic poet, b. London, member of the Chamber of Lords; abandoned England 1816, travels in Europe; Italy and Greece; had innumerable erotic affairs, fascinated and scandalized his social circle; friend of Shelley, fought vs. Turks on Greek side pro independence, d. Missolunghi, Greece; individualist, skeptic, hedonist, satirist of social conventions.

Lord Byron and his Childe Harold's Pilgrimage (BBC).

WILLIAM WORDSWORTH     (1770-1850)

_____.  Descriptive Sketches. 1793.
_____. Lyrical Ballads, with Pastoral and Other Poems. 1800. (With some poems by S. T. Coleridge).
_____. The Prelude. 1st version, 1799; rev. 1805; 1st pub. in 3rd rev. version, 1850.
_____. "Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood." 1802-4, pub. 1807.
_____. "Tintern Abbey."
_____. Poems. 1807.
_____. The Excursion. Poem. 1814.


Walter Scott: Un audio en français:

SIR WALTER SCOTT     (1771-1832)

_____, ed. The Minstrelsy of the Scottish Border. 1802-3.
_____. The Lay of the Last Minstrel. Poem. 1805.
_____. Ballads and Lyrical Pieces. 1806.
_____. Marmion: A Tale of Flodden Field. Poem. 1808.
_____. The Lady of the Lake. Poem. 1810.
_____. Rokeby. Poem. 1813.
_____. Waverley, or 'Tis Sixty Years Since. Novel.  1814.

_____. Guy Mannering, or, The Astrologer. Novel. 1815.
_____. The Field of Waterloo. Poem. 1815.
_____. The Antiquary. Novel. 1816.
_____. Old Mortality. Novel. 1816.
_____. Rob Roy. Novel. 1817.
_____ . The Heart of Midlothian. Novel. 1818.
_____. Tales of My Landlord: Third Series. (The Bride of Lammermoor and A Legend of Montrose). Novels. 1819.
_____. Ivanhoe, a Romance. Novel. 1819.
_____. The Monastery, A Romance. 1820.
_____. Kenilworth: A Romance. 1821.
_____. The Pirate. Novel. 1821.
_____. The Fortunes of Nigel. Novel. 1822.
_____. Quentin Durward. Novel. 1823.
_____. Redgauntlet, A Tale of the Eighteenth Century. Novel. 1824.
walter scott
_____. Tales of the Crusaders (The Betrothed and The Talisman). 1825.
_____. Woodstock; or, The Cavalier. Novel. 1826.

Walter Scott, Scottish novelist, poet and scholar; st. law at Edinburgh U, bar 1792; m. Margaret Charlotte Charpentier 1797; successful poet, printer with James Ballantyne; contributor to Edinburgh Review; built Abbotsford mansion; promoted Tory Quarterly Review; refused Laureateship 1813; pub. historical novels anonymously as "the author of Waverley" until 1827; baronet ("Sir") 1820; bankrupt with Ballantyne 1826; struggled to pay debts; world-wide influence on historical novelists and nationalist romance writers.


Influences on Scott:

Thomas Percy. Reliques of Ancient English Poetry. 1765.
Maria Edgeworth, Castle Rackrent. Novel. 1800.

Un par de perspectivas de los manuales de literatura sobre Walter Scott.  Y unas notas sobre "La novela histórica: Parámetros para su definición".

Aquí hay un audiolibro de Waverley, de Sir Walter Scott.

Apuntes sobre The Novels of Jane Austen (and Fanny Burney)

Una conferencia sobre Jane Austen de Fernando Galván, antiguo presidente de la Asociación Española de Estudios Anglo-Norteamericanos (AEDEAN) y de la European Society for the Study of English (ESSE):

JANE AUSTEN     (1775-1817)

English realist novelist; b. Steventon, near Basingstoke; 7th child of the parish rector; l. unmarried with her family in Steventon, also in Bath 1801-5, then Hampshire and Winchester.

_____. Northanger Abbey. Written 1790s, pub. 1818.
_____. Sense and Sensibility. Novel. London, 1811.
_____. Pride and Prejudice. Novel. 1813.
_____. Mansfield Park. Novel. 1814.
_____. Emma. Novel. 1816.
_____. Persuasion. Novel. Written 1815-16, pub. 1818.

Some notes on Jane Austen (Short Oxford History of English Literature).



Un audio de la BBC sobre EMMA, de Jane Austen, del programa "In Our Time").



Algo sobre Harold Pinter, y un poquito más sobre el teatro desde los 60, con Pinter y Stoppard. Y unas notas sobre Salman Rushdie.


Parece que ya tenemos fecha y aula de examen: el miércoles 17 de enero de 2018, de 18 a 21h., en el aula XII de la Facultad de Filosofía y Letras.

El lunes 20 hablaremos de Sterne, Gray, y Johnson; el martes 22 de los últimos autores del XVIII, Blake y Wollstonecraft.

Obras de William Blake  (1757-1827)

_____.  Songs of Innocence. 1789.
_____.  The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. c.1790-93.
_____.  America: A Prophecy. 1793.
_____.  Visions of the Daughters of Albion. 1793.
_____.   Songs of Experience. 1794.
_____.  The Book of Urizen. Poem. 1794.
_____.  Europe: A Prophecy. 1794.
_____.  The Book of Los.  Poem. 1795.
_____.  The Four Zoas (Orig. Vala), written and rev. 1797-1804.
_____.  Milton, a Poem in Two Books. 1804-8.
Jerusalem: The Emanation of the Giant Albion. 1804-20.

William Blake y sus grabados
en Google Images.

Tratamos estos días algo más de los poetas románticos empezando con Blake, y la novela del 1800 con Austen. . En las siguientes sesiones veremos la literatura inglesa del siglo XIX: primero Austen y Walter Scott, y más románticos: Wordsworth, Keats,  Byron, Mary Shelley. Luego seguirán Dickens, Tennyson, George Eliot, Hopkins, Wilde y Wells.  Traed los textos por ese orden a clase; e id leyéndolos por anticipado if possible.

Los textos van siendo selecciones más largas de novelas, etc.; procurad asignaros (y mantener) un horario para lecturas. La lectura sistemática con diccionario es imprescindible para desarrollar el tipo de dominio de la lengua que puede aportar sólo la literatura.


Con Mary Wollstonecraft cerramos el siglo XVIII; con Blake ya pasamos al XIX.

Obras de Mary Wollstonecraft   (1759-1797)

_____. Thoughts on the Education of Daughters. 1787.
_____. Original Stories. Children's book. 1788.
_____. Mary: A Fiction.  1788.
_____. A Vindication of the Rights of Men.  1790.
_____. Vindication of the Rights of Woman.  1792. 
_____. An Historical and Moral View. . . of the French Revolution.  1794.
_____. Letters Written During a Short Residence in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. 1796.
_____. Maria, or The Wrongs of Woman.  Unfinished novel. In Posthumous Works, 1798.

Aquí una presentación sobre Mary Wollstonecraft como filósofa feminista:

Pulet, Rafael. "Mary Wollstonecraft: el inicio de una nueva era en el discurso feminista." Enredando en el Instituto

Uno de los amados de Mary Wollstonecraft: el pintor romántico Henry Fuseli (en Google Images).



Algunos temas sobre autores (no precisamente secundarios) que no vemos en clase. Recordad que la Sección B no entra para tema de redacción, pero puede entrar para preguntas cortas y comentario.

Unas notas sobre Nabokov.

"Samuel Beckett." In Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.*

En YouTube se pueden ver varias obras de Beckett. Por ejemplo, Catastrophe.  O la que hemos incluido como lectura obligatoria, Krapp's Last Tape.

Un poema de Philip Larkin, "Toads Revisited."

Y un capítulo de la Short Oxford History of English Literature sobre Larkin.


Un libro mío sobre Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva:

sigue NIVEL AVANZADO: Una charla-debate sobre Beckett, para practicar inglés de Nueva York:


Nobel Lecture by Harold Pinter. Video. YouTube (Svenna Jensen) 9 Nov. 2011.*

—Texto que tradujimos: Art, Truth and Politics de Harold Pinter.


Samuel Johnson  (1709-1784)

_____. "London, A Poem in Imitation of the Third Satire of Juvenal." 1738.
_____.  "The Vanity of Human Wishes: The Tenth Satire of Juvenal Imitated." 1749.
_____.  The Rambler.  London, 1750-2.
_____.  A Dictionary of the English Language: In Which the Words are Deduced from Their Originals, and Illustrated in Their Different Significations by Examples from the Best Writers.   2 vols. London, 1755. 
_____.  The Idler.  Periodical. 1758-60.
_____.  The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abisinia.  Novel. 1759.
_____, ed. The Plays of William Shakespeare, with Notes, etc.  1765.
_____.  Lives of the English Poets.  1778-1780. 
_____.  Prayers and Meditations. 1785.

Prose in the Age of Reason
(Anthony Burgess).


Un audio de la BBC sobre Songs of Innocence & Songs of Experience de William Blake. (Este programa de la BBC 4, In Our Time, es una excelente idea añadirlo a vuestros favoritos para practicar inglés con temas de interés cultural.

Un documental sobre Samuel Johnson:


Thomas Gray  (1716-1771)

_____.  Journal in France. Written 1739. Posthumous pub.
_____. "Ode on the Spring." 1742.
_____. "Ode to Adversity." 1742.
_____. "Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College." 1742.
_____. "Elegy Written in a Country Churchyard."  Written 1742-50. Pub. 1751.
_____. "The Progress of Poesy." Ode. Written. 1754. Pub. 1757.
_____.  "The Bard." Ode. Written 1754-57. Pub. 1757.
_____. "The Triumphs of Owen." Poem. Written c. 1764. Pub. 1768.
_____. "The Fatal Sisters. From the Norse Tongue."  Poem. Written 1761. Pub. 1768.
_____. "The Descent of Odin." Poem. Poem. Written 1761. Pub. 1768.
_____. Poems. 1768.
_____. Journal in the Lakes. Written 1769, pub. 1775.
_____. Poems. Ed. William Mason. 1775.


Una guía de lectura de la "Elegy" de Gray:
—y una conferencia sobre este poema:

Y una lectura de la "Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton College":

Otros poetas importantes del XVIII, asociados a veces al "prerromanticismo", fueron:

- James Thomson (The Seasons)

- William Collins (Ode to Evening)

- Oliver Goldsmith (The Vicar of Wakefield, The Traveller, The Abandoned Village)

- William Cowper (The Task)

- Edward Young (Night Thoughts)

- Christopher Smart (Jubilate Agno)

- James Macpherson (The Poems of Ossian, fake ancient Celtic poems)

- Thomas Chatterton (author of fake medieval poems)

Y otros prosistas de la época de Johnson que dejamos sin estudiar son

- George Berkeley - filósofo idealista, teorizador del "inmaterialismo".
- David Hume - Aquí un programa de Fernando Savater sobre este Ilustrado, uno de los más grandes filósofos británicos: David Hume, la aventura del pensamiento.
- Adam Smith - Creador de la economía política, y de una teoría de las emociones humanas.
- Edmund Burke - Pensador político contrarrevolucionario, teorizador de la tradición de las instituciones.
- Edward Gibbon - Autor de la Historia del declive y caída del Imperio Romano, gran obra histórica.
- James Boswell - Biógrafo, autor de la Vida de Samuel Johnson.

Coetáneos con Mary Wollstonecraft y con la Revolución Francesa, podemos mencionar a otros pensadores políticos a su esposo William Godwin, y a Thomas Paine, también inspirador de la revolución norteamericana.


Laurence Sterne (1713-1768)
_____. A Political Romance. 1759. Later called The History of a Good Warm Watch Coat.
_____. The Life and Opinions of Tristram Shandy, Gentleman.  Novel. 9 vols. 1759-67.
_____. Sermons. 7 vols. 1760-1769.
_____. A Sentimental Journey through France and Italy, by Mr Yorick. Travel book. 1761.
_____. Letters from Yorick to Eliza. 1773.


La aporía temporal de Tristram Shandy

Otros novelistas significativos de finales del siglo XVIII son:

- Tobias Smollett (Humphry Clinker)

- Frances Burney (Evelina, Cecilia...)

- Ann Radcliffe (The Mysteries of Udolpho)




SECCIÓN B:  Unas notas sobre un poeta modernista norteamericano: e. e. cummings.

Y otro inglés:

W. H.  AUDEN     (1907-1973)

(Wystan Hugh Auden, modernist English poet, b. York; anglo-catholic family; st. Gresham's School, Holt and Christ Church, Oxford;  homosexual, 1928 stay in Berlin with Isherwood, 1930s taught in Scotland and Downs School, Birmingham; professional writer late 30s, leftist sympathies before the war, conservative thereafter, Christian humanist; expatriate in US 1939; US citizen c. 1946, lived half-year in Europe and USA, New York; summer stays in Ischia and Kirschtetten; honorary Professor of Poetry U of Oxford, 1956-60; d. Vienna)

Auden, W. H.  Poems. London: Faber and Faber, 1930.
_____. Look, Stranger! Poems. London: Faber and Faber, 1936.
_____. "Spain 1937." Poem. 1937, 1940.
_____. "In Memory of W. B. Yeats." Poem. 1939. Pub. 1940, 1966. In The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 7th ed. Ed. M. H. Abrams, with Stephen Greenblatt et al. New York: Norton, 1999. 2.2507-8.*
_____. "In Time of War." Sonnet sequence. In Journey to a War. By W. H. Auden and Christopher Isherwood. London: Faber and Faber, 1939.
_____. Another Time. Poems. London: Faber and Faber, 1940.
_____. New Year Letter. Poems. London: Faber and Faber, 1941.
_____. The Age of Anxiety. Poems. 1947.
_____. The Shield of Achilles. Poems. 1955.
_____. Homage to Clio. Poems. 1960.
_____. Los señores del límite: Selección de poemas y ensayos (1927-1973). Círculo de Lectores, 2007.

SECCIÓN B, NIVEL AVANZADO: Los poemas de Sylvia Plath, poeta feminista y suicida.

Dos obras claves de la ciencia ficción política tenéis que conocer: Brave New World de Aldous Huxley, y  Nineteen-Eighty Four de George Orwell. Constantemente se vuelven de mayor y mayor actualidad, con cuestiones como la tecnología del cuerpo y la eugenesia, el control de la opinión pública con los medios de comunicación de masas, o la invasión y control de la privacidad con el progreso tecnológico.

Aquí una entrevista sobre la vida y obra de Orwell.


14 Nov. Hoy, Fielding y Richardson: necesitaremos los textos de Tom Jones y Clarissa.

HENRY FIELDING         (1707-1754)

_____. The Author's Farce And the Pleasures of the Town. 1730.
_____. The Tragedy of Tragedies, or Tom Thumb the Great. 1731.
_____. The Covent Garden Tragedy. 1732.
_____. The Mock Doctor. 1732. Adaptation of Molière's Le Médecin Malgré Lui.
_____. The Miser. 1733. Adaptation of Molière's L'Avare.
_____. Don Quixote in England. Comedy. 1736.
_____. Pasquin. Farce. 1737.
_____. The Historical Register for the Year 1736. Farce. 1737.
_____. The Champion. Periodical. 1739.
_____. (Attr.). An Apology for the Life of Mrs Shamela Andrews, etc., by Conny Keyber. Parody. 1741.
_____. The History of the Adventures of Joseph Andrews, and of His Friend Mr Abraham Adams: Written in Imitation of the Manner of Cervantes, Author of "Don Quixote". Novel. 1742.
_____. A Journey from this World to the Next. Menippean satire. In Miscellanies.Vol. 2. 1743.
_____. The Life of Mr. Jonathan Wild the Great. Novel. In Fielding, Miscellanies. Vol. 3. 1743.
_____. The True Patriot. Periodical. 1745-46.
_____. The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. Novel. 1749.
_____. Amelia. Novel. 1751.

_____. The Covent-Garden Journal. Periodical. 1752.
_____. Proposal for Making an Effectual Provision for the Poor. 1753.
_____. A Journal of a Voyage to Lisbon. 1754.

Fielding is an English novelist, dramatist and journalist; gentleman; st. Leiden; lawyer and anti-Walpole satirist; social reformer; Westminster magistrate, severe illness, d. Lisbon. Some notes here.

Hogarth - Canvassing for votes
William Hogarth, "Canvassing for Votes"

SAMUEL RICHARDSON     (1689-1761)richardson pamela 1741

_____. Letters Written to and for Particular Friends, on the most important Occasions. Directing not only the Requisite Style and Forms to be observed in Writing Familiar Letters; but how to think and act justly and prudently, in the common Concerns of Human Life. 1741.
_____. [Unsigned] Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded.  Novel. 1740.
_____. Pamela in Her Exalted Condition. Novel. 1741.
_____. Clarissa, or, The History of a Young Lady.  Novel. 8 vols. 1747-48. 
_____. The History of Sir Charles Grandison. Novel. 1753-4.

Richarson, a major English novelist, began as London printer apprentice, was later a prosperous self-made businessman; family man, distressed by death of many children and wife; remarried, nervous disorders; master printer of London and bourgeois novelist; developed sentimental epistolary novel with psychological and "feminist" interest. Some notes here:


Un audio de la BBC sobre Epistolary Fiction in the 18th century

clarissa harlowe
Clarissa Harlowe

Un serial televisivo basado en Richardson:

Clarissa. BBC miniseries. Dir. Robert Bierman. Based on Samuel Richardson's novel. Cast: Saskia Wickham, Sean Bean. Prod. Prod. Kevin Loader. Prod. BBC, 1991. DVD. BBC 2 / Just Entertainment, 1996.* Online at YouTube:


The Rise of the Novel: Notas de Ian Watt sobre Defoe, y sobre Richardson y Fielding:

Prose in the Age of Reason (from Anthony Burgess's English Literature).



WILLIAM FAULKNER        (1897-1962)
Soldier's Pay. Novel. 1926.
_____. Mosquitoes. 1927.
_____. Sartoris. Novel. 1929.
_____. The Sound and the Fury. Novel. 1929.
_____. As I Lay Dying. Novel. 1930.
_____. "A Rose for Emily." Story. 1930.
_____. Sanctuary. Novel. New York: Random House, 1931.
_____. Light in August.  Novel. 1932.
_____. Pylon. Novel. 1935.
_____. Absalom, Absalom! 1936.
_____. The Wild Palms. Novel. 1939.
_____. The Hamlet. Novel. 1940. (Vol. 1 of the Snopes trilogy).
_____. The Big Sleep. Film script based on Raymond Chandler's novel. 1946.
_____. Go Down, Moses. Stories / novel. 1942.
_____. Collected Stories of William Faulkner. 1950.
_____. Requiem for a Nun. Novel. 1951.
_____. A Fable. Novel. 1954.
_____. The Town. Novel. 1957. (Vol. 2 of the Snopes trilogy).
_____. The Mansion. Novel. 1959. (Vol. 3 of the Snopes trilogy).

  William Faulkner was a US southern writer, major modernist novelist and story writer; b. William Harrison Falkner in New Albany, Mississippi; l. Oxford, Lafayette county; Nobel Prize for Literature 1949; Pulitzer Prize 1955, 1962; d. Byhalia, Mississipi.


An introduction to Hemingway and Faulkner  (by Richard Gray)


13 Nov. Empezamos con Swift. En la sección B, Hemingway.

Main works by yahoo

Jonathan Swift (1667-1745).

_____. The Battle of the Books. Written 1696-8. Pub. 1704.
_____.  A Tale of a Tub.  Satire. Written 1696-8. Pub.1704, 1710.
_____, ed. The Examiner (Bolingbroke’s Tory newspaper). 1710.
_____. Journal to Stella. 1710-1713. Pub. 1766-8.
_____. Proposal for the Universal Use of Irish Manufacture. Pamphlet. 1720.
_____. Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, by Lemuel Gulliver. Written 1721-25. London, 1726.
_____. The Drapier's Letters. Pamphlet series. 1724.
_____. A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People from Being a Burthen to Their Parents or Country. 1729.
_____. "Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift." Satire. 1731, pub. 1739.
_____. Works. 4 vols. Dublin: George Faulkner, 1735.

Some notes on Swift and on other prose writers of the early 18th c.


NIVEL AVANZADO: A lecture on Jonathan Swift's life and world.

Cazamian: Universal Criticism: Arbuthnot and Swift


ERNEST HEMINGWAY        (1899-1961)

_____.  In Our Time. Stories. 1925.
_____. The Sun Also Rises. Novel. 1926. (= Fiesta)hemingway
_____. Men Without Women. Stories. 1927.
_____. A Farewell to Arms. Novel. 1929.
_____. Death in the Afternoon. Essay. 1932.
_____. Winner Take Nothing. Stories. 1933.
_____. Green Hills of Africa. Novel. 1935.
_____. To Have and Have Not. Novel. 1937.
_____. The Fifth Column and the First Forty-Nine Stories. 1938.
_____. For Whom the Bell Tolls. Novel. 1940.
_____. Men at War. Stories. 1942.
_____. The Old Man and the Sea. Novel. 1952.
_____. The Dangerous Summer. Report. 1960.
_____. A Moveable Feast. Memoir. 1964.
_____. Islands in the Stream. Novel. 1970.
_____. The Garden of Eden. Novel. 1986.
_____. True at First Light. Novel. 1999.

Hemingway was a major US novelist and short story writer; doctor's son, second of six children, b. Oak Park, Illinois; father committed suicide; reporter at Kansas City Star volunteer ambulance driver in Italy 1st WW, wounded and decorated; USA 1919, married and settled in Paris as foreign correspondent 1921, reporter at Greco-Turkish war 1922, "Lost Generation" expatriate with Ezra Pound, Fitzgerald and Gertrude Stein; became Catholic, reporter at the Spanish War and anti-Nazi activist during World War II; left-wing sympathies, lived in Key West and Cuba; travelled widely, modernist aesthetics of impersonality and spare realistic style, journalist, traveller, sportsman, big-game hunter and sporting fisherman; socialite, divorced, several marriages and divorces; alcoholic, suffered severe accidents, Nobel Prize for Literature 1954, seriously ill, electroshock sessions, committed suicide in Ketchum, Idaho.


SECCIÓN B, nivel avanzado:

Sobre la más famosa novela de F. Scott Fitzgerald: "The Great Gatsby." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.*

El teatro de Bernard Shaw. Unas notas del utilísimo Oxford Companion to English Literature.

Sobre Hemingway, podéis ver esta película:   THE SNOWS OF KILIMANJARO.



6-7 de noviembre

Empezaremos con Egerton y Pope, y seguiremos con Defoe. Los textos son ahora más largos y apenas podremos leer algún fragmento en clase, así que id adelantando por vuestra cuenta, pero seguiremos necesitándolos en clase—traed siempre los del tema que estemos tratando esa semana.

Una versión cinematográfica de Robinson Crusoe, de Defoe, dirigida por Luis Buñuel:


Daniel Defoe (1660-1731)  (Daniel Foe to 1695)

_____. An Essay upon Projects.  1697.
_____. Enquiry into the Occasional Conformity of Dissenters. Pamp
Daniel Defoehlet. 1698.
_____. Legion's Memorial to the House of Commons. Pamphlet. 1701.
_____. The True-Born Englishman.  Satirical poem. 1701.
_____. The Shortest Way with the Dissenters. Hoax pamphlet. 1702.
_____. Hymn to the Pillory. Satirical poem. 1702.
_____. The Review. Journalism. 1704-13.
_____. True Relation of the Apparition of one Mrs. Veal. Tale. 1706.
_____. Mercator, or Commerce Retriev'd. Journal. 1713-14.
_____. The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner. Memoir novel. 1719. 
_____. The Farther Adventures of Robinson Crusoe: Being the Second and Last Part of his Life. Narrative. 1719.
_____. Serious Reflections during the Life and Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe: With his Vision of the Angelick World.  1720.
_____. The Memoirs of a Cavalier. Memoir novel. 1720.
_____.  Captain Singleton.  Memoir novel.  1720.
_____. The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders. Memoir novel. 1722. 
_____.  Colonel Jacque.  Memoir novel.  1722.
_____. A Journal of the Plague Year. Apocryphal memoir. 1722.
_____. Religious Courtship. Moral treatise. 1722.
_____. Roxana, The Fortunate Mistress. Memoir novel. 1724.
_____. A Tour Through the Whole Island of Great Britain. Guide book.  3 vols. 1724-26.
_____. The Complete English Tradesman. Non-fiction. 1726.
_____. A Plan of the English Commerce. Non-fiction. 1728.
_____. The Complete English Gentleman.  Non-fiction. Pub. 1890.

Some introductory notes to Daniel Defoe, from the Oxford Companion to English Literature.

En el proyecto Desenredando el siglo XVIII del Instituto Rosaleda hay varias presentaciones relativas a literatura inglesa del XVIII.

An introductory lecture to the neoclassical period in English Literature.

Some works by

ALEXANDER POPE     (1688-1744)

(English poet, son of a Catholic businessman; small and crook-backed, poor health; l. unmarried in Twickenham; Catholic/deist, associated first with Whigs and soon with Scriblerus club of Tory satirists; friend of Gay, Swift, Arbuthnot, Bolingbroke; quarrelsome man of letters, conservative Tory critic of men and manners; neoclassical model in English poetry after Dryden)

_____. Pastorals. 1709.
_____.  An Essay on Criticism.  1711. 
_____. The Rape of the Lock. First version. 1712. Enlarged ed. 1714.
_____. "Windsor Forest." 1713.
_____, trans. Iliad. 1715-20.
_____. "Epistle of Eloisa to Abelard." Poem. 1717.
_____. The Works.  1717.
_____. "Preface to The Works of Shakespear."  1725. 
_____, trans. Odyssey. 1725-26. (In collaboration)
_____.  Peri Bathous or, The Art of Sinking in Poetry.  1727. 
_____. The Dunciad. books I-III. 1728-1743.
_____. Essay on Man. 1733-1734.
_____. Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot.  Poem. 1735.
_____. Imitations of Horace. 1737.

pope alexander

Pope and his elder contemporaries in verse (Saintsbury)



Other Augustan Prose Writers

JOHN LOCKE     (1632-1704)
English empiricist philosopher and political theorist, b. Wrington, Somersetshire; Lecturer, physician and philosopher; assistant to the First Earl of Shaftesbury, Whig political theorist, exile in Netherlands 1682-88; customs official after revolution; d Oates, Essex; influential theorist of knowledge and economist; proto-liberal, defends political and religious toleration.

_____.  Letters for Toleration. 1690-92.
_____. (Anon.). Two Treatises of Government.  1689.
_____. (Signed). An Essay Concerning Human Understanding. 1689.
_____. Some Considerations of the Consequences of the Lowering of Interest, and Raising the Value of Money. 1691.
_____. Some Thoughts Concerning Education. 1693.
_____. The Reasonableness of Christianity. 1695.

John Locke (Wikipedia).

LADY MARY WORTLEY MONTAGU (1689-1762, née Mary Pierrepont)
_____. Town Eclogues and Court Poems. 1716.
_____. (Anon.). The Nonsense of Common Sense. Periodical. 1737-38.
_____. Letters. 4 vols. 1763-7.

JOHN GAY (1685-1732)
_____. Wine. Poem. 1708.
_____. The Shepherd's Week. Mock pastorals. 1714.
_____. Trivia, or the Art of Walking the Streets of London. Mock georgic. 1716.
_____. Acis and Galatea. Libretto for Handel's opera:
_____. Fables. 1727, 1738.
_____. The Beggar's Opera. Musical. 1728.
_____. Polly. Musical. 1729.

An episode from The Beggar's Opera— Macheath in Newgate prison:

SHAFTESBURY (1671-1713)

Anthony Ashley Cooper, The Third Earl of Shaftesbury (Characteristicks of Men, Manners, Opinions , and Times, 1711) gave an influential formulation to many ideas of the Enlightenment. Optimistic theodicy, a defense that evil is necessary for the overall good of the universe (like Pope and Bolingbroke). He defends the notions of the Great Chain of Being and of a full universe. Social morality is derived from innate human benevolence: a belief based on the contemplation of the order of the Universe. He advocates a rational christianity.

JOSEPH BUTLER (1692-1752)
_____. Analogy of Religion, Natural and Revealed, to the Constitution and Course of Nature. 1736.

Butler was a Bishop of the Church of England. His main work, the Analogy of Religion,  is a defense of Christianity, which tries to justify the necessity of revealed religion from the evidence of order that we find in Nature. Butler is a product of the age of Reason in matters of religion: but he uses reason, or an appearance of reason, to affirm the doctrine of established Christianity.
This was considered by many the definitive proof of divine order against the attacks of skeptical philosophy and science.

SAMUEL PEPYS  (1633-1703)
(English writer, author of a secret diary, unpublished and undecyphered until the 19th century; lower middle class Puritan background, Anglican; st. with a scholarship, social promotion, official at the Navy office during the Restoration; imprisoned during Popish Plot and after 1688 Revolution; reformer of the Navy office, member of the Royal Society)
Pepys, Samuel.  Diary. Written 1660-69. Deciphered by John Smith; pub. 1825-.

JOHN EVELYN          (1620-1706)
(English royalist gentleman, travelled in Europe during 1640s; polygraph, virtuoso and member of the Royal Society, friend of S. Pepys)
Evelyn, John. Fumifugium ot The Smoak of London Dissipated. Project. 1661.
_____. Tyrannus, or the Mode. Essay. 1661.
_____. Terra, or A Philosophical Discourse of Earth. 1675.
_____. Liberty and Servitude. Treatise. 1649.
_____. A Character of England. Essay. 1659.
_____. London Revived: Considerations for its Rebuilding in 1666. (= "Londinium Redivivum").
_____. Diary.  Written 1641-. Ed.  1818.

And a great scientist: Isaac Newton (audio).


SARAH EGERTON     (1670-1723)

(née Fyge, outspoken feminist, precocious writer, teenage feminist; sent to the country by her parents to repress her, forced to marry Edward Field, widow, m. cousin Reverend Thomas Egerton, unsuccessfuly sued for divorce, loved Henry Pierce, object of scandal and public ridicule, forgotten as a poet and recovered by feminist critics in the 20th century)

_____. (anon.). The Female Advocate or, an Answer to a Late Satyr Against the Pride, Lust and Inconstancy, c. of Woman. Written by a Lady in Vindication of her Sex. 1686.
(A verse satire published in response to Robert Gould's misogynist satire, A Late Satyr Against the Pride, Lust, and Inconstancy, etc. of Woman, 1682).
_____. (signed S. F.). Poems on Several Occasions, Together with a Pastoral… 1703.
_____. "The Emulation."

Sarah Egerton: The Emulation

Say, tyrant Custom, why must we obey
The impositions of thy haughty sway?
From the first dawn of life unto the grave,
Poor womankind's in every state a slave,
The nurse, the mistress, parent and the swain,
For love she must, there's none escape that pain.
Then comes the last, the fatal slavery:
The husband with insulting tyranny
Can have ill manners justified by law,
For men all join to keep the wife in awe.
Moses, who first our freedom did rebuke,
Was married when he writ the Pentateuch.
They're wise to keep us slaves, for well they know,
If we were loose, we should soon make them so.
We yield like vanquished kings whom fetters bind,
When chance of war is to usurpers kind;
Submit in form; but they'd our thoughts control,
And lay restraints on the impassive soul.
They fear we should excel their sluggish parts,
Should we attempt the sciences and arts;
Pretend they were designed for them alone,
So keep us fools to raise their own renown.
Thus priests of old, their grandeur to maintain,
Cried vulgar eyes would sacred laws profane;
So kept the mysteries behind a screen:
Their homage and the name were lost had they been seen.
But in this blessèd age such freedom's given,
That every man explains the will of heaven;
And shall we women now sit tamely by,
Make no excursions in philosophy,
Or grace our thoughts in tuneful poetry?
We will our rights in learning's world maintain;
Wit's empire now shall know a female reign.
Come, all ye fair, the great attempt improve,
Divinely imitate the realms above:
There's ten celestial females govern wit,
And but two gods that dare pretend to it.
And shall these finite males reverse their rules?
No, we'll be wits, and then men must be fools.


La emulación, de Sarah Egerton



Otra escritora feminista del 1700, Mary Astell, con su Serious Advice to the Ladies y sus Reflections on Marriage.
"Mary Astell." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

Una autora significativa de la época de la Restauración es Aphra Behn  (1640-1689).  Destaca su novela Oroonoko; or, The Royal Slave (1688).
Oroonoko, or The Royal Slave is a novel by Aphra Behn (1640-1689). Aphra Behn was the first woman writer in England to make a living by her pen, and her novel Oroonoko was the first work published in English to express sympathy for African slaves. Perhaps based partly on Behn's own experiences living in Surinam, the novel tells the tragic story of a noble slave, Oroonoko, and his love Imoinda. The work was an instant success and was adapted for the stage in 1695. Behn's work paved the way for women writers who came after her, as Virginia Woolf noted in A Room of One's Own (1928): "All women together ought to let flowers fall upon the tomb of Aphra Behn, ... for it was she who earned them the right to speak their minds."

The Theatre of the Restoration notes from A History of English Literature, by Legouis and Cazamian.

Al final de la época de la Restauración corresponde la que quizá sea la mejor ópera inglesa clásica: Dido and Aeneas de Henry Purcell.  Más abajo tenéis un enlace.



VIRGINIA WOOLF     (1882-1941)
(English woman of letters, modernist writer and forerunner of feminist criticism, b. at High Park Gate as Adeline Virginia Stephen, daughter of scholar Leslie Stephen and Julia Duckworth; lived in Bloomsbury, London, 1904-, nucleus of the "Bloomsbury Group" of intellectuals and artists; contributor to the Times Literary Supplement; married Leonard Woolf 1912; leading modernist novelist and critic; loving "lesbian" friendship with writer Vita Sackville-West; suffered frequent mental disturbances and heard voices; committed suicide by drowning in the river Ouse, Sussex)

_____. The Voyage Out. Novel. 1915.
_____. Night and Day. Novel. 1919.
_____. "The Mark on the Wall." Experimental prose.
_____. Jacob's Room. Novel. 1922.
_____. Mrs. Dalloway. Novel. London: Hogarth, 1925.
_____. The Common Reader.  1925.
_____. To the Lighthouse. Fiction. 1927.
_____. Orlando: A Biography. Novel. 1928.
_____. A Room of One's Own. 1929.
_____. The Waves. Novel. 1931.
_____. The Years. Novel. 1937.
_____. Between the Acts. Experimental novel. 1941.
_____. The Moment and Other Essays. 1948.
_____. A Writer's Diary.
_____. Moments of Being. Memoirs.
_____. The Diary of Virginia Woolf.

El grupo de Bloomsbury, círculo modernista bohemio chic de Londres.

"Virginia Woolf: Huerto, jardín y campo de batalla." Conferencia de Laura Freixas,



Un comentario de un pasaje de A Room of One's Own, un momento de reflexión sobre la mente andrógina y otro sobre el estilo de Woolf y su uso del tiempo tan característico de la novela modernista.

Virginia Woolf. Un documental sobre su vida de Academy Media:

— y una película basada en su novela Mrs. Dalloway, con Vanessa Redgrave.

Sobre la figura de Virginia Woolf podéis ver también la película The Hours (2002) un homenaje a la autora basado en una novela de Michael Cunningham—es más que recomendable, pero totalmente fuera de programa, por supuesto.

JOHN DRYDEN     (1631-1700)

English man of letters, b. Aldwinkle, Northamptonshire; st. Westminster School and Trinity College, Cambridge; Parliamentarian protestant background, soon Anglican Royalist courtier, converted to catholicism 1686; successful playwright, Poet Laureate 1668; Historiographer 1670; Tory satirist and polemicist vs. Whigs; lost jobs in 1688 Revolution; then jacobite; neoclassical critic and translator; influential dramatist, poet and critic, d. London; buried at Westminster Abbey after some grotesque incidents.

_____. "A Poem upon the Death of His Late Highness, Oliver, Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland." 1659. Rev. version: "Heroic Stanzas Consecrated to the Memory of His Highness Oliver..."
_____. Astraea Redux. A Poem on the Happy Restoration and Return of his Sacred Majesty Charles the Second. Poem. 1660.
_____. "To His Sacred Majesty, A Panegyrick on his Coronation." 1661.
_____. The Rival Ladies. Tragicomedy. 1664.
_____. The Indian Emperor, or The Conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards. Heroic drama. 1665.
_____.  Annus Mirabilis, The Year of wonders, 1666. An Historical Poem: containing the Progress and various Successes of our Naval War with Holland, under the Conduct of His Highness Prince Rupert, and His Grace the Duke of Albemarl. And describing the Fire of London.  1667.
_____. The Tempest, or The Enchanted Island.  Operatic adaptation, with William Davenant. 1667, pr. 1670.
_____.  Of Dramatic Poesy: An Essay.  1668. 
_____. Tyrannick love, or , The Royal Martyr. Heroic play 1669.
_____. Almanzor and Almahide, or The Conquest of Granada. Drama. 2 parts, 1669, 1670. Pub. 1672.
_____. Marriage à la Mode. Comedy 1672.
_____. Aureng-Zebe. Heroic play. 1676.
_____. All for Love; or, The World Well Lost. Tragedy. 1677, pr. 1678.
_____. Mac-Flecknoe, or A Satyr upon the True-Blew-Protestant Poet, T. S.  1676, pub. 1682.
_____. The Spanish Fryar, or The Double Discovery.  Tragicomedy. 1680.
_____.  (Anon.) Absalom and Achitophel.  (1st part). Satirical poem. 1681.
_____. The Medall. A Satyre against Sedition. By the Author of Absalom and Achitophel. Poem. 1682.
_____. Religio Laici.  Poem. 1682.
_____. To the Pious Memory of Mrs. Anne Killigrew. Poem. 1686.
_____. The Hind and the Panther. A Poem.  1687.
_____. Song for St. Cecilia's Day.  1687. Set by Draghi in 1687.
_____. King Arthur or The British Worthy. Dramatic opera. Music by Purcell. 1691.
_____, trans. Aeneis. By Virgil. 1697.
_____.  Fables Ancient and Modern, Translated into Verse from Homer, Virgil, Boccacce, and Chaucer.  1699.
Dryden, John, and William Soames, trans. Art Poétique. By Boileau. 1683.

Cosas de Dryden: Unas notas sobre su figura y obra... Bueno, mirad también su página de Luminarium. Eso vale para todos estos autores. 

En la semiópera de Dryden "King Arthur," con música de Purcell, se encuentra una curiosa canción, "Cold Song", aquí la canta Klaus Nomi:

He mencionado la "Oda a Santa Cecilia" de Dryden; le puso música Draghi pero luego escribió otra partitura Handel.
En YouTube se encuentra la música (41.41):

Las colaboraciones y versiones de Dryden son innumerables. Aquí hay, de una versión que hizo de Edipo Rey, también con números musicales de Purcell, una canción sobre el encantamiento de la música, "Music for a While":

NIVEL AVANZADO: Como ejemplo de los heroic plays de esta época, y a la vez de la mejor música de tiempos de la Restauración, puede verse esta filmación de Dido and Aeneas, de Henri Purcell, con libreto de Nahum Tate (con subtítulos):



Muchos autores quedan fuera de programa, entre ellos algunos de los más populares actualmente—Stephen King, Agatha Christie.... Como no podemos incluir más autores en el programa, para curiosear sobre estos "fuera de programa" os remito a la Wikipedia, que es excelente sitio para empezar—incluyendo los autores del programa. Aquí Agatha Christie (en la edición inglesa mejor, claro).

En SparkNotes  encontráis abundantes materiales didácticos sobre literatura inglesa.


John Wilmot, Earl of Rochester  (1647-1680)

2nd Earl of Rochester, b. Ditchley, Oxfordshire, son of the 1st Earl of Rochester; scandalous court wit under Charles II, rake and hooligan; destroyed his health through drink and sex; atheist and misanthropist converted to Christianity before his death, d. London.

_____. "A Satyr against Reason and Mankind." Satire.
_____. "The Imperfect Enjoyment."
_____. "The Disabled Debauchee." Poem.
_____. "A Satyr on Charles II."
_____. Poems on Several Occasions... 1680.
_____. "Upon Nothing." 1711.


Esta es la página de Rochester en Luminariumcon obras, crítica, etc. Es especialmente recomendable la Satire against Reason and Mankind. 

Unas notas complementarias sobre Rochester.


"Upon Nothing": Comentario:

La literatura dramática de la época de la Restauración está especialmente cercana a la literatura francesa. Sobre los dramaturgos de la Restauración, podéis leer este capítulo de la historia de la literatura inglesa de Legouis y Cazamian: The Theatre of the Restoration.

A propósito del conde de Rochester y el teatro de la Restauración, existe la película The Libertine, con Johnny Depp. Por Internet la podéis localizar. Está basada en una obra de teatro actual, de Stephen Jeffers. Ojo que no es para todos los gustos. Otra buena película sobre el teatro inglés allá a principios de los años 1660 es Stage Beauty (titulada en español
Belleza  Prohibida).


Final de octubre. Comenzaremos leyendo textos de Milton. Luego pasaremos (algo más deprisa) a Rochester, Dryden, y Egerton. Traed los textos a clase.

Otro importante autor de la época republicana de la Commonwealth es el filósofo y teorizador político Thomas Hobbes
(1588-1679) con su obra Leviathan: Or the Matter, Form, and Power of A Commonwealth Ecclesiastical and Civil (1651),  una de las obras de teoría política más importantes de la historia, y una defensa del absolutismo como garantía de la paz. Aquí su célebre frontispicio:


Obsérvese en las ilustraciones el paralelismo entre los aspectos "civil" y "eclesiástico" de la comunidad regida por el absolutismo, y cómo Hobbes concibe a la Iglesia como otra dimensión más de la política, con sus propias armas, fortalezas y ejércitos.

Aquí un comentario sobre su teoría de la representación política: "How to Make Artificial Persons."

Hobbes también escribió una historia de las guerras civiles y revolución en Inglaterra, titulada Behemoth.

Una introducción a Hobbes, en español, de parte de Fernando Savater.


Para la última semana de octubre traed los textos de Milton, y luego los de Rochester y Dryden. 

Algunas obras de Milton. Por cierto, bibliografías más completas de todos estos autores se encuentran en

JOHN MILTON         (1608-1674)

English poet, son of a London musician and scrivener; st. Christ's College, Cambridge, BA 1628, MA 1632; turned vs. Anglicanism, then private study at father's house in Buckinghamshire; tour of Italy late 30s; private tutor and active Protestant pamphleteer and polemicist in London; m  Mary Powell, of Royalist family, 1643, estranged for some time, advocated divorce; reconciliation with wife; austere and authoritarian patriarch, militant masculinist, Independent critic of Presbyterians, Latin secretary to the Commonwealth, supported regicide, apologist of Cromwell; blind 1652; wife d. after childbirth, son died, 3 surviving daughters; m. Katharine Woodcock, d. after childbirth; m. Elizabeth Minshull after Restoration (no surviving children from later wives); protected Royalists under war and Commonwealth and was protected by Davenant and Marvell after Restoration, fined but pardoned, abandoned political activity, private life as man of letters, historian, theologian and neoclassical poet, helped by his family and visitors, organ player for recreation.

_____."On the Morning of Christ's Nativity. Compos'd 1629." Ode. In Poems. 1645.
_____. "An Epitaph on the admirable Dramaticke Poet, W. Shakespeare." Sonnet. 1630.
_____. "L'Allegro." Poem. Written c. 1631.
_____. "Il Penseroso." Poem. Written c. 1631.
_____. Comus. Masque. 1634.
_____. "Lycidas." Pastoral elegy. 1637.
_____. Of Reformation Touching Church Discipline in England. 1641.
_____. The Reason of Church Government Urg'd Against Prelaty, by Mr. John Milton. 1641-42.
_____. The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce. 1643.
_____. Areopagitica: A Speech of Mr John Milton For the Liberty of Unlicenc'd Printing, To the Parliament of England. 1644.
_____. Poems / of / Mr. John Milton, / both / English and Latin, / Compos'd at Several Times. / 1645.
_____. "On the new forcers of Conscience under the Long PARLIAMENT." Expanded sonnet. c. 1646.
_____. The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates. 1649.
_____. EIKONOCLASTES. 1649.
_____. Pro populo Anglicano Defensio. Political pamphlet. 1651.
_____. "Cromwell, our Chief of Men.." Sonnet. Pub. 1694.
_____. "When I Consider How My Light Is Spent." Sonnet. c. 1652.
_____. "Sonnet XV. On the late Massacher in Piedmont." Sonnet. 1655.
_____. "Sonnet XIX ('Methought I saw my late espoused Saint')." 1658.
_____.  Paradise lost. / A / POEM  / Written in / TEN BOOKS / By JOHN  MILTON./  1667. Rev. in 12 books, 1674.
_____.  History of Britain. 1670.
_____. PARADISE / REGAIN'D. / A / POEM. / In IV BOOKS. / To which is added / SAMSON AGONISTES. 1671.



John Milton: Paradise Lost

From Book 1
Of Man's first disobedience, and the fruit
Of that forbidden tree whose mortal taste
Brought death into the World, and all our woe,
With loss of Eden, till one greater Man
Restore us, and regain the blissful Seat,
Sing, Heavenly Muse, that, on the secret top
Of Oreb, or of Sinai, didst inspire
That shepherd who first taught the chosen seed
In the beginning how the heavens and earth
Rose out of Chaos: or, if Sion hill
Delight thee more, and Siloa's brook that flowed
Fast by the oracle of God, I thence
Invoke thy aid to my adventurous song,
That with no middle flight intends to soar
Above th' Aonian mount, while it pursues
Things unattempted yet in prose or rhyme.
And chiefly Thou, O Spirit, that dost prefer
Before all temples th' upright heart and pure,
Instruct me, for Thou know'st; Thou from the first
Wast present, and, with mighty wings outspread,
Dove-like sat'st brooding on the vast Abyss,
And mad'st it pregnant: what in me is dark
Illumine, what is low raise and support;
That, to the height of this great argument,
I may assert Eternal Providence,
And justify the ways of God to men.

Materiales sobre John Milton en Internet abundan:

"John Milton (1608-1674)." en Luminarium.

Spark Notes: Paradise Lost

—y un audio de la BBC de Adam Nicolson.


Una lección sobre Paradise Lost, de Ian Johnston,

En la Universidad de Yale hay todo un curso sobre Milton, de John Rogers, en vídeo. Aquí comenta el principio de Paradise Lost:



Uno de los autores centrales del siglo XX, T. S. Eliot, autoridad literaria y modelo de poeta modernista, a caballo entre Estados Unidos e Inglaterra.

T.S. Eliot: an introduction from the Norton Anthology

And some additional notes on Eliot as a critic: Modernist poetry and criticism (T.S. Eliot).



English Drama from Congreve to Eliot:

A BBC audio on literary modernism:


Algunos prosistas del siglo XVII:

Sir Francis Bacon  (1561-1626)

_____. Essays. 
1597, 1612, 1625.   Observaciones sobre prudencia, gobierno, sabiduría, y ética, por parte de un político importante.
_____.  The Advancement of Learning.
1605.  Una panorámica del conocimiento de su época y de sus progresos.
_____.  Novum Organum. 
1620.  Una nueva teoría de la ciencia experimental, en oposición a Aristóteles.
_____. The New Atlantis.
1627. Una visión utópica del futuro de la ciencia.

Sir Thomas Browne (1605-1682)
_____.  Religio Medici.   1643. Una defensa de la fe y de la moderación en religión, desde el punto de vista anglicano.
_____. Vulgar Errors (Pseudodoxia Epidemica). 1646. Una colección de curiosidades históricas y científicas, y refutación de errores populares al respecto.
Hydriotaphia, or Urn Burial... together with The Garden of Cyrus.  1658. Una meditación sobre la mortalidad y las sepulturas, y otra sobre la estructura numérica del universo.

John Bunyan (1628-1688)
_____. Grace Abounding to the Chief of Sinners. Spiritual autobiography. 1666.
_____. The Pilgrim's Progress. Allegorical fiction. Part I, 1678. Part II, 1684.

Edward Hyde, Earl of Clarendon  (1609-1674) - a major historian of the Civil War.
_____. The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England.  3 vols. Finished 1671-2. Pub. 1702-4.

Robert Burton    (1577-1640)
_____. The Anatomy of Melancholy. 1621-1638.
(An encyclopedic baroque treatise on depression, madness, and love melancholy).


Aquí hay unas indicaciones sobre cómo hacer un comentario de texto. Si queréis hacer prácticas, o consultas sobre cómo comentar alguno de los textos, dudas de interpretación, etc., podéis venir a comentarlo a las horas de tutorías.

El lunes 23 veremos los textos de Donne y hablaremos de la poesía de la primera mitad del XVII. Seguiremos con Marvell y Milton.

Algunos acontecimientos importantes del siglo XVII inglés:

Reinado de Jacobo I ("The Jacobean age") 1603-1625. Unión de las coronas inglesa y escocesa (pero no de los reinos). Colonias anglicanas en Virginia.
The Gunpowder Plot (1605) - Odio público a los católicos.

Reinado de su hijo Charles I ("The Caroline age"), 1625-1649. Supremacía anglicana, y nuevas colonias (puritanas) en Nueva Inglaterra.

Guerras civiles y primera revolución: 1640-48 - "Long Parliament" y Commonwealth. Supresión de la Iglesia anglicana (y de los teatros y fiestas populares).

Ejecución de Charles I (1649). Oliver Cromwell, "Lord Protector" (1653-58)  (Sobre estos acontecimientos puede verse la película MATAR A UN REY (To Kill a King)).

Restauración de Charles II (1660-85), del anglicanismo y de los teatros y fiestas populares.

Jacobo II (su hermano) reina 1685-88 - reacción contra el rey católico.

Segunda revolución inglesa (1688) - Reinado de William of Orange and Mary. Monarquía parlamentaria.

Unión de los reinos de Inglaterra y Escocia (1707).

ANDREW MARVELL         (1621-1678)
    (English metaphysical poet and satirist, b. Winestead-in-Holderness, Yorkshire; l. Kingston-upon-Hull, st. Trinity College, Cambridge, BA 1639; father died while A.M. a student, patronized by wealthy friends, 1640s travels widely in Europe, visits Constantinople; 1651-2 tutor for Sir Thomas Fairfax's family at Nunappleton, Yorkshire, later tutor employed by Oliver Cromwell near Eton; then l. London, 1657 assistant to Milton as Latin Secretary; 1660, 1661 MP for Hull, 1662-5 diplomatic secretary in Holland and Russia; Opposition MP for Hull, salaried by constituents; friend of Prince Rupert, anti-Government satirist under the Restoration, anti-Anglican polemicist, refused employment and bribes from the King, d. of a 'tertian ague', some say poisoned; buried at St. Giles; works published posthumously by his housekeeper or alleged wife)

_____. "An Horatian Ode upon Cromwell's Return from Ireland." Written 1650. (Absent from most copies of Miscellaneous Poems 1681).
_____. "Upon Appleton House." Poem. 1651, pub. 1678.
_____. "Bermudas." Poem.
_____. "The Garden." Poem. Early 1650s? Luminarium
_____. "The Mower against Gardens." Poem. Early 1650s?
_____. "To His Coy Mistress."

_____. (Anon.). An Account of the Growth of Popery and Arbitrary Government in England....  Prose satire. "Amsterdam", 1678. (Folio).
_____. Miscellaneous Poems.  1681.

Sobre Andrew Marvell, unos apuntes complementarios.

A BBC audio on "The Metaphysical Poets."

Otros poetas metafísicos que no vemos y apenas mencionamos:
Por ejemplo,
de Henry Vaughan podemos leer "Childhood":
O este poema, sobre la oración, del poeta religioso anglicano George Herbert, consistente en una serie de "metaphysical conceits":

                          Prayer (I)
Prayer, the Church's banquet, angel's age,
  God's breath in man returning to his birth,
  The soul in paraphrase, heart in pilgrimage,
The Christian plummet sounding heaven and Earth;
Engine against th' almighty, sinner's tower,
  Reversèd thunder, Christ-side-piercing spear,
  The six-days world transposing in an hour,
A kind of tune, which all things hear and fear,
Softness, and peace, and joy, and love, and bliss,
  Exalted manna, gladness of the best,
  Heaven in ordinary, man well dressed,
The Milky Way, the bird of paradise,
  Church-bells beyond the stars heard, the soul's blood,
  The land of spices; something understood.

JOHN DONNE (1572-1631)
(English metaphysical poet, b. London, Catholic gentry stock; st. Oxford, Cambridge, Lincoln's Inn; travelled Spain and Italy; secretary to Lord Chancellor and MP; secretly married patron's niece Anne More, dismissed in disgrace; many children, impoverished gentry, l. Surrey, ordained Anglican Priest; favour at King James's Court, Dean of St. Paul's, theatrical preacher, notorious weaver of paradoxes and alambicated wit)

_____. "Songs and Sonets" —in Poems.
_____. "Elegies"—in Poems.
_____. "Satires." —in Poems.
_____. Biathanatos. Discourse on suicide. Written 1608, posth. pub.
_____. Pseudo-Martyr. Discourse against Catholics. 1610.
_____. Ignatius His Conclave. Prose satire. 1610-11.
 _____. The First Anniversary. Elegy. 1611.
_____. "Divine Poems." —in  Poems.
_____. Devotions upon Emergent Occasions. 1624.
_____. Poems.  1633. 2nd ed. 1635.
_____. Essays in Divinity. 1651.


Sobre "The Good-Morrow" está esta explicación que hice yo hace tiempo, o esta otra en vídeo.
Otro famoso poema de Donne: "The Canonization":
John Donne.  In Luminarium:

Algunos textos y recursos de estudio sobre Donne:

"John Donne." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.
SparkNotes (Donne's poetry).

Audio / Video:
A lecture on John Donne and "A Valediction Forbidding Mourning":

A lecture upon John Donne:
Sherman, Ted. "John Donne Songs and Sonnets and Divine Poetry Lecture 1."



ROBERT FROST    (1874-1963)

(Robert Lee Frost, US poet, b. San Francisco; England 1912-15, friend of Edward Thomas; l. New Hampshire, affiliated teacher at Amherst, Harvard and Michigan, unofficial Laureate, invited to Kennedy's inauguration, d. Boston; popular as quintessential American poet of country life, colloquial tone, humanist individualist reflections on work, nature, character, and of life experience)


Frost, Robert. A Boy's Will. Poems. England, 1913.
_____. North of Boston. Poems. England, 1914.
_____. "The Road Not Taken." Poem. In Frost, Mountain Interval. 1916.
_____. "Birches." Poem. In Frost, Mountain Interval. 1916.
_____. Mountain Interval. Poems. 1916.
_____. New Hampshire. Poems. 1923. (Pulitzer Prize).
_____. Collected Poems. 1930. (Pulitzer Prize). 2nd ed. 1939.
_____. A Further Range. 1936. (Pulitzer Prize).
_____. A Witness Tree. Poems. 1942. (Pulitzer Prize).
_____. In the Clearing. Poems. 1962.

A few notes on Robert Frost, from the Oxford Companion to American Literature:

And one of his most famous poems: "Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening"



There are a couple of lectures on Frost, and lectures on some other twentieth-century poets, in this course from Yale

Hammer, Langdon. "Modern Poetry (ENGL 310)." 17-video series. YouTube (Yale Courses)

Unas notas sobre el poeta norteamericano Ezra Pound.



 El lunes seguimos con William Shakespeare. El martes traed también los textos de Shakespeare a clase, y pasamos ya a Jonson y Donne.


Mediado octubre
Unos apuntes sobre Ben Jonson.

BEN JONSON     (1572-1637)

(English dramatist and poet, b. Westminster, orphaned son of a Protestant minister, st. Westminster School, left Cambridge without a degree, apprenticed as bricklayer to father-in-law; volonteer in Flanders army 1592, killed enemy in single combat, actor in London c. 1594, imprisoned for manslaughter, converted to Catholicism for some time, married 1594, children died; returned to Anglicanism 1606; pensioned by the King 1616; honorary MA Oxford 1619; poet for aristocratic patrons, apologist of Stuart royalty; neoclassical theorist and literary authority, overweight and hard drinker)

_____.  Every Man in his Humour. Comedy. 1596, 1598.
_____. Cynthia's Revels. Drama.  1600.
_____. Every Man Out of His Humour. Comedy. 1600.
_____. The Poetaster. Comedy. Acted at Blackfriars, 1601.
_____. Sejanus His Fall. Tragedy. 1603.
_____. The Masque of Blackness. Acted 1605.

_____. Volpone. Comedy. 1606.
_____. Epicoene: Or, The Silent Woman. Comedy. 1609-10.
_____. The Masque of Queens. 1609.
_____. The Alchemist. Comedy. c. 1610.
_____. Catiline His Conspiracy. Tragedy. Pub. 1611.
_____. Love Restored. Masque. 1612.
_____. Bartholomew Fair. Comedy. 1614.
_____. The Workes of Beniamin Jonson.  1616. 
_____. The Staple of Newes. Comedy. 1626.
_____. Works. 2nd ed. 1640. (Including: Timber: Or, Discoveries).

Y un poema de Ben Jonson dedicado a Shakespeare, "To the Memory of my Beloved, the Author, Mr. William Shakespeare..."


Una introducción a Shakespeare en su contexto histórico

En Project Gutenberg tenéis los textos completos de todas las obras de Shakespeare. Por ejemplo:

The Tragedy of King Richard II

(the deposition scene: 4.1)

NIVEL AVANZADO: William Shakespeare (audio de la BBC, In Our Time).

Una introducción a la literatura de la época isabelina:
Lee, Sidney. "The Elizabethan Age of English Literature." In Cambridge Modern History. Online:


Uno de los sonetos que comentamos se puede examinar más despacio aquí: Soneto, espejo, reloj, bloc y libro.

 "La reforma protestante y la cultura inglesa (1550-1800)." Conferencia de Tim Blanning, en inglés y español, en la Fundación Juan March.

Macbeth, de Shakespeare, en una producción de la Royal Shakespeare Company (1978).

(Nuestra selección, min. 2.00.00)

A quien le interese el tema shakespeareano de la teatralidad de la vida, o el mundo como teatro, puede seguir en Facebook un blog que llevo sobre la cuestión, El Gran Teatro del Mundo:


William Shakespeare (1564-1616), born and dead in Stratford-upon-Avon, leading dramatist with the King's Men at the Globe Theatre, London.

EARLY WORKS (1589-93):

Titus Andronicus
The Comedy of Errors
Henry VI (3 parts)
Richard III

and later (1593-97)

The Taming of the Shrew
The Two Gentlemen of Verona
Love's Labour's Lost
Romeo and Juliet
King John
Richard II
A Midsummer Night's Dream
The Merchant of Venice

Venus and Adonis (1593)
The Rape of Lucrece (1594)

MIDDLE WORKS (1598-1604)

Henry IV (2 parts)
Henry V
The Merry Wives of Windsor
Much Ado About Nothing
Julius Caesar
As You Like It
Twelfth Night
Troilus and Cressida
All's Well that Ends Well
Measure for Measure


King Lear
Antony and Cleopatra
Timon of Athens


The Sonnets (1609)

The Winter's Tale
The Tempest

Henry VIII
The Two Noble Kinsmen

Collected plays in the "First Folio":

Mr William Shakespeare's Comedies, Histories and Tragedies,

Esta semana vemos algo de Shakespeare. Leed algo por anticipado— o id recuperando algo de lecturas pasadas si preferís. Voy añadiendo enlaces de los temas ya vistos en clase, aquí abajo.

No olvidéis traer los textos a clase.
Procuraremos leer todos los días un ratito, y traducir y comentar al paso. Así pues, esta semana Shakespeare primero, y después pasamos a Jonson, Donne y Marvell, por ese orden.

UNA COMEDIA FESTIVA DE SHAKESPEARE (EN ESPAÑOL). NOCHE DE REYES, por Morfeo Teatro, grupo de teatro de nuestra Facultad.

(Nuestra selección, min. 25)


Una introducción sencillita a Shakespeare, en español:  "La Biblioteca (William Shakespeare)." Audio. La Voz 5 May 2016.*



Entrar en Shakespeare es no salir. Quien quiera ampliar conocimientos sobre él (y es, dicho mal y pronto, el autor más importante que haya escrito jamás en cualquier literatura) tiene millones de páginas en Internet. Ask Google. Pero aquí os propongo una, que fue el blog de una asignatura monográfica sobre Shakespeare. (Nivel avanzadísimo, aviso).

Y unas notas sobre dos contemporáneos que precedieron a Shakespeare: Kyd y Marlowe.

Interludio festivo: ¡KAZUO ISHIGURO GANA EL PREMIO NOBEL DE LITERATURA!  Novelista anglo-japonés, aquí la noticia del premio en The Guardian.

Van dos autores anglófonos en un año, pues el último premio Nobel ha sido Bob Dylan, como recordaréis. Aquí la noticia en el New York Times.

Y aquí una canción cualquiera de tantas suyas:—"Thunder in the Mountain":



Con los Pilares acabamos la primera fase del curso "antes de Shakespeare". Momento de reflexión y evaluación sobre la marcha del curso

-  ¿Seguís bien las clases? Si hay problemas de comprensión, etc.—se admiten más preguntas en clase, y consulta de dudas en tutorías. Quienes no asistan, espero que lleven una marcha de estudio constante sin embargo, porque no es en absoluto recomendable el intentar prepararse esta asignatura en unas pocas semanas antes del examen.

- ¿Tenéis material adecuado? Habéis comprado, en efecto, un buen diccionario, un buen manual o dos, de literatura ingles y norteamericana?

- ¿Consultáis con regularidad esta web y los materiales adicionales? ¿Os acordáis de traer a clase las lecturas al día?

Si no es el caso, ahora estáis a tiempo de coger la marcha, que aún estamos iniciando el curso. Pero si no lo habéis hecho hasta ahora, pensad que requiere quizá un cambio de hábitos y más horario semanal dedicado al estudio de esta asignatura.

Id decidiendo ya si queréis hacer trabajos de curso o solamente examen final, y organizad el trabajo de modo acorde. Si alguien quiere hacer los trabajos en forma de presentación en clase, que me aviste para fijar fecha.

- Para la preparación de la materia del examen: tened en cuenta que una pregunta del tema será el nombre de uno de los autores de la sección A del programa. Otra pregunta larga, a elegir una u otra, será sobre un género y época—pero naturalmente conviene hablar en ella de los autores y lecturas que conozcáis relacionados con esa cuestión, y utilizar tanto lo que oigáis en clase o preparéis con manuales, como vuestra propia experiencia de lectura. El comentario / traducción (parte principal del examen) puede ser de cualquier texto del programa.




JAMES JOYCE         (1882-1941)

    (Expatriate Irish writer, leading modernist, experimental novelist; l. Trieste, Paris)

Joyce, James. Dubliners. Short stories. 1914.
_____. Exiles. Drama.
_____. Stephen Hero.
_____. A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man.  1916.
_____ . Ulysses. Experimental novel. Paris, 1922.
_____. Collected Poems. 1937.
_____. Finnegans Wake. Experimental novel. 1939.

An introduction to James Joyce, from the NORTON ANTHOLOGY:

Jorge Luis Borges, "Conferencia sobre James Joyce." (audio):



El año pasado hubo un ciclo sobre James Joyce en el Teatro de las Esquinas (Zaragoza). Pueden verse vídeos en YouTube.

James Joyce: ULYSSES. Un documental/adaptación sobre la novela:

ULYSSES (film version, 1967). The Molly Bloom monologue.


Esta semana hemos hablado de un par de poetas renacentistas, Sidney y Spenser. Sobre ambos hay material en Luminarium, un interesante sitio web sobre literatura inglesa clásica que tenéis recomendado en el programa.

"Sir Philip Sidney." At

Una pequeña introducción a Spenser, del Oxford Companion to English Literature.


Nivel avanzado:
Un enlace a Astrophel and Stella  de Sir Philip Sidney.

Notas sobre The Elizabethan Sonnet (Sidney Lee, en Cambridge History of English Literature)

Poco diremos de un importante dramaturgo libertino del siglo XVI, Christopher Marlowe. Aquí hay algo más sobre su obra y estilo.



Aquí hay unas indicaciones sobre cómo hacer un comentario de texto (English here). Si queréis hacer prácticas, o consultas sobre cómo comentar alguno de los textos, dudas de interpretación, etc., podéis venir a comentarlo a las horas de tutorías.

SIR PHILIP SIDNEY         (1554-1586)

(English renaissance poet, courtier and Protestant leader; d. in combat at Zutphen, Low Countries)

_____.  Arcadia. Prose romance. 1580s, pub. 1590.
_____. Astrophil and Stella. Sonnet sequence. c. 1582, pub. 1591, 1598.
(Sonnet 1 - Sonnet 45)
_____. An Apologie for Poetry or The Defence of Poetry. Discourse. Written 1579-80, pub. 1595.

EDMUND SPENSER         (1552-1599)

(English poet, b. London, st. Pembroke Hall, Cambridge, MA 1576; colonist in Ireland, advocates genocide, victim of Irish rebellion, Elizabethan courtier, quasi-Poet laureate)

_____. "Visions" and sonnets, trans. from Petrarch and du Bellay.
_____. The Shepheards Calendar. 1579.
_____. "Astrophel." Elegy on Sir Philip Sidney.
_____. Complaints. 1591.
_____. Colin Clouts come Home again. Pastoral. 1595.
_____. Amoretti. Sonnet sequence. c. 1595.
_____. Four Hymns on Love and Beauty. 1596.
_____. Epithalamion. Poem. 1595
_____. Prothalamion. Poem. 1596.
_____. The Faerie Queene. Unfinished epic poem. Books 1-3, 1590. Then 1596, 1609.
_____. A View of the Present State of Ireland. 1596, pub. 1603.

Sonnet 54 from Amoretti.

Read also Sonnet 75

Spenserian stanza: ababbcbcc (with a final Alexandrine)



The Secret Life of Books: The Faerie Queene (BBC documentary):

16th century

Tudor dynasty: Henry VII, Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547; Reformation, 1529-39), Edward VI (1547-53), Mary Tudor (1553-58), Elizabeth (r. 1558-1603)

Petrarchan poets:

Sir Thomas Wyatt
Earl of Surrey      (Tottel's Miscellany, 1557)

Rhyme scheme of the Elizabethan sonnet: abab cdcd efef gg

Prose writers:

Sir Thomas More, Utopia. 1516 (English, 1551).
Sir Thomas Elyot, The Governour. 1531.
Sir John Cheke, The Heart of Sedition. 1549.
Thomas Wilson, The Arte of Rhetorique. 1553.
John Foxe, Book of Martyrs (Actes and Monuments). 1563.
Roger Ascham, The Scholemaster. 1570.
Holinshed, Raphael. Chronicles of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 1577.
Lyly, John. Euphues. 1578.
William Camden, Britannia. Geography. 1586.
Richard Hakluyt, The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques and Discoveries of the English Nation. 1589.
Sir Walter Ralegh, The Discovery of Guiana. 1596.

Biblical translations: William Tyndale, Miles Coverdale, The Bishop's Bible.

(King James Bible
or "Authorized Version" in 1611)

Scottish reformers: John Knox, Sir David Lindsay, George Buchanan.

Some notes on the 16th-c. English humanists (from Legouis and Cazamian's History of English Literature).


Primera semana de octubre

Traed los textos de los primeros renacentistas: Sidney, Spenser. Luego pasaremos a Shakespeare, de quien hay una selección más larga de fragmentos. Id leyendo lo que podáis, y traed a clase los textos. También podéis venir a tutorías para consultar problemas de comprensión con las lecturas, tomando nota de vuestras dudas.



Andrew Hadfield on Edmund Spenser (video)

A lecture on Spenser and The Faerie Queene (Adam Crowley)

NIVEL AVANZADO: Un documental sobre The Faerie Queene en la BBC (The Secret Life of Books).

A short video lecture on the Renaissance and Sir Philip Sidney:

"Carolus Aureus: Sir Philip Sidney." (Critical Theory As It Is). YouTube 7 March 2011.*


Para primeros de octubre, traed el texto de Chaucer. Y luego el siguiente, etc.

Uno de los manuales recomendados, en PDF:   (M Alexander, A History of English Literature)


Comenzamos la sección B con los autores del siglo XX. Recordad que los autores de la sección B no entran como tema de redacción: sí como preguntas cortas, y como comentario/traducción. Son para preparación individual,  con los materiales que iré añadiendo aquí...

... y con el manual que os habéis comprado, sin duda.

Otro manual (de nivel un poquito avanzado) tenéis aquí, en PDF—la historia Oxford de la literatura inglesa.

Empezamos con un premio Nobel irlandés, W. B. Yeats:

W. B. YEATS     (1865-1939)

(Anglo-Irish poet; b. Sandymount, Dublin; son of painter J. B. Yeats; l. London 1874-83; l. Dublin / London / Sligo; associated to Irish revival in late 19th, then Modernist poet; supersititious believer in occultism and magic, anti-bourgeois aristocratic ideals, in love with Maud Gonne but rejected; married a "psychic" wife 1917; Irish Free State senator allied to interest of Protestant landed classes, friend of Lady Gregory, lived in a tower in her land; promoter of the Irish National Theatre; Nobel Prize for Literature)

Yeats, W. B. "The Madness of King Goll." Poem. 1884, pub. 1887.
_____. "The Wanderings of Oisin." Poem. 1889.
_____. "The Lake Isle of Innisfree." Poem. 1890
_____. "The Sorrow of Love." Poem. 1891.
_____. The Countess Kathleen. Drama. 1892.
_____. Crossways. Poems. 1892.
_____. The Rose. Poems. 1893.
_____. "Who Goes with Fergus?" Poem. 1893.
_____. The Land of Heart's Desire. Drama. 1894.
_____. The Wind among the Reeds. Poems. 1899.
_____. The Shadowy Waters. Dramatic poetry. 1902, 1906.
_____. In the Seven Woods. Poems. 1903.
_____. The Green Helmet and Other Poems. 1910.
_____. Deirdre. Drama. 1906.
_____. Responsibilities. Poems. 1914.
_____. "Easter 1916." Poem. 1916,
_____. "The Second Coming." Poem. 1919
_____. The Wild Swans at Coole. Poems. 1919.
_____. "An Irish Airman Foresees His Death." Poem. 1919.
_____. Michael Robartes and the Dancer. Poems. 1921.
_____. "Leda and the Swan." Poem. 1923.
_____. "Among School Children." Poem. 1926.
_____. "Sailing to Byzantium." Poem. 1926
_____. The Tower. Poems. 1928.
_____. The Winding Stair, and Other Poems. 1933.
_____. A Full Moon in March. Poems. 1935.
_____. "Under Ben Bulben." Poem. 1938

An introduction to W. B. Yeats, from the Norton Anthology.

With links to further criticism...


A video lecture on W. B. Yeats by Langdon Hammer (Yale University):


Middle English Literature

GEOFFREY CHAUCER     (c. 1343-1400)

Chaucer, Geoffrey.  The Romaunt of the Rose. Trans. from Guillaume de Lorris. C. 1368-72.
_____. The Book of the Duchess. 1368-72.
_____. Boece. Trans. of Boethius' The Consolation of Philosophy. C. 1380-87.
_____. The Knight's Tale. Romance, based on Boccaccio. C. 1380-87. Later included in The Canterbury Tales.
_____. The Parlement of Foules [The Parliament of Fowls]. c. 1380-82.
_____. "The Monk's Tale." C. 1372-80. Later included in The Canterbury Tales.
_____. The House of Fame. 1378-80.
_____. The Legend of Good Women. 1380-87.
_____. Troilus and Criseyde. C. 1382-86. (From Boccaccio's Filostrato).
_____. Treatise on the Astrolabe. 1391.
_____. The Canterbury Tales. Written 1388-1400.

Rhyme Royal: ababbcc


Unos apuntes introductorios a Chaucer.

También aquí.

Y en audio:

Geoffrey Chaucer (/ˈtʃɔːsər/; c. 1343 -- 25 October 1400), known as the Father of English literature, is widely considered the greatest English poet of the Middle Ages and was the first poet to have been buried in Poet's Corner of Westminster Abbey. While he achieved fame during his lifetime as an author, philosopher, alchemist and astronomer, composing a scientific treatise on the astrolabe for his ten year-old son Lewis, Chaucer also maintained an active career in the civil service as a bureaucrat, courtier and diplomat. Among his many works, which include The Book of the Duchess, the House of Fame, the Legend of Good Women and Troilus and Criseyde, he is best known today for The Canterbury Tales. Chaucer is a crucial figure in developing the legitimacy of the vernacular, Middle English, at a time when the dominant literary languages in England were French and Latin.

The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written in Middle English by Geoffrey Chaucer at the end of the 14th century. The tales (mostly written in verse although some are in prose) are told as part of a story-telling contest by a group of pilgrims as they travel together on a journey from Southwark to the shrine of Saint Thomas Becket at Canterbury Cathedral. The prize for this contest is a free meal at the Tabard Inn at Southwark on their return.

Following a long list of works written earlier in his career, including Troilus and Criseyde, House of Fame, and Parliament of Fowls, the Canterbury Tales was Chaucer's magnum opus. He uses the tales and the descriptions of its characters to paint an ironic and critical portrait of English society at the time, and particularly of the Church. Structurally, the collection resembles The Decameron, which Chaucer may have read during his first diplomatic mission to Italy in 1372.

This audio collection contains a treasury of 100 classic books and includes info on the life and times of the author, the theme of the book, the characters, the story outline, a concise yet detailed abridgement of the story and a discussion of the values that make each book one of the great classical works of literature.

© ''IntelliQuest World's 100 Greatest Books'' 1995

Jason Tondro on the Canterbury Tales

Una videolección sobre Chaucer y el prólogo de los cuentos de Canterbury:

Sherman, Ted. "Chaucer General Prologue Lecture 2." YouTube (Ted Sherman) 21 March 2013.*

Y otra:

"Sr A, Chaucer 1, Part A." Video lecture. YouTube

Un resumen hablado del prólogo. Y un resumen de Los cuentos de Canterbury.


Saintsbury, George. "7. Chaucer." In The End of the Middle Ages. Vol. 2 (English) of The Cambridge History of English and American Literature. Ed. A. W. Ward and A. R. Waller. Online at

_____. The Canterbury Tales. Online ed. by ELF (English Literary Foundation). ME and modern English trans.

Uno de los poemas breves de Chaucer, sobre la verdad (Truth, "trouthe"):
_____. "Trouthe." In García Landa, Vanity Fea 15 October 2010.*

Tondro, Jason. "Eng 2111#8: Chaucer." YouTube (Jason Tondro) 22 Oct. 2012.*

Un audio de la BBC (In Our Time): Chaucer:

15th century

Battle of Agincourt (Henry V, 1415)
Wars of the Roses
1476: Caxton's printing press
1485 Richard III defeated by Henry VII (House of Tudor)

Cycles of Mystery Plays (York, Wakefield, Chester, East Anglia)
Morality plays: Mankind, Everyman, The Castle of Perseverance

First women writers:

Julian of Norwich
Margery Kempe

John Lydgate (c.1370-c.1451):

- Troy Book
- The Siege of Thebes
- The Fall of Princes

Sir Thomas Malory, Morte Darthur, ed. by William Caxton, 1485.

Scottish literature:

Robert Henryson (1425-1508):
- The Testament of Cressid
- Moral Fables of Aesop

John Skelton, Colin Cloute. Satire.
____. Magnificence. Morality play. 1515


14th century:

1336- Edward III begins Hundred Years' War
1348- Black Death
1381- Peasants' Revolt
1399- Deposition of Richard II by Henry IV

John Gower (1325?-1408)

Le Miroir de l'Homme
Vox Clamantis
Confessio Amantis
(in English)

Gawain poet:
Cleanness, Patience, Pearl
and Sir Gawain and the Green Knight (late 14th c.)

William Langland, Piers Plowman (1362-92)

William and the Were-wolf (from the French, c. 1350)
Morte Arthure

The Wars of Alexander
The Destruction of Troy

Chaucer (c. 1343-1400)

Chroniclers: Robert of Gloucester, Robert Mannyng of Brunne

The South English Legendary
Cursor Mundi (encyclopedic poem)
Dan Michel, The Ayenbite of Inwit


Introducción a la sociedad de la Inglaterra medieval y al Middle English, vídeo titulado "Historical context for the Canterbury Tales"

El argumento de Sir Gawain and the Green Knight.


NIVEL AVANZADO: Aquí un documental de la BBC sobre Sir Gawain and the Green Knight -

—y unas notas sobre Sir Gawain y otros poemas aliterativos del inglés medio (Baugh, A History of English Literature).

And an American lecture on Marie de France's Lanval and on Sir Gawain and the Green Knight


13th century:

Layamon. Brut. c. 1205.
Guy of Warwick
Ancrene Riwle    c. 1215.
Kentish Sermons
Hali Meidenhad
The Owl and the Nightingale

Churchmen: Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, Duns Scotus
Walter Map, De nugis curialum (c. 1200)
Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora (1259)

The Seven Sages of Rome
Barlaam and Josaphat
King Horn

Middle English Literature
.... see above.

Historical background for the Middle English period:

A visual/audio introduction to medieval English literature (not an excellent video, but anyway):

Anglo-Norman Literature
    —and a lecture on The Anglo-Norman Period

Jeu d'Adam (Play of Adam)
Wace, Roman de Brut (c. 1155)
Thomas. Le Roman de Tristan (Tristan et Yseut)
by Marie de France
Richard Coeur de Lion
L'Histoire de Guillaume le Maréchal
c. 1220.

Anglo-Latin Literature

Geoffrey of Monmouth, Historia Regum Britanniae (The History of the Kings of Britain), c. 1136
William of Newburgh, Historia Rerum Anglicanum (1198)
Richard of Devizes, De rebus gestis Ricardi Primi c. 1190
Roger of Wendower, Flores Historiarum (1235)

Anglo-Saxon Literature

The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Beginning of Middle English period
Norman Invasion (Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror: 1066)


Nuestra lectura principal para el lunes: BEOWULF.  Para completar el tratamiento de estos temas, recomiendo acudir a los manuales. Por ejemplo, así trata el capítulo de Beowulf el manual de Michael Alexander. También tenéis aquí unos apuntes y lecciones adicionales.

Aquí un vídeo sobre The language of Beowulf. Parte de una serie de lecciones muy útiles que se encuentran en YouTube.

Y aquí una breve película de dibujos animados sobre Beowulf:

En conjunto, la mejor película sobre Beowulf es la de Robert Zemeckis (2007), Beowulf—aunque no es nada fiel al original, como tampoco lo son otras que se han hecho con este título, sí es recomendable.



Bragg, Melvyn, et al. "Beowulf." BBC (In Our Time) 5 March 2005.* Online audio:

(Ojo, si vuestro navegador no tiene Flash, podéis bajar estos audios en versión mp3).

Un documental de la BBC sobre Beowulf:

And some notes on Anglo-Saxon prose.


Primera semana

La primera semana, tras la presentación de la asignatura, hemos tratado de los anglosajones y su literatura.

- ¿Habéis obtenido ya el primer bloque de fotocopias, en Reprografía? Lo estamos utilizando ya.
- ¿Habéis hecho un horario que vayáis a seguir para dedicar a las lecturas y preparación de esta asignatura? Hay que incluirlo en la semana laboral, pues la lectura y el estudio llevan su tiempo.
- ¿Tenéis ficha lista para entregármela ya (digo foto con nombre please)?

Añadiré, antes o después de las clases, enlaces de interés, apuntes, referencias bibliográficas, etc., relacionadas con lo tratado cada semana.  Al pie de la página he añadido unos enlaces a algunos de los autores en Internet, como material adicional (que no entra en examen, claro). Entre ellos hay un libro de poemas del inglés antiguo.

Vimos en clase, por ejemplo, este texto de la Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum, de Beda el Venerable.

También h
emos visto en clase:

"The Wanderer." Trans. Cosette Faust Newton and Stith Thompson. In The Project Gutenberg eBook of Old English Poems.

_____. "The Wanderer."

Aquí unas notas sobre los poemas elegíacos anglosajones:



The Venerable Bede:

A BBC audio on the Venerable Bede:

Poesía religiosa anglosajona—around Cynewulf

Y otros poemas del inglés antiguo que no vimos:

Del Génesis B, la rebelión de Satanás:

"Los destinos de los hombres":

Uno de los poemas-adivinanzas del Exeter Book, "El viento de tormenta":


—Una serie en YouTube muy visible. Aquí tenéis otro, también de la BBC, sobre la invasión anglosajona, un poco demasiado revisionista:

  Es muy recomendable, si lo localizáis, el documental de la televisión británica Seven Ages of Britain: Age of Conquest. Aquí hay otro, norteamericano, que trata de la misma época: Barbarians: THE SAXONS
que más que un documental parece una película de acción.

También tiene interés esta serie que empieza aquí, sobre la historia del idioma inglés (periodo anglosajón): The Adventure of English, 1: Birth of a Language:



The Roman occupation (c. 43-420)
Anglo-Saxon conquest c. 450
c. 600 Christianization (Ethelberth's laws)
Caedmon's Hymn (7th c.)
The Venerable Bede, Historia Ecclesiastica Gentis Anglorum. 732.
871-899 King Alfred
1066 Norman conquest

- Manuscripts:
The Lindisfarne Gospels
The Exeter Book
The Vercelli Book
The Beowulf Manuscript
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle

Some authors and works

- Saints' lives (Judith, St. Guthlac, Andreas)
- Biblical poems and translations (Genesis, the Gospels) - The Dream of the Rood, The Phoenix
- Religious poets: Caedmon, Cynewulf (Christ, Juliana, Elene, The Fates of the Apostles),
- Bestiaries, Riddles...
- Elegiac poems: Deor, Widsith, The Seafarer, The Wanderer, The Ruin, The Wife's Lament, The Husband's Message, Wulf and Eadwacer.
- Epic poems: Beowulf, The Battle of Brunanburh, The Battle of Maldon
- Learned literary culture:
    - In Latin: Aldhelm, Bede, Wulfstan, Alcuin of York.
    - In English: King Alfred


Bienvenidas/os al curso 2017-18, y a vuestra única asignatura de Literatura Inglesa.

Estos son los autores que trataremos; en clase los de la sección A, y no presencialmente los demás de la sección B. Os iré proporcionando materiales sobre cada una de las secciones, y especificaremos "nivel avanzado" para los materiales menos básicos, y que sirven para ampliar materiales de estudio más allá de lo imprescindible.

SECCIÓN A (hasta 1900)

1. Literatura inglesa medieval

1. Beowulf
2. Sir Gawain and the Green Knight
3. Chaucer

2. Literatura inglesa renacentista

4. Spenser,
5. Sidney,
6. Shakespeare,
7. Jonson,
8. Donne,
9. Marvell,

3. Literatura inglesa 1660-1800

10. Milton,
11. Rochester,
12. Dryden,
13. Egerton,
14. Pope,
15. Defoe,
16. Swift,
17. Richardson,
18. Fielding,
19. Sterne,
20. Gray,
21. Johnson,
22. Blake,
23. Wollstonecraft,

4. Literatura inglesa del siglo XIX

24. Austen,
25. Scott,
26. Wordsworth,
27. Keats,
28. Byron,
29. Mary Shelley,
30. Dickens,
31. George Eliot,
32. Tennyson,
33. Hopkins,
34. Wilde,
35. Wells.

5. Literatura norteamericana hasta 1900

36. Irving,
37. Cooper,
38. Poe,
39. Emerson,
40. Thoreau,
41. Hawthorne,
42. Melville,
43. Dickinson,
44. Whitman,
45. Mark Twain,
46. Crane,
47. Henry James


6. Literatura inglesa y norteamericana 1900-1960

48. Yeats,
49. Joyce,
50. Frost,
51. T. S. Eliot,
52. Woolf,
53. Hemingway,
54. Cummings,
55. Auden,
56. Faulkner,
57. Beckett,
58. Nabokov,

7. Literatura inglesa 1960-

59. Larkin
60. Pinter
61. Stoppard,
62. Rushdie,

8. Literatura norteamericana 1960-

63. Barth,
64. Sexton,
65. Oates,
66. Roth,
67. Morrison.


La literatura es (en su definición más relevante aquí) la disciplina que recoge y estudia los textos más importantes o icónicos para el estudio de una cultura en su contexto histórico: incluye poesía y prosa, narración o teatro, ficción o no ficción, pero siempre son textos ideológicamente relevantes, significativos e influyentes en su representación de las maneras de sentir, de pensar y de representar la sociedad, y especialmente de sus transformaciones. La literatura va muy unida a la comunicación social y al tipo de cultura favorecido por una comunidad dada, en especial por las clases ideológicamente dominantes. La literatura representa la cultura, dirige la atención sobre aspectos concretos del mundo y de ella, la transmite, y la transforma por el hecho de representarla y difundirla, promoviendo la comunicación entre las capas sociales y entre las culturas, y a la vez transmitiendo ideales, valores, ideologías y presuposiciones sobre el mundo, la sociedad, las personas y sus relaciones entre sí—ideas morales o éticas, religiosas o generalmente culturales.

Un poco de contexto histórico y científico para el estudio de la cultura: un documental sobre A HISTORY OF THE WORLD IN TWO HOURS, y unas lecciones sobre el desarrollo cultural de la humanidad: A Brief History of Mankind.

Conviene, para vuestro dominio del inglés, que veáis con frecuencia constante este tipo de documentales que os pueden ayudar además en vuestros estudios. Y la tele, por supuesto, en inglés (o en francés). Pero no olvidéis que a través de Internet podéis asistir a clases magistrales y conferencias de los mejores profesores y pensadores de nuestro tiempo, además de ver tutoriales y materiales sobre cualquier tema y autor, o películas relacionadas con el temario de la asignatura.


Tenéis las fotocopias en Reprografía; un buen fajo (pero que no suman más de un par de libros o tres en conjunto). Divididlas en 2: el primer bloque, hasta 1900, son las lecturas que manejaremos en clase. Id trayendo a clase algunas de las lecturas que veremos en orden cronológico (un par de autores cada día máximo). Aquí pondremos a veces materiales adicionales, enlaces, apuntes o vídeos para complementar el estudio de la asignatura.


Programa de la asignatura

El objetivo principal de esta asignatura de "Introducción a la literatura inglesa" es el de proporcionar a los estudiantes conocimientos básicos sobre la literatura en lengua inglesa, en especial sobre las literaturas inglesa y norteamericana, así como destrezas para su comprensión y análisis. Trabajaremos en clases tanto teóricas como prácticas (enfocadas al estudio de textos representativos de cada época y contexto cultural)

Opción A: Sistema de evaluación continua:

- Entrega de dos trabajos escritos, el primero en noviembre, el segundo en enero, más una prueba final (examen) en las fechas fijadas por la Facultad para las convocatorias de febrero y de septiembre.

El examen valdrá un 40% de la nota. Constará de (1) preguntas sobre los temas, autores y lecturas del programa (incluyendo preguntas de elección múltiple y un tema sobre un autor o género/época); y (2) comentario o comprensión de un texto.

Los trabajos
(60% de la nota) serán:
- un comentario de texto sobre literatura clásica (sección A del programa), 30%.

- un trabajo grupal sobre literatura contemporánea (sección B del programa) 30%. Se valorará la capacidad de comprensión y análisis y el uso adecuado de herramientas propias del comentario de textos literarios. Se penalizará el plagio. Hay un requisito de nota mínima de 4.5 (18%) en el examen para mediar con los trabajos.

Examen: 40%. Preguntas sobre los temas y obras tratados en clase, y comentario de texto. Se valorará la habilidad para definir conceptos; conocer y explicar datos sobre géneros/autores/ obras; relacionar temas; y desarrollar interpretaciones personales, en relación todo ello tanto con la parte más teórica de la asignatura como con la parte referente a los textos de lectura obligatoria.

Opción B:
Si el alumno/a no entrega trabajos, el examen consistirá entonces en: preguntas (40%), incluyendo un tema, y además un comentario de texto (60%). Nota mínima de 4.5 en una parte para que medie con la de la otra parte. 

Opcionalmente, podrá realizarse una traducción del texto en lugar de un comentario.
En el examen no se utilizarán diccionarios ni otros materiales adicionales.

Los trabajos sólo podrán entregarse durante el período de clases. Es decir, en la segunda convocatoria, los estudiantes que no hayan entregado trabajos durante el primer cuatrimestre tendrán que atenerse a la opción B. Si bien se guardarán las notas favorables de los trabajos a aquellos alumnos que tengan pendiente el examen de febrero, no podrán realizarse trabajos adicionales para la convocatoria de septiembre.

Más información sobre criterios de evaluación, corrección de exámenes, etc., puede verse aquí.


Programa de la asignatura:

Sección A) Hasta 1900
1. Literatura inglesa medieval
2. Literatura inglesa renacentista
3. Literatura inglesa 1660-1800
4. Literatura inglesa del siglo XIX
5. Literatura norteamericana hasta 1900.

Sección B) Desde 1900
6. Literatura inglesa y norteamericana 1900-1960
7. Literatura inglesa 1960-
8. Literatura norteamericana 1960-


Las lecturas obligatorias consistirán en una selección de textos breves extraídos de algunos de los principales autores y obras del canon anglonorteamericano, incluyendo: Beowulf, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Chaucer, Spenser, Sidney, Shakespeare, Donne, Marvell, Milton, Rochester, Dryden, Pope, Defoe, Swift, Richardson, Fielding, Johnson, Gray, Blake, Wollstonecraft, Wordsworth, Austen,  Scott, Dickens, Irving, Cooper, Poe, Emerson, Hawthorne, Tennyson, Melville, Thoreau, George Eliot, Dickinson, Henry James, Mark Twain, Whitman, Hopkins, Wilde, Crane, Wells, Yeats, Joyce, Frost, T. S. Eliot, Woolf, Hemingway, Cummings, Auden, Faulkner, Beckett, Nabokov, Larkin, Barth, Stoppard, Sexton, Oates, Rushdie, Roth, Morrison.

Las clases teóricas y actividades prácticas presenciales se dedicarán a la Sección A del programa (literatura inglesa y norteamericana hasta 1900). El primer trabajo a realizar por los alumnos/as, así como el tema del examen, versará sobre esta sección.
Habrá a la vez un estudio personal guiado de la Sección B del programa (literatura inglesa y norteamericana desde 1900). El segundo trabajo, grupal, versará sobre un tema relacionado con la literatura de este periodo.


La mayoría de los textos pueden obtenerse en Project Gutenberg

Las lecturas obligatorias se pondrán a disposición de los estudiantes en el servicio de Reprografía. Muchas de las lecturas obligatorias están incluidas asimismo en The Norton Anthology of English Literature, (7th edition), ed. M. H. Abrams y Stephen Greenblatt. London: W.W. Norton and Company, 2000. La antología incluye, además de textos primarios,  introducciones a periodos históricos y autores.

 Historias breves (en un volumen) de la literatura inglesa:

Alexander, Michael. A History of English Literature. 2nd ed. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave, 2007.
Barnard, Robert. A Short History of English Literature. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998.
Blamires, Harry. A Short History of English Literature. London: Routledge, 1994.
Carter, Roland and John McRae. Penguin Guide to English Literature. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1995.
Coote, Stephen. The Penguin Short History of English Literature. Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1993.
Peck, John y Martin Coyle. A Brief History of English Literature. Basingstoke & New York: Palgrave, 2002.
Poplawski, Paul, ed. English Literature in Context. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.
Sanders, Andrew. The Short Oxford History of English Literature. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2000.

Sobre literatura norteamericana, hay otra antología Norton, y estos manuales entre otros:

Bertens, Hans, and Theo d'Haen. American Literature: A History. London: Routledge, 2016.
Bradbury, Malcolm, and Richard Ruland. From Puritanism to Postmodernism: A History of American Literature. London: Routledge, 1991.
Elliott, Emory, et al., eds. Columbia Literary History of the United States. New York: Columbia UP, 1988.
Gray, Richard. A History of American Literature. 2nd ed. Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.
Klarer, Mario. A Short Literary History of the United States. Abingdon and New York: Routledge, 2014.

Más bibliografía sobre autores, períodos, géneros, etc., puede encontrarse en A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism and Philology,


Las clases tendrán lugar en el Interfacultades 2, aula 2.2., lunes y martes de 17,30 a 19,30.
Las fechas de exámenes serán 17/01/18 (1ª convocatoria) o 06/09/18 (2ª convocatoria).

Y más material:

Enlaces a algunos de los autores y textos estudiados (Sección A)—para leer, consultar o curiosear. En Internet, que es inagotable, cada cual tiene que seleccionar lo que le sirve para orientar su estudio.

Free Online Literature Course (OpenCulture)

The Project Gutenberg eBook Old English Poems. Trans. Cosette Faust Newton and Stith Thompson.

Spenser, Edmund. The Faerie Queene: Book 1. Ed. George Armstrong Wauchope. (South Carolina College). New York and London: Macmillan, 1903. 1921.
1921. Online at Project Gutenberg

Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. In The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Online at MIT.

_____. The Complete Works of William Shakespeare. Online at MIT.

Wordsworth, William. Wordsworth's Poetical Works, vol. 3: The Prelude. Ed. William Knight. 1896. Online at Project Gutenberg.
_____. Complete poetical works. Online at

Edgar, Pelham (Ph.D.; Professor of English, Vi
ctoria Coll., Univ. of Toronto)., ed. Selections from Wordsworth and Tennyson. Toronto
: Macmillan Canada, 1917. Online at Project Gutenberg

Keats, John. Poems published in 1820 by John Keats. Online at Project Gutenberg.

"Darkness (Poem by Lord Byron)." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia

Austen, Jane. Mansfield Park at Project Gutenberg.

Scott, Walter. Walter Scott's Novels Available as e-Texts:
_____. Woodstock, or The Cavalier. Online at Project Gutenberg.

Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin). Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. Online at Project Gutenberg.

Dickens. Great Expectations. eTexts at Project Gutenberg.

Eliot, George. Middlemarch. Online at Project Gutenberg.

Wilde, Oscar. Intentions. Online at Project Gutenberg.

Wells, H. G. The Time Machine. Online at Project Gutenberg.

Irving. The Crayon Papers. Online at Project Gutenberg.
_____. The Sketch  Book of Geoffrey Crayon. Online at Project Gutenberg.
_____. Knickerbocker's History of New York.

"Rip Van Winkle." Wikipedia: The Free Encyclopedia.

Cooper, James Fenimore. The Last of the Mohicans. Online at Project Gutenberg.

Poe, Edgar Allan. "The Fall of the House of Usher." Online at Project Gutenberg.

Emerson. Essays. (Merrill's English Texts). New York: Charles E. Merrill, 1907. Online at Project Gutenberg:

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. Online at Project Gutenberg.

Melville. Works at Project Gutenberg.

_____. Bartleby, the Scrivener. Online at Project Gutenberg.

_____. Moby Dick, or, The Whale. Online at Project Gutenberg.

Thoreau, Henry. On the Duty of Civil Disobedience. Online at Project Gutenberg.* (Original title, 1849: Resistance to Civil Government).

_____. Walden; and, On the Duty of Civil Disobedience. Online texts at Project Gutenberg

Dickinson, Emily. The Complete Project Gutenberg Poems.

Twain, Mark. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Online at Project Gutenberg.

Crane, Stephen. The Monster and Other Stories. Online at Project Gutenberg.

_____. The Red Badge of Courage. Online at Project Gutenberg.

James, Henry. Works by Henry James at Project Gutenberg.*

_____. The Figure in the Carpet. Online at Project Gutenberg.

_____. The Real Thing. Online at Project Gutenberg.

_____. The Middle Years. Memoir. Online at Project Gutenberg.*

Eliot, T. S. The Waste Land. Hypertext ed. at*