sizhuvpolumrakeVANITY FEA: Blog de notas de José Angel García Landa (Biescas y Zaragoza) - Diciembre de 2014

  I
abide
Les jours s'en vont je demeure

    Mi web    Indice    Fotoblog    Videoblog    Lecturas    Enlaces y blogs    Bibliografía  — Música que viene: Soyez inexorables (Isabelle Huppert & Jean-Louis Murat) - Y vuelve: Undertow (Leonard Cohen) - Y vuelve: La stagione dell' amore (Franco Battiato)
________________________________


Viernes 19 de diciembre de 2014

God, the Universe, and Everything Else




—oOo—





La orilla blanca, la orilla negra (2)







—oOo—





Sobre la corrupción en la Universidad


 Un comunicado de ATU, Asociación para la Transparencia Universitaria:


La corrupción en la Universidad no es algo reciente sino que, por el contrario, goza de un notable pedigrí. De hecho, nunca se ha intentado acabar realmente con la corrupción. Las escasas veces que se han destapado algunos casos flagrantes no respondían a un planteamiento sistemático sino a reyertas internas entre reinos de taifas que libraban batallas entre sí y trataban de aprovechar la oportunidad de tener un competidor menos.

     Pero la corrupción no es el único problema de nuestra Universidad. La sistemática conversión de todas las instituciones públicas en negocios privados supone el mayor de los ataques de la historia.

     Por esto mismo pensamos que puede ser el momento idóneo para intentar acabar con la corrupción. Pero con rigor y determinación, sin dejar fuera ningún tipo de corrupción y estableciendo prioridades entre unas y otras.

     Denunciar los casos de corrupción requiere la colaboración de todos. No sirve mirar a otro lado. Es imprescindible recopilar los casos de corrupción que conozcáis, que nos enviéis la documentación correspondiente para sacarla a la luz, a la vista de todos y así aumentar la transparencia en la Universidad.   

     Por nuestra parte, nos comprometemos a atender todos los casos que recibamos, completar la documentación y hacerlos públicos cuando tengamos la información suficiente.

   En los próximos meses se va a celebrar el “VCongreso sobre la Corrupción y el Acoso en la Universidad Pública." Uno de los objetivos es establecer un calendario de actuaciones al que puedan incorporarse vuestras sugerencias.     

No cabe esperar más. Si no asumimos nuestra responsabilidad en denunciar y luchar contra la corrupción, no queda espacio para la esperanza en una Universidad que, mediante un ejercicio de transparencia y autocrítica, promueva una sociedad más justa

.

Casos de corrupción en www.atuspain.es
        
         Twitter de ATU: https://twitter.com/ATUspain/

   
          Mail de contacto de ATU: adm.atuspain@gmail.com
 



—oOo—





 
Ralph Vaughan Williams, Riders to the Sea








—oOo—





Sheridan - The Rivals (Bristol Old Vic)








—oOo—



On Shared Universes

On "shared universes" it is always a question of more or less —just as in "real life" we share our universe to a certain extent, always partially so, but perhaps never in a complete way. In the case of fictional worlds, an explicit reference to characters or events in another novel is taken as a sign that the author wants to emphasize the continuity between both novel worlds, and this may be either central or anecdotal (perhaps just a mark of the author's personal affection for his own tiny "comédie humaine"). But in the last analysis, all human universes, fictional or not, are partially shared by the fact that we live in a common and interconnected semiosphere. If there were any universe which was completely autonomous or non-shared, not resting on a common ground with our universe, then that's an issue similar to the multiverses in cosmology. They are a mathematical or logical problem without any demonstrable physical connection to our own universe. That is, if we make abstraction of the fact that these problems have been thought out IN OUR UNIVERSE, and in that sense they are also subordinate hypothetical worlds resting on the common world of shared experience.
Or at least that's the way it looks if we see it from here.

A paper (in Spanish) on the multiverses of Stephen Hawking and Olaf Stapledon in The Great Design and Star Maker: http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2535379


—oOo—






Jueves 18 de diciembre de 2014


The Sad Café (The Long Run)





—oOo—


Ao the Last Neanderthal




—oOo—


James Joyce's Ulysses (Documentary)





—oOo—


El Gran Diseño y Hacedor de Estrellas



El Gran Diseño y Hacedor de Estrellas:
Especulaciones sobre el multiverso y la única realidad
 


Exponemos y comentamos en este artículo la teoría cosmológica presentada en el libro de Stephen Hawking y Leonard Mlodinow El Gran Diseño (The Great Design, 2010), una perspectiva global sobre la física y el universo que pretende dar cuenta de la excepcionalidad aparente del mismo, y reducirla a parámetros racionales recurriendo al concepto del multiverso. Señalamos algunas analogías del multiverso de Hawking con las hiperficciones ergódicas, así como con las figuraciones del multiverso presentadas en la novela de ciencia-ficción especulativa de Olaf Stapledon Star Maker (1937). Situamos las concepciones de ambos libros en las tradiciones de la teodicea, viéndolas en concreto como una actualización de las teorías sobre la plenitud de la naturaleza.

babelbiblio



Note: Downloadable document is in Spanish.
Number of Pages in PDF File: 81

 

The Grand Design and Star Maker: Speculations on the Multiverse and the Sole Reality

This paper expounds and comments the cosmological theory put forward in Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow's book The Great Design (2010), a global perspective on physics and the universe which tries to account for the apparent exceptionality of the physical universe and reduce it to rational parameters, by resorting to the concept of the multiverse. We point out some existing parallels between Hawking's multiverse and ergodic hyperfictions, as well as previous figurations of the multiverse presented in Olaf Stapledon's speculative science-fiction novel Star Maker (1937). We situate both books within the traditions of theodicy, more specifically as a bringing up to date of traditional conceptions on the plenitude of nature.

 


Date posted: December 09, 2014  

http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2535379

eJournal Classifications
AARN Subject Matter eJournals
   
Cultural Anthropology eJournal - CMBO
        
AARN: Human Borders - Animals, Science & Technology, & Material Culture (Topic) - CMBO
            
AARN: Science & Technology Studies (Sub-Topic) - CMBO
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
    
Cognition in Mathematics, Science, & Technology eJournal - CMBO
        
CSN: Science (Topic) - CMBO
LIT Subject Matter eJournals
    
English & Commonwealth Literature eJournal - CMBO
        
LIT: Twentieth-Century British Literature (Topic) - CMBO






El Gran Diseño y Hacedor de Historias (1)



—oOo—







Miércoles 17 de diciembre de 2014



Andando por la arena mojada


Andando por la arena mojada

—oOo—





Cosmos (Carl Sagan, 1980)

Serie completa en español. Episodio 1: En la orilla del océano cósmico



—oOo—





Martes 16 de diciembre de 2014

Puente de Rande


Puente de Rande






—oOo—





Nicholas Hytner - How to Do Shakespeare







—oOo—






Lunes 15 de diciembre de 2014


Imágenes del lector (Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 9)

Imágenes del lector (Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva, 9)

"Samuel Beckett y la Narración Reflexiva" es un estudio en profundidad de la escritura experimental de Beckett, en especial de la trilogía novelística "Molloy," "Malone Dies," y "The Unnamable", desde la perspectiva de la narratología estructuralista y las teorías estructuralistas sobre la enunciación. Resulta de allí no sólo una mejor comprensión de la técnica utilizada por Beckett para transmitir su peculiar visión de la realidad, sino también toda una nueva gama de significaciones en estos textos. Este capítulo examina la transformación metaficcional a que se ven sometido el papel del receptor en la escritura de Beckett, con su uso de la figura del narratario y el papel del lector implícito o textual.

(Images of the Reader (Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative, 9))

"Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative" is an in-depth study of Beckett's experimental writing, more specifically of the novelistic trilogy "Molloy," "Malone Dies" and "The Unnamable," from the standpoint of structuralist theories of narrative and of enunciation. An increased insight is thereby obtained into the technique used by Beckett to articulate his peculiar view of reality, and a new dimension of signification of these texts emerges. This chapter examines Beckett's metafictional reworking of the role of the receiver, his use of narratees and the image of the textual or implied reader.

_


Reference Info: Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva. Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 1992. 229-36.

Date posted: December 03, 2014   

http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2532845 

eJournal Classifications


CSN Subject Matter eJournals
                          

LIT Subject Matter eJournals
             

LIT Subject Matter eJournals
    



—oOo—










John Beatty - Narrating Chance



—oOo—







Una lejana fuente de 'Kubla Khan'


Fonthill Abbey
Aquí, como preliminares, el poema de Samuel Taylor Coleridge 'Kubla Khan', y el artículo de la Wikipedia ('Kubla Khan') que lo explica y contextualiza.  Allí se señalan como fuentes remotas del palacio soñado (y luego construido "en el aire") los viajes de Marco Polo citados por Samuel Purchas en Purchas's Pilgrimage, un libro que dice Coleridge estaba leyendo cuando se quedó dormido y soñó el poema.

Sobre este sueño puede leerse (en Otras Inquisiciones) el ensayo de Borges "El sueño de Coleridge", y sobre el poema y su origen y fuentes el extenso estudio de John Livingston Lowes The Road to Xanadu. Algo comenté aquí sobre ese libro y sus fuentes subterráneas en un par de artículos, "The Road to Xanadu" y "La Gloriosa y los ríos sagrados". La cuestión es que también hay una fuente subterránea, y una corriente subterránea, en 'Kubla Khan'.

Creo que esa corriente fluye desde una fuente más remota, a saber, la supuesta Carta del Preste Juan que también debió conocer Marco Polo, un falso informe sobre las maravillas de Oriente que circuló por Europa a partir del siglo XII. Lo reproduce Umberto Eco en su Storia delle terre e dei luoghi leggendari, libro que me compré en Venecia en italiano (Bompiani, 2013), pero que ya ha salido también en español. Reproduzco el pasaje relevante de la carta, con la fuente maravillosa, y seguidamente la sección que dedica Eco a la leyenda y carta del Preste Juan. Como se ve, no sólo está en este apócrifo medieval el origen (o un origen) de la maravillosa corriente subterránea, sino también del palacio soñado e incluso, quizá, de la Leche del Paraíso, el hidromiel (u opio) que ha de insuflar al poeta energía demoníaca o sobrenatural, para que a su vez inspire temor reverencial a quienes contemplan "his flashing eyes, his floating hair". Cada cual su Xanadu. Así describe el suyo el Preste Juan:
Possediamo un altro palazzo, superiore al primo non in lunghezza ma in altezza e bellezza e edificato in seguito a una visione avuta, prima che noi nascessimo, dal padre nostro al quale, per la santità e la giustizia che in modo straordinario prosperavano in lui, era dato il nome di Quasidio. Infatti gli venne detto in sogno: "Edifica un palazzo per il figlio che stai per avere, che sarà re dei re terreni e signori dei signori di tutta quanta la terra. E per volere di Dio al palazzo sarà attribuita questa virtù: qui mai nessuno patirà fame né infermità, nessuno che si trovi al suo interno potrà morire il giorno in cui vi sarà entrato. E se qualcuno che fosse sul punto di morire di fame entrasse nel palazzo e li si fermasse un poco, se ne andrebbe sazio come se avesse mangiato cento portate e sano come se mai in vita sua fosse stato malato." Al suo interno nascerà anche una fonte, gustosa e odorosa più di ogni altra cosa al mondo, che non uscirà mai dal palazzo; da un angolo, dal quale si originerà, essa scorrerà invece attraverso il palazzo sino a un altro angolo sul lato opposto e lì la terra la accoglierà e sotto terra tornerà alla sua origine, allo stesso modo in cui il sole da occidente sotto la terra ritorna a oriente.
E avrà il sapore, sulla bocca di quanti ne gusteranno, di qualunque cosa essi desidereranno mangiare o bere. Infatti riempirà il palazzo di un profumo motto intenso, come se ogni sorta di droghe, di aromi e di unguenti fosse lì convogliata e smossa, e anzi molto di più. Se qualcunco gusterà l'acqua di quella fonte por tre anni e tre mesi e tre settimane e tre giorni e tre ore, ogni giorno per tre volte a digiuno, e nell'arco di tre ore ne gusterà in modo che né prima né dopo questa ora, bensì nello spazio che c'è tra l'inizio e la fine di ognuna di queste tre ore, per tre volte a digiuno ne gusterà, certamente prima di trecento anni e tre mesi e tre settimane e tre giorni e tre ore non morirà e sarà sempre nella sua prima giovinezza [...]  (En Eco 134-35)

Quizá incluso la fórmula del encantamiento que hemos de aplicarle al poeta desmelenado, "weave a circle round him thrice", puede estar inspirada en la obsesión ternaria que rige este palacio, según la carta del Preste Juan. Pero quién sabe, en un sueño la intertextualidad se combina de manera impredecible con todas las otras fuentes a las que se remonta Lowes. Con Bartram y las fuentes del Nilo, por ejemplo. O quién sabe si incluso conocería Coleridge ese otro sueño de Beckford al que alude Lowes.

Este es el pasaje de Purchas que al parecer leía Coleridge cuando el opio medicinal, o la prosa del historiador, pudo con él:
In Xanadu did Cublai Can build a stately palace, encompassing sixteene miles of plaine ground with a wall, wherein are fertile Meddowes, pleasant springs, delightful Streames, and all sorts of beasts of chase and game, and in the middest thereof a sumptuous house of pleasure, which may be removed from place to place.
Aquí anota Lowes el parecido con un texto que Coleridge no conocía, y transcribo aquí su nota:
There is a singular coincidence to which Henri Cordier has called attention in his edition of Yule's Cathay and the Way Thither. In a thirteenth-century Arabic account of Xandu (Shang-tu), which was not translated into any Occidental language until years after Coleridge had dreamed his dream, occurs this statement: 'On the eastern side of that city a karsi or palace was built called Langtin, after a plan which the Kaan had seen in a dream and retained in his memory." (6). In ancient tradition the stately pleasure-dome of Kubla Khan itself came into being, like the poem, as the embodiment of a remembered vision in a dream.
Una nota a pie de página ésta que inspiró el ensayo clásico de Borges sobre "El sueño de Coleridge". Ahora bien, el libro de Lowes es el único que conozco que contiene notas en las notas al pie. Ese número (6) nos remite a esta nota textual o divagativa al final del libro:

(6). See the extract from the Jami'-ut-Tawáríkh (Djami el-Tévarikh), or General History of the World, of Rashiduddin (Rashid ed-Din, born about 1247 A.D.), in Yule, Cathay and the Road Thither, ed. Cordier (Hakluyt Society, 1914), III, 107-33, esp. 117-18, and II, 227, n. 1. For D'Ohsson's reading of the statement about the dream, see Yule-Cordier, III, 117, n. 4. Rashid describes the building of Kubla's palace over 'a certain lake encompassed with meadows near the city." The lake having been filled up and covered over and the palace built above it, "the water that was thus imprisoned in the bowels of the earth in the course of time forced outlets in sundry places, and thus fountains were produced." That is a singular parallel with the subterranean waters of the poem, yet Coleridge could not have known the Jami'-ut-Tawáríkh. Rashid's account of the palace is also quoted in The Geographical Review (Am. Geographical Soc.), XV (1925), 591, and in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, new series, VII, 329-38. The text of Rashid's works is being edited by E. Blochet for the "E. J. W. Gibb Memorial." See Volumes XII and XVIII, 2 of the Memorial series. 
    The site of Xanadu has recently been explored; see the article by Lawrence Impey on "Shangtu, the Summer Capital of Kublai Khan," with interesting plates and plans, in The Geographical Review XV, 484-604—a reference for which I am indebted to Dr. H. J. Spinden of the Peaody Museum of Harvard University. The site was visited in the autumn of 1872 by Dr. S. W. Bushell, Physician to H. B. M. Legation, Peking, whose reports of his expedition may be found in the Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, XVIII (1873-74), 156-58; Journal of the Royal Geog. Soc., XLIV (1874), 73-97, esp. 81-84; Journal Royal Asiatic Soc., new series, VII, 329-38. See also Henri Cordier, Les Voyages en Asie au XIVe siècle du . . . Odoric de Pordonone (in Recueil de Voyages et de Documents pour servir à l'histoire de la géographie depuis le XIIIe jusqu'à la fin du XVIe siècle), X, 313-15. For Friar Odoric's account, see ibid., X, 371-72, and esp. Yule-Cordier, Cathay and the Way Thither, II, 227-28. 
     The coincidence of the dreambuilt palace becomes still more curious when we read, in a Diary of J. Payne Collier: "we talked of dreams, the subject having been introduced by a recitation by Coleridge of some lines he had written many years ago upon the building of a Dream-palace by Kubla-Khan" (Lectures and Notes, p. 17; italics mine). But obviously Collier's note represents merely a confused recollection.
En su ensayo "Koublaï Khan, Coleridge, et Borges" Paul Bénichou (traductor del ensayo de Borges) comenta esta nota y cree atribuir a un error de traducción (de las fuentes persas usadas por Yule) la cuestión del palacio soñado. No es explicación suficiente ni necesaria, pues también hay palacio soñado en este texto del Preste Juan, anterior en siglos a las traducciones usadas por Yule, a las versiones europeas de la historia contada por Rashid-ed-Din, y también muy anterior a este historiador persa (de hacia 1300) al que se hacía remontar la noticia del palacio soñado.

 Otra nota curiosa (qué digo, muchas) introduce Lowes a este respecto. Comentando las asociaciones fugitivas del "Mount Abora" de Coleridge con el "Mount Amara" de Milton en Paradise Lost, añade este dato pasajero:

46. There is an extraordinary document which is evidence enough that such associations were less remote than we might think. It was written by a boy of eighteen, just twenty years before Coleridge's dream was dreamed. On December 4, 1778, ("being the full of the Moon") William Beckford, five years later the author of Vathek, wrote down, at Fonthill, an amazing reverie. It was not printed till 1910, and obviously Coleridge never saw it. As a "psychological curiosity" it is interesting to the last degree; but I may quote here a  few pertinent sentences only (Lewis Melville, The Life and Letters of William Beckford of Fonthill, London, 1910, pp. 62-63):
Meanwhile my thoughts were wandering into the interior of Afica and dwelt for hours on those Countries I love. Strange tales of Mount Atlas and relations of Travellers amused my fancy. One instant I imagined myself viewing the marble palaces of Ethiopian princes seated on the green woody margin of Lakes. .  . . Some few minutes after, I found myself standing before a thick wood listening to impetuous water falls.  . . . I was wondering at the Scene when a tall comely Negro wound along the slopes of the Hills and without moving his lips made me comprehend I was in Africa, on the brink of the Nile beneath the Mountains of Amara. I followed his steps thro' an infinity of irregular Vales, all skirted with Rocks and blooming with an aromatic vegetation, till we arrived at the hollow peak and . . . a wide Cavern appeared before us .  . . . We entered the Cavern and fell prostrate before the sacred source of the Nile which issues silently from a deep Gulph in the Rock
We may not forget, moreover, that the Happy Valley of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia, was "in the kingdom of Amhara" (Rasselas, chap. i), not far from the Nile. And Rasselas (with its strange cavern and its stream which "entered a dark cleft of the mountain . . . and fell with dreadful noise") may at least have helped to fix the name in Coleridge's memory. The great cavern, it may be added, had a massive iron gate which "was opened to the sound of musick" (chap. i), and there was in the Happy Valley "instruments of soft musick . . . of which some played  . ..  by the power of the stream" (chap. vi). but for many reasons I do not believe that this curious music has any connection with "the mingled measure from the fountain and the caves." 
The cave at Corycos of which Purchas (Pilgrimage, 1617, p. 382), following Pomponius Mela (Lib. I, cap. xiii), gives an account, "terrifieth those that enter, with the multiplied sounds of Cymbals and uncouth mintralsie"; it has a subterranean river, and it is holy (vere sacer). Mela's description is very vivid, and some recollection of it may have lingered in Colerdige's memory. But I know no evidence that it did.

Es más que probable, sin embargo, que Coleridge, si no conocía el sueño de Beckford, sí conociese los trabajos de edificación del Xanadu ideado por Beckford, Fonthill Abbey. Miren el artículo de la Wikipedia al respecto, o este sitio dedicado a Fonthill en Beckfordiana—porque ni el edificio ni su historia tienen desperdicio. Tras unos años de vida como expatriado por un escándalo homosexual, el riquísimo y decadente Beckford comenzó la construcción de su mansión neogótica hacia 1796-98, los mismos años en que Coleridge soñó con Kubla Khan. Y algún detalle es revelador:
Shunned by English society, he nevertheless decided to return to his native country; after enclosing the Fonthill estate in a six-mile long wall (high enough to prevent hunters from chasing foxes and hares on his property), this arch-romantic decided to have a Gothic cathedral built for his home. (Wikipedia)
Apuntemos que el mero nombre de Fonthill (lo más cercano que pudo llegar a Coleridge de esta "abadía") puede combinarse con las otras fuentes y los otros montes, con las otras lecturas de Coleridge, para producir esas asociaciones subterráneas que tanto apreciaba Lowes.

Marco Polo es una de las fuentes incluidas en Purchas's Pilgrimage y pudo llegar directamente también a a Coleridge. Y Marco Polo sí conocía la carta del Preste Juan. A Marco Polo lo cita Lowes en una de sus voluminosas notas (al cap. VII):

4. In the heart of Asia lies the huge and sinister desert of Lop or obi. It had been traversed from even Chinese time immemorial by one of the mysterious ancient trade-routes stretching dimly into Central Asia, the long lost and recently rediscovered Kan-Suh imperial highway between the Orient and the West. Six hundred years ago Marco Polo crossed, on the road to Cathay, the phantom-haunted sands of Gobi by this very highway. And Marco Polo's travels found a place in Purchas His Pilgrimes. And Milton, like Coleridge, was a diligent reader of Purchas, as his Commonplace Book attests. One thing which Milton read of the Desert of Lop was this: "They say that there dwell many spirits which cause great and mervailous Illusions to Travellers to make them perish. For if any stay behind that he cannot see his company, he shall be called by name, and so going out of the way is lost . . .  Consorts of Musicall Instruments are sometimes heard in the Ayre" (Purchas, XI, 216). And it was these goblin voices from the uncanny borders of the Mongol wold which were transmuted into quintessential poetry, as the Lady in "Comus" speaks, losta and alone in the wood at night:
               A thousand fantasies
     Begin to throng in my memory,
     Of calling shapes, and beckoning shadows dire,
     And airy tongues that syllable men's names
      On sands and shores and desert wildernesses.
But the Desert of Lop has a longer poetical history.... (etc.) (Lowes, 445)

La fuente de esta nota también parece haber inspirado a Shakespeare en La Tempestad. Pasajes inspirados por este texto de Marco Polo (o quizá por sus secuelas) se encuentran cuando Caliban habla de los espíritus invisibles y músicaos de la isla. En la carta del Preste Juan, que pudo conocer bien directamente bien por influjo indirecto, vemos además la fuente del reino utópico soñado por Gonzalo. En el complejo de textos que inspiraron a Coleridge también se oyen las músicas tocadas por el aire que tanto encantaron a Caliban en su isla, y le inspiraron sus deseos de no despertarse de su sueño, para volver a soñar.

Pero derivamos, como Lowes, porque aquí un eco nos lleva a otro, aunque (como dice Hobbes) "Not every Thought to every Thought succeeds indifferently".

Aquí queda, en suma, mi propuesta, que quizá no le haya escapado antes a algún medievalista ignoto. En todo caso, no encuentro esta referencia ni en la Wikipedia (artículo "Kubla Khan") ni en el mismo Coleridge (que sólo cita a Purchas), ni en John Livingston Lowes, ni en Orson Welles, ni en Olivia Newton-John. Eco conoce la carta y la reedita, pero no la relaciona con el poema de Coleridge. Tampoco la menciona Bénichou. A las posibilidades que enumera Bénichou para explicar el misterio que comenta Borges (el sueño del palacio como prefiguración del sueño del poema) hay que añadir, evidentemente, la que aquí señalamos: la posibilidad de que tanto Rashid-ed-Din como Coleridge, o bien otra fuente usada por Coleridge si no él directamente, bebiesen de una fuente común, anterior y bien conocida en su momento—la carta del Preste Juan.  Y que estas corrientes se mezclasen, en las corrientes del sueño, con otra surgiente profunda de las profundidades del pensamiento, el arquetipo repetido de los sueños que nos llevan a crear algo que (quizá) otros hayan creado ya antes, inspirados por otro sueño suyo y por la misma corriente subterránea, le sorgente irrazionali del pensiero.
Muchos han soñado con palacios; algunos incluso los han construido, ya sea en el aire, o en cimientos apenas más sólidos.



__________

Y aquí reproduzco, según decía, el comentario de Eco sobre la carta del Preste Juan y su mítica figura:

IL REGNO DEL PRETRE GIANNI

Narra la Cronaca di Ottone di Frisinga che nel 1145 in una visita al papa Eugenio III, nel corso di una ambasciata armena, Ugo vescovo di Gabala gli aveva parlato di un Gianni, Rex et Sacerdos cristiano nestoriano, discendente dai Magi, incitandolo a indire una seconda crociata contro gli infedeli.

Continuará....






Oscuridad, fracaso, Persona de Porlock





Domingo 14 de diciembre de 2014

Roger Scruton - Scientism and the Humanities






—oOo—

Something Stupid (3)






—oOo—




Sábado 13 de diciembre de 2014



Cognition in Mathematics, Science, & Technology eJournal


— Donde sale uno de mis últimos artículos. Con google seguro que se encuentra:

FirefoxScreenSnapz001


—oOo—






Le reste du temps (5)

Hoy en el estudio de grabación con toda la banda. Ronco, pero bueno, tampoco canto mucho mejor cuando no lo estoy:





—oOo—





Raymond Tallis: Aping Mankind? Neuromania, Darwinitis, and the Misrepresentation of Humanity






—oOo—







Addison on Aliens


(On the Origins of the Evolutionary Epic)

Antropocentrism is displaced in Addison´s essay on the Scale of Being. The human is no longer the center of God´s plan, and it is only a limited perspective we can have on the whole of nature. The world is no longer made for us; it also belongs to a variety of animals, angels, and aliens. 



 Addison's essay on the Scale of Being (Spectator no. 519, 1712), is an excellent exposition and instantiation of the notion of the FULL NATURE. It puts forward a view of the natural world which is completely purpose-driven, providential, a version of the Intelligent Design that Paley will still be holding a hundred years later. It goes back to age-old concepts of the Great Chain of Being, insisting on the fullness of the chain as a providential design. Every possible nook and pigeonhole of the world of nature has its place and every possible creature has been instantiated in this full productive system, whose very abundance is proof, for Addison, of the perfection of the creative plan. It is, then, a classical version of theodicy, and the world-view it offers is that of the static Scala Naturae, God's mind expressed in nature and culminating (at least as far as the Earth is concerned) in the human being as the closest expression of the divine will, and the one who can best understand the divine plan of which he is a subordinate part.

On the whole, Addison's views have been dismissed from a twentieth-century stance as a form of naive and complacent anthropocentrism, a prolongation of classical or medieval views into the age of enlightenment. But there may be some form of historical myopia at work here, once we take the historical context into account. There are highly interesting elements to be found in Addison, just as there are in the comparable takes on this idea of a Full Nature formulated by his contemporaries—Leibniz first, perhaps, then Shaftesbury, Bolingbroke, and Pope in his Essay on Man. And in Mandeville in another sense. The notion of full nature is not merely a justification for this seemingly anthropocentric view of mankind in its place in nature—just like some aspects the Linnaean (static, non-evolutionary) system will seriously question man's exceptionality in nature.  Antropocentrism is, instead, displaced. The human is no longer the center of God's plan, and it is only a limited perspective we can have on the whole of the scale of nature. There is, by the way, an apparent contradiction here, quite prominent in Pope's Essay on Man: the overall plan is divine, and it therefore escapes the human scope, which is necessarily limited—but these thinkers present themselves as providing a perspective on the divine plan which transcends (the "ordinary") human scope. Such reasoning leads to the paradoxical doctrine that we live in the best of possible worlds. The best—only not for us; it is the best from a divine stance we cannot share or comprehend.

Still, the notion of "the best of all possible worlds" and its concomitant "full nature" serve their function as an explanation of human limitations and of the fact that the world cannot be reduced to a moral order defined in human terms. What is more, we see that some elements in this world view are on the very brink of settting in motion the System of Nature, and transforming the static scale of creation, a natural taxonomy of diversity, into an epic of evolution, far in advance of the Vestiges of the Natural History of Creation and in advance of Diderot and Buffon (though not ahead of Ibn Khaldun and other proto-evolutionists. It is an evolutionary epic conducted, sure enough, by the mind of God unfolding its plan through nature. The opposition between evolutionary and non-evolutionary thinkers is in many respects not as clearly-drawn as it might look at first sight, and many of the principles of the evolutionary thought of Darwin, or of Spencer, rest on the notions developed by eighteenth-century thinkers, or, indeed, their predecessors. To name but a few: the reasoning on public benefits arising from private vices in Mandeville's Fable of the Bees is a reflection on the indirect and unplanned results of action, resulting in complex self-organization. Adam Smith's Invisible Hand, a concept emhasizing the emergence of spontaneous order from a multiplicty of conflicting forces —an order not planned by the intention of the (nonetheless conscious) agents. Malthus's reflections on the dynamics of population and resources, and on their effects on social dynamics, not just as regards such phenomena as war or famine, but also institutions, customs and beliefs. Or, again, the principle of the Tangled Bank which is so memorably formulated in the last paragraph of Darwin's Origin of Species. It is from the variety (the fullness of nature), from the tangled nature of the bank, that competition and ecological integration result, further biological complexity emerges and ever more beautiful forms may arise. As in an expanded Mandeville, public good results from the "private vice" of the struggle for life.

This principle of complex dynamics resulting from (and into) a Full Nature is also formulated in a memorable way in Oliver Goldsmith's story "Asem the Man-Hater". This is a squib against idealism which asserts the divine Providence and its working through indirect means and Secondary causes, far from any simple-minded projection of a moral order on the world.  One of these days I will put down in writing a detailed commentary of this story, which I take as a memorable fable of complexity and evolutionary dynamics avant la lettre. There we see, again, that the very existence of complex human society rests on the predatory dynamics and self-interest that enable the emergence of a human order in the first place. And the existence of a multiplicity of creatures involves the dynamics of hunting and preyiing; ultimately, even the forms of human cooperation rest on non-altruistic self-interest and derive from it. If Goldsmith is a proto-evolutionist, he does nail down some of the complex dynamics driving evolution. And not every aspect of this reasoning is formulated by explicitly evolutionary eighteenth-century thinkers, like Buffon or Erasmus Darwin.

All in all, Addison's essay on the Scale of Being, while being firmly planted in the thought of the past, seems on the brink of inventing evolution in the very process of its reasoning. Addison's central belief (that inanimate nature is merely the support of life, and that there is no inanimate nature without life) is a direct consequence of Robert Hooke's Micrographia (1665) and the new awareness of the microbial world. It also draws on the cosmological speculations of Fontenelle and other continental theorists of the Plurality of Worlds (the 17th-century equivalent of today's multiverses), who were drawing the intellectual consequences of the new discoveries in astronomy. But in spite of its progressive outlook around the year 1700, the assumption of a fully peopled universe is of course mistaken. We now know that most of the material universe, at least insofar as we can observe it, is inanimate and lifeless—that life, far from being spread everywhere, is an extremely exceptional development. Both life and intelligence are much more exceptional than Fontenelle or Addison would seem to think—the exception, rather than the rule of the universe. A century and a half later, William Whewell recognized as much—if the Universe is conceived as the purposive basis for this, then it is extremely wasteful and, well, pointless.   Addison's teleology and his providentialism are likewise the relics of an earlier age. And yet there are elements in this essay which look to the future, as well as to the past. And these go far beyond Addison's speculations on Aliens (and Angels). Evolution did not evolve in a single day, and this essay is one of my favourite texts on eighteenth-century proto-evolutionism, with human thought gathering the materials of the past and moving further towards a new perspective on nature and man's place in it. Beyond its apparent self-complacency we can detect a bold step in the decentering of man and of human thought. This is apparent in these thinkers discerning a universe which, while it exhibits a cosmic order, is not guided by human priorities or aims. A mighty maze,  not without a plan, indeed, but one whose plan is neither of human proportions, nor intended with an eye to human priorities.  This  is thought in evolution, soon to become fully evolutionary.

Note, for instance, the use of such notions as "adaptation" and "progress", the "transitions" from one species to another, or his description of the emergence of the senses in higher beings of the scale of nature. It is the very rhetoric of Addison's essay, his speculative journey through the Scale of Nature, that invites his reader to see that scale as an emergent or evolutionary system. He stands so much on the very brink of explicitly formulating an evolutionary interpretation, that this interpretation seems to be forming at the back of the author's mind, and to come to the fore in the consciousness of his reader as a natural development of Addison's reasoning. It is not clear whether the "advance" of the world of life through these stages, the "progress" of the scale of nature, is only the progress of Addison's examination from simple to complex, or the historical-evolutionary progress of the emergence of biological complexity, a reading it seems (perhaps cautiously) to invite—much more indeed than the Locke text he quotes. The "software" of life, the instincts or mental capacities of animals, are for Addison likewise on a rising scale of complexity which admits or invites an evolutionary interpretation. Bergson, indeed, observed in L'Évolution créatrice that the idea of the Scale of Nature was preparing the ground for the birth of evolutionism.

Or consider, indeed, the closing statement of Addison's essay, asserting the fundamental kinship between Man and Worm, and their common origin. Clearly, no reader of Addison will understand him to claim that worms are descended from humans—but didn't take such a big step for Charles Darwin to assert that humans evolved from worm-like creatures, and ultimately from inanimate matter. Many a reader of Addison, beginning with Darwin himself, was more than ready for such a claim.

Addison's displacement of anthropocentrism is, paradoxically enough, a mode of thought which is in a way quite naturally in keeping with traditional Biblical wisdom, when he observes that it is not for man to question the acts of God. The divine design, as he sees it, far transcends our limited outlook as creatures too narrowly centered on their own priorities, and unaware of their complex integration with all other beings in a cosmic order we can barely begin to discern.

Here is Addison's text , then, from the Norton Anthology:



JOSEPH ADDISON: [ On the Scale of Being]

The Spectator, No. 519, October 25, 1712

Inde hominum pecudumque genus, vitaeque volantum,
Et quae marmore fert monstra sub aequore pontus. (1)
—VIRGIL, Aeneid 6.728-29

Though there is a great deal of pleasure in contemplating the material world, by which I mean that system of bodies into which nature has so curiously wrought the mass of dead matter, with the several relations which those bodies bear to one another, there is still, methinks, something more wonderful and surprising in contemplations on the world of life, by which I mean all those animals with which every part of the universe is furnished. The material world is only the shell of the universe: the world of life are its inhabitants.

If we consider those parts of the material world which lie nearest to us and are, therefore, subject to our observations and inquiries, it is amazing to consider the infinity of animals with which it is stocked. Every part of matter is peopled. Every green leaf swarms with inhabitants. There is scarce a single humor in the body of a man, or of any other animal, in which our glasses (2) do not discover myriads of living creatures. The surface of animals is also covered with other animals which are, in the same manner, the basis of other animals that live upon it; nay, we find in the most losid bodies, as in marble itself, innumerable cells and cavities that are crowded with such imperceptible inhabitants as are too little for the naked eye to discover. On the other hand, if we look into the more bulky parts of nature, we see the seas, lakes, and rivers teeming with numberless kinds of living creatures. We find every mountain and marsh, wilderness and wood, plentifully stocked with birds and beasts, and every part of matter affording proper necessaries and conveniences for the livelihood of multitudes which inhabit it.

The author of The Plurality of Worlds (3) draws a very good argument upon this consideration for the peopling of every planet, as indeed it seems very probable from the analogy of reason that, if no part of matter which we are acquainted with lies waste and useless, those great bodies, which are at such a distance from us, should not be desert and unpeopled, but rather that they should be furnished with beings adapted to their respective situations.

Existence is a blessing to those beings only who are endowed with perception and is, in a manner, thrown away upon dead matter any further than as it is subservient to beings which are conscious of their existence. Accordingly, we find from the bodies which lie under our observation that matter is only made as the basis and support of animals and that there is no more of the one than what is necessary for the existence of the other.

Infinite Goodness is of so communicative a nature that it seems to delight in the conferring of existence upon every degree of perceptive being. As this is a speculation which I have often pursued with great pleasure to myself, I shall enlarge further upon it, by considering that part of the scale of beings which comes within our knowledge.

There are some living creatures which are raised but just above dead matter. To mention only that species of shellfish, which are formed in the fashion of a cone, that grow to the surface of several rocks and immediately die upon their being severed from the place where they grow. There are many other creatures but one remove from these, which have no other sense besides that of feeling and taste. Others have still an additional one of hearing, others of smell, and others of sight. It is wonderful to observe by what a gradual progress the world of life advances through a prodigious variety of species before a creature is formed that is complete in all its senses; and, even among these, there is such a different degree of perfection in the sense which one animal enjoys, beyond what appears in another, that, though the sense in different animals be distinguished by the same common denomination, it seems almost of a different nature. If after this we look into the several inward perfections of cunning and sagacity, or what we generally call instinctl, we find them rising after the same manner, imperceptibly, one above another, and receiving additional improvements, according to the species in which they are implanted. This progress in nature is so very gradual that the most perfect of an inferior species comes very near to the most imperfect of that which is immediately above it.

The exuberant and overflowing goodnes of the Supreme Being, whose mercy extends to all his works, is plainly seen, as I have before hinted, from his having made so very little matter, at least what falls within our knowledge, that does not swarm with life. Nor is his goodness less seen in the diversity than in the multitude of living creatures. Had he only made one species of animals, none of the rest would have enjoyed the happiness of existence; he has, therefore, specified in his creation every degree of life, every capacity of being. The whole chasm in nature, from a plant to a man, is filled up with diverse kinds of creatures, rising one over another by such a gentle and easy ascent that the little transitions and deviations from one species to another are almost insensible. This intermediate space is so well husbanded and managed that there is scarce a degree of perception that does not appear in some one part of the world of life. Is the goodness or wisdom of the Divine Being more manifested in this his proceeding?

There is a consequence, besides those I have already mentioned, which seems very naturally deducible from the foregoing considerations. If the scale of being rises by such a regular process so high as man, we may by a parity of reason (4) suppose that it still proceeds gradually through those beings which are of a superior nature to him, since there is an infinite greater space and room for different degrees of perfection between the Supreme Being and man than between man and the most despicable insect. This consequence of so great a variety of beings which are superior to us, from that variety which is inferior to us, is made by Mr. Locke (5) in a passage which I shall here set down after having premised that, notwithstanding there is such infinite room between man and his Maker for the creative power to exert itself in, it is impossible that it should ever be filled up, since there will be still an infinite gap or distance between the highest created being and the Power which produced him:

That there should be more species of intelligent creatures above us than there are of sensible and material below, is probable to me from hence: That in all the visible corporeal world we see no chasms or no gaps. All quite down from us, the descent is by easy steps and a continued series of things that, in each remove, differ very little from the other. There are fishes that have wings and are not strangers to the airy region; and there are some birds that are inhabitants of the water, whose blood is cold as fishes and their flesh so like in taste that the scrupulous are allowesd them on fish days. There are animals so near of kin both to birds and beasts that they are in the middle between both: amphybious animals link the terrestrial and aquatic together; seals live at land and at sea, and porpoises have the warm blood and entrails of a hog, not to mention what is confidently reported of mermaids or seamen. There are some brutes that seem to have as much knowledge and reason as some that are called men; and the animal and vegetable kingdoms are so nearly joined that, if you will take the lowest of one and the highest of the other, there will scarce be perceived any great difference between them; and so on, till we come to the lowest and the most inorganical parts of matter, we shall find everywhere that the several species are linked together and differ but in almost insensible degrees. And when we consider the infinite power and wisdom of the Maker, we have reason to think that it is suitable to the magnificent harmony of the universe and the great design and infinite goodness of the Architect, that the species of creatures should also, by gentle degrees, ascend upward from us toward his infinite perfection, as we see they gradually descend from us downward; which, if it be probable, we have reason to be persuaded that there are far more species of creatures above us than there are beneath, we being in degrees of perfection and much more remote from the infinite being of God than we are from the lowest state of being and that which approaches nearest to nothing. And yet of all those distinct species we have no clear distinct ideas.

In this system of being, there is no creature so wonderful in its nature, and which so much deserves our particular attention, as man, who fills up the middle space between the animal and intellectual nature, the visible and invisible world, and is that link in the chain of beings which has been often termed the nexus utriusque mundi (6). So that he who, in one respect, is associated with angels and archangels, may look upon a Being of infinite perfection as his father, and the highest order of spirits as his brethren, may, in another respect, say to corruption, "Thou art my father," and to the worm, "Thou art my mother and my sister" (7).




Notes

1. Thence the race of men and beasts, the life of flying creatures, and the monsters that the ocean bears beneath her smooth surface (Latin).

2. Microscopes. "Humor": fluid.

3. Bernard de Fontenelle (1657-1757). This popular book, a series of dialogues between a scientist and a countess concerning the possibility of other inhabited planets and the new astrophysics in general, was published in 1686 in France and was translated in 1688 by both John Glanvill and Aphra Behn.

4. A reasonable analogy or equivalence.

5. John Locke, in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 3.6.12.

6. The binding together of both worlds (Latin).

7. Job 17.14.

_______

ADDISON ON ALIENS at Ibercampus.


Are Humans Necessary?

—oOo—






Mi bibliografía sobre el origen del lenguaje

A veces estas cosas van que vuelan y duran poco en Internet, pero de momento ha aparecido un sitio llamado Smartsheep que recicla y redifunde varias bibliografías mías, procedentes de mi bibliografía de tres metros de alta. Esta va sobre el origen del lenguaje, ese Newspeak que suena a través nuestro como si fuésemos una arpa de Eolo.

On the ORIGIN OF LANGUAGE
—from A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism, and Philology.


A pie de esa página se encuentran otras bibliografías mías sobre temas diversos. Y aprovechando las felices fiestas para darles carpetazo por anticipado,




Yo es que soy más de los ochenta que de hoy en día, aunque aún me arrastre por la superficie de esta pantalla.

En Oxford University


—oOo—


Historia de la Filosofía Occidental
SafariScreenSnapz002



—oOo—



Viernes 12 de diciembre de 2014

Javier Sánchez in memoriam

Ha aparecido el volumen 50 de la revista Miscelánea—de la que en otro siglo fui editor—, y es un volumen dedicado a la memoria de Javier Sánchez Escribano, compañero de departamento, y de cafés, mientras vivió y mientras no se fue a la orilla del mar dejando atrás Zaragoza y el departamento. Muchas desgracias (y chistes de la vida también) comentamos esos últimos años hasta que se jubiló. Pero tuvo mala suerte Javier, y poco le tocó disfrutar de la jubilación. Javier fue profesor mío ya desde que pisé la universidad en 1979. Aún tengo por ahí un trabajo que hice para una asignatura suya más adelante en la carrera, el primero que aparece en mi lista de publicaciones. Para este número de la Miscelánea escribí esta presentación:

Este volumen está dedicado a la memoria de Javier Sánchez Escribano, compañero y amigo del Departamento de Filología Inglesa y Alemana de la Universidad de Zaragoza, recientemente fallecido. Casi todos los profesores de este departamento conocimos a Javier Sánchez Escribano primero como profesor nuestro en la carrera. Ha sido para nosotros uno de los old timers que estaban ya en el departamento y en el área de Filología Inglesa en Zaragoza desde sus primeros tiempos; y enseñó Javier a muchas promociones de estudiantes desde los años 70. Siempre fue un excelente compañero, al que incluso en los momentos difíciles no le fallaban el buen humor, la amistad, y el trato amable. Era parte de esta vida cotidiana en la universidad—tantas reuniones, tantas clases y también muchos cafés que tomamos juntos; la vida sólida de cada día en la que confiamos pensando que nunca nos va a faltar, ese día a día que se vuelve la sustancia misma de la realidad. Damos por hecho no nos va a faltar sin pensarlo siquiera, como nadie había pensado que Javier pudiera morir tan pronto, a destiempo—como tampoco lo pensaríamos sobre nosotros mismos. Se retiró todavía joven, parecía que con mucho tiempo por delante, a disfrutar de una jubilación temprana y una vida que prometía ser feliz y tranquila, a orillas del Mediterráneo. Aunque lo perdimos de vista contábamos con volverlo a ver, cualquier día, en cualquier visita. Y no había de ser. Nunca sabemos si ya hemos visto a alguien por última vez, si ya hemos hablado por última vez con una de esas personas que han sido, con su compañía y con su amistad, la trama misma de nuestra vida diaria, y así nos sucedió con Javier.

Te echamos de menos, Javier, y sentimos no haber podido despedirte mejor, aunque es cierto que es imposible despedirse bien de quien no esperamos ni queremos despedirnos. Los académicos realizamos en estos casos rituales dedicatorios, ceremonias que no valen más que otras, pero que tienen el valor de mantener simbólicamente esta relación con nuestro compañero, de poder decirle adiós con aprecio y tristeza mientras reconocemos su labor y seguimos dirigiéndonos a él como uno de los nuestros, alguien que sigue ahí, en nuestra memoria, en ese tiempo fuera del tiempo en el que el mundo y las personas tienen una eternidad y una permanencia, y todo sigue siendo como debería ser, como era antes. Para eso son los textos—incluso los textos académicos, que estudian estas cosas—y la literatura, que es el mejor ejemplo de esa pervivencia.

De la literatura y la lengua inglesas disfrutó Javier, estudiándolas y enseñándolas, en sus clases y en sus publicaciones académicas. Y también disfrutó, a ratos al menos, como hacemos los académicos, con textos y estudios filológicos, en congreso con sus compañeros—estas cosas de la academia— cosas nuestras, a veces incomprensibles hasta para nosotros mismos, pero a ellas nos dedicamos, e incluso las dedicamos. A la Filología se dedicó Javier muchos años, toda una vida. Además de sus propios trabajos académicos, fue el fundador de la Sociedad Española de Estudios Renacentistas, que ha contribuido de modo tan significativo al desarrollo de la anglística en España. Y en esta parcela de nuestros estudios hizo su contribución Javier, desde lo que son ahora ya los tiempos heroicos. A estos estudios, sin embargo, se debió de ver atraído originalmente Javier más bien por la literatura que por la filología misma, pues su gran afición eran los escritores del renacimiento inglés, y el contacto que tuvieron con España, un contacto que él mantenía vivo y que nos sigue hablando desde sus escritos— And of this book, this learning mayst thou taste.

Nos despedimos como podemos, porque de alguna manera hay que despedirse. Por qué no, conversando con Shakespeare, como a menudo conversó Javier, con una de sus obras favoritas, Ricardo II—para darnos voz cuando falla la voz, y para servir como imagen de nuestro dolor al perderlo.

“The shadow of my sorrow? Ha? Let's see,
'Tis very true. My grief lies all within,
And these external manner of laments
Are merely shadows to the unseen grief
That swells with silence in the tortured soul.
There lies the substance.”

—oOo—




Allan Megill - Paradoxes, Presuppositions and Proposed Uses of the Evolutionary Epic


Although E. O. Wilson seems to have invented the phrase “evolutionary epic,” Lightman and others have shown how pervasive the evolutionary epic (EE) was in Victorian England, long before Wilson appeared. The 19th-century EE was hybrid: it was rooted in the implicitly unifying religious idealism of Linnaean natural history (although proponents of the EE denied that species are immutable), and it flourished under the impact of “Darwinism” (although Darwin’s 1859 theory assumed a completely materialist natural universe, devoid of unifying purpose). It is thus not surprising that 19th-century proponents of the EE added an idealist surplus to Darwin, either through a quasi-divinization of nature, as in Herbert Spencer and Winwood Reade, or through out-and-out providentialism (A. R. Wallace). Notions of embedded rationality that were all but endemic in the 19th century helped to obscure from our forebears the gap, even the gulf, between material process and purposive aspiration that we post-Nietzscheans so easily see in such writers as Spencer, Reade, and Wallace. Present-day proponents of the EE are much more knowing. Wilson, readily admitting that his EE exceeds what genetics can justify, declares it to be a useful myth. Chaisson, Brown, and Christian emphasize that their essential concern is to tell good stories, which they likewise do not hesitate to characterize as myth. And the fact that Dowd’s Thank God for Evolution is prefaced by five closely-packed pages of supporting blurbs, fifty-seven in all, shows that he lacks Wallace’s implicit confidence that the material world is suffused by divine purpose.

 

—oOo—







Christian Pluhar & L'Arpeggiata - Bertali & Sances



—oOo—



Jueves 11 de diciembre de 2014

En el Puente Internacional

En el Puente Internacional

—oOo—





Mi bibliografía sobre Lacan


Lacan. Bibliography by Michael H. Hejazi





—oOo—














Miércoles 10 de diciembre de 2014


Being There CFP





una publicación de Narratología evolucionista - Evolutionary Narratology.



Soldados con mapa

Soldados con mapa


—oOo—


Martes 9 de diciembre de 2014

To begin with


To begin with, by Claire Bijou —from CSMS Magazine

break-up 



As strangers we began
Then acquaintances we became
Then friends we were
To round back to being strangers
What did I do to you?
I know I didn’t do anything wrong
I acted as I always acted
I smiled like I always smiled
I talked like I always talked
Yet, now you change toward me
But I suspect why
Did you love me till the point you wanted more?
Were you hoping for a passionate night in the hay?
I am sorry, you were disappointed
But if this was the case, I totally understand
For when we can’t have what we want
We chase it away like it never existed
The truth is now factored in
I will keep my distance
For I can’t give you what you want
I will never be able to
But I can give you your distance
You said I am too much of an attraction
That I am too attachable
So I’ll be gone, estranged!
I’ll be gone like the wind blowing west
Cherishing the memory of our friendship
And praying that GOD bless you well
For after all, we were nothing, but strangers to begin with






Claire Bijou, Port-au-Prince 12/4/2014

—oOo—




Centro de Valença do Minho

Centro de Valença do Minho

—oOo—




Universal Criticism: Arbuthnot, Swift


Louis Cazamian on John Arbuthnot and Jonathan Swift. From A History of English Literature, by E. Legouis and A. Cazamian (Classicism: The Spirit of Controversy):



Controversy begets controversy; it also produces scepticism. In the atmosphere of party strife and of the clashing of ideas, the average mind is drifting towards the lassitude, the jaded indifference which will mark the mid-years of the century.

With vigorous thinkers, who give themselves up wholly to their beliefs, and ardently live through their intellectual adventures, doubt cannot be superficial and easy to bear; the universal irony with which they envelop themselves, and which seems to dissolve all the disappointments of heart of brain into a mere play of the critical intellect, disguises but ill the inward torment born of a moral restlessness. One must not, in all probability, lay too much stress on the moral kinship between Swift and the Romanticists, who were inclined to recognize in him one of themselves. But one can see in him, along with the triumph of the rational lucidity with which classicism wanted to light up the correct order of life and art, the symptom of the inner uneasiness which a reason too well armed for destruction could not escape, while it only met on every side with rival negations.

[ARBUTHNOT]

John Arbuthnot, born in Scotland (1667), taught mathematics in London, then practised medicine; attached to the person of Queen Anne (1709), he played an important part under the Whig ministry (1710-14) and in 1712 wrote numerous pamphlets: The Art of Political Lying, The History of John Bull, etc. In 1713 he formed with Pope the Scriblerus Club, which produced the Memoirs of Scriblerus (published in 1741). After the death of the queen and the fall of his party (1714), he retired into private life, but continued to collaborate in the literature of the opposition, in a way that still remains obscure. He died in 1735. His Miscellaneous Works (1750) are only partly authentic. The History of John Bull, Cassell's National Library; ed. by H. Teerink, 1925. See Aitken, The Life and Works of Arbuthnot, 1892.

Arbuthnot is inseparable from Swift. He was his friend and lived in mental companionship with him; from the circle to which both belonged there issued works united by an affinity of inspiration, and many a hint whicvh others knew how to put to profit. A supple, alert, original, seed-sowing intelligence, he has influenced Swift to a greater degree than he has been influenced by him. Or less pronounced features, but not without a certain family resemblance, he deserves to be  remembered by the side of his great friend.

It is not easy to estimate the share of Arbuthnot in the common fund of ideas, images, symbols, and pleasantry to which not only he and Swift, but also Pope, Gay, and others contributed. His John Bull recalls in several places the Tale of a Tub; on the ther hand, Gullver's Travels owes its birth to Martinus Scriblerus, a general theme, no doubt of collective origin, but the most direct development of which seems to be due to Arbuthnot. As for the echoes and variations of this theme in the literature of the day, there still subsists about them a great deal of uncertainty.

One thing is clear, and that is the frame of mind to which these diverse works give expression. Keen and critical thinkers, instinct with the intelelctual craving for realities, find themselves in contact with one another, mixed up with the politics of an age when all the devices of government are laid bare, when power is transferred to parties, when opinion, oficially in the ascendant, is subjected to all the caprices aroused in it by secret manœuvring; when public life is the triumph of insincerity and fraud. Stimulated by the analysis of the deceit which social appearances serve to cloak. Arbuthnot, Swift, Pope, and Gay encourage each other to the ironical search after false intellectual values. Before their tribunal are summoned wretched poets, false savants, quack doctors, pretentious scholars, humanists puffed up with bookish learning. A sort of general revision of science and art is instituted; and this universal criticism, so bold that it dares assail the superstitious obsession of ancient literatures, takes up again the charges of Hudibras against an obstinate scholasticism that will not die.

Like Butler's satire, Martinus Scriblerus exaggerates the whims, the oddities, the wrongs of pedantic ignoramuses, overlooking the soul of healthy curiosity that is often to be found in them; above all, it obstinately attacks adversaries who have been conquered time after time, and it pursued them under their already obsolete forms rather than under the new forms with which they manage to invest themselves. In this excellent fancy, there is a somewhat forced air of caricature. But the claims of intellect against foolishness are affirmed with a clear, robust, and sovereign good sense.

Arbuthnot has left his mark upon this common fund of doctrine. Through his John Bull also, his Political Lying, and the pictures of his personality that we find in the works of his friends, he possesses a distinct literary physiognomy. He has the gift of humour, transposes into impassive observation a full and concrete sense of the innumerable absurdities of life, and his sober art, vigorous, often bitter and realistic, recalls the tonality of that of Swift. A doctor, he knows the intimate connections of body and soul, and looks on the caprices of character from a physical point of view; and yet his vision of moral things is direct and profound; his portrait of John Bull has definitively drawn the first outline of this national English type. He has a creative imagination for allegory, and sustains the portraits of his symbolical characters with an accurate sense of the relationship between the sign and the thing signified. With him, experience and reflection have not soured the power of feeling, but have matured it into a humane and tolerant philosophy, the kindly radiation of which was felt by all who came near him. His rationalism is refined into a humility of the intelligence. He is a writer through the firmness, the precision, the incisiveness of his style; and his artistic invention has been fruitful. The figure of Martinus Scriblerus, ridiculous, pitiable, and obscurely appealing, and the episodes of his childhood, are additions to the unforgettable types of human comedy; Sterne remembered them in Tristram Shandy, Carlyle in Sartor Resartus.


[SWIFT]


Jonathan Swift, born in Dublin in 1667, came of a family of Yorkshire origin; lost his father at an early age, studied at Kilkenny and Trinity College, and was attached as secretary to Sir William Temple, until 1699. Already in 1696-7 he had written a great portion of A Tale of a Tub, and The Battle of the Books, published in 1704. It was at the home of Temple that he met Esther Johnson, the future Stella. He took orders, was appointed to the small living of Laracor in Ireland, but for the most part we find him in London, actively engaged in religious and political controversy. He defended the rights of the Irish clergy, and this led him to desert the Whig party for the other side, shortly before the Tory ministry of 1710. For a period of almost four years Swift, an intimate of Harley, was the influential adviser of the Government; collaborated in the Examiner (1711) and prepared public opinion for the peace with France (The Conduct of the Allies, etc.). Appointed Dean of St. Patrick's (Dublin) in 1713, he retired to Ireland on the fall of the Tories, whither he was followed by Hester Vanhomrigh (Vanessa), whom he had known in London; the false position of Swift between the two women who loved him, and of whom (it is possible, but improbable) he may have married one (Stella), was relieved by the death of Vanessa; that of Stella, in 1728, came as a still greater blow. He sympathized, meanwhile, with the sufferings of the Irish people, and wrote in their favour the Drapier's Letters (1724). Gulliver's Travels, which originated at a much earlier date, appeared in 1726, and had a great success, which, however, only brought greater suspicion upon the writer from a Government made uneasy by his satirical verve. His health, which had been failing for some time, grew worse; he was a victim of cerebral troubles and became more and more morose; after a few years of a life bordering on insanity, he died in 1745. Prose works, ed. by T. Scott, 1897-1908; Selections, ed. by Craik, 1892-3; Correspondence, ed. by Ball, 1910, etc.; A Tale of a Tub, etc., ed. by Guthkelch and Smith, 1920; The Battle of the Books, ed. by Guthkelch, 1908; Gulliver, ed. by Aitken, 1856; Craik, Life of Swift, 1882; Leslie Stephen, Swift, 1882; H. Cordelet, Swift, 1907; S. Smith, Dean Swift, 1910; R. F. Jones, The Background of the Battle of the Books, 1920; Vanessa and her Correspondence with Jonathan Swift, ed. by Freeman, 1921; Eddy, Gulliver's Travels, a Critical Study, 1923; E. Pons, Swift, la Jeunesse, le Conte du Tonneau, 1925; Carl Van Doren, Swift, 1931.

Swift is the greatest writer of the classical age by the force of his genius; the concern for art and the care of form are not in his case the essential motive of creation. His work owes an exceptionally broad scope to the freedom and penetration of its thought. He carries the rational criticism of values to a point where it menaces and impairs the very reasons for living. In his case, therefore, lucidity and the search for balance are suffused with an intellectual emotion, concentrated and intense, which at times cannot be distinguished from an impassioned bitterness, and the expression of which, despite the restraint of irony and humour, possesses a pathetic vehemence. Attaining thus to the utmost limits of satire, he leaves the normal, simple plane of a literature of reason; the stifled, repressed voices of sensibility and instinct, which reality in its baseness and cruelty afflicts with many wounds, supply the subdued accompaniment of soul-stirring chords to the clear accents of the intellect. And just as the language of Swift has this mixed tonality, so his thought goes beyond the stage of pure criticism; it finds itself at work conserving, if not constructing; it clings to the relative and provisional truths which can shelter the being of man. Beyond the spirit of classicism, of which he is the supreme mouthpiece, one perceives in Swift the latent powers of a virtual Romanticism; and further still, the audaciously humble solutions of the most modern wisdom.

It is permissible to think that these attenuations of the spirit of criticism, these voluntary sacrifices to good sense, are not the most original part of Swift's work. His practical adhesion to moral or social beliefs which his merciless perspicacity saw through and through is to all appearances a sincere act, and one which no logical need can lead us not to respect. But he has not explained the submission of his reason on principle; the lesson of his intellectual destiny is uncertain; his example, deprived of all contagious virtue, remains strictly individual and less fruitful. His life, with the shadow which overcasts it and keeps gradually thickening, is in spite of all more significant than the wholly superficial tranquillity of his mind. The moral figure of Swift is that of an eager demand for truth that destroys one by one all deceitful illusions, and of the suffering which accompanies that destruction. This demand has been carried far in all directions; further, it would seem, than it itself desired to go; further, perhaps, than it was aware of at times.

As a Church dignatary, mixed up in the controversies which separated the Anglicans from the dissenting sects, and within Anglicanism itself set several tendencies at variance with each other, Swift had to take a side. His career was a choice; he lived and died as Dean of St. Patrick's in Dublin. He wrote numerous religious treatises, which one is usually too much inclined to overlook, besides doctrinal sermons, sensible and calm in tone; he acquitted himself scrupulously of the duties of his charge, and practised his religion, with more hidden regularity than apparent zeal. He recommends a judicious form of piety; extremes repel him, and his preferences lie in the observance of a golden mean; to follow the religion of the majority of one's country, is in Swift's opinion to act as a well-behaved man. He rails against the arguments of the Catholics, the strife and the fanaticism of the various sects; his nature leads him to embrace a doctrine of average reason. But he rebels with all his energy against the ambitious and rational attempt of Deism; he harshly refutes Collins. And in his reaction against the looseness of morals, he goes to the extent of extrolling, not without a suspicion of irony, the benefits accruing from a purely exterior and social submission to the attitude of belief, for hypocrisy is, after all, better than cynicism.

This is only a sudden outburst.








—oOo—




Jonathan Swift: His Life and World




—oOo—


SWIFT



From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble.


SWIFT, Jonathan (1667-1745), born in Dublin after his father's death. He was son of Jonathan Swift by Abigail (Erick) of Leicester, and grandson of Thomas Swift, the well-known Royalist vicar of Goodrich, descended from a Yorkshire family. He was a cousin of *Dryden. He was educated with *Congreve, at Kilkenny Grammar School, then at Trinity College, Dublin, where he was censured for offences against discipline, obtaining his degree only by 'special grace'. He was admitted (1689) to the household of Sir William *Temple, and there acted as secretary. He was sent by Temple to William III to convince him of the necessity of triennial parliaments, but his mission was not successful. He wrote Pindaric *odes, one of which, printed in the Athenian Mercury (1692) provoked, according to Dr *Johnson, Dryden's remark, 'Cousin Swift, you will never be a poet.' Chafing at his position of dependence, and indignant at Temple's delay in getting him preferment, he returned to Ireland, was ordained (1694), and received the small prebend of Kilroot. He returned to Temple at Moor Park in 1696, where he edited Temple's correspondence, and in 1697 wrote *The Battle of the Books, which was published in 1704 together with *A Tale of a Tub, his celebrated satire on 'corruptions in religion and learning.' At Moor Park he first met Esther Johnson ('Stella'), the daughter of a servant or companion of Temple's sister. On the death of Temple in 1699, Swift went again to Ireland, whre he was given a prebend in St Patrick's, Dublin, and the living of Laracor. He wrote his Discourse of the Contests and Dissensions between the Nobles and the Commons in Athens and Rome, with reference to the impeachment of the Whig lords, in 1701. In the course of numerous visits to London he became acquainted with *Addison, *Steele, Congreve, and Halifax. He was entrusted in 1707 with a mission to obtain the grant of Queen Anne's Bounty for Ireland, and in 1708 began a series of pamphlets on church questions with his ironical Argument against Abolishing Christianity, followed in the same year by his Letter Concerning the Sacramental Test, an attack on the Irish Presbyterinas which injured him with the Whigs. Amid these serious occupations, he diverted himself with theseries of squibs upon the astrologer John Partridge (1708-9, see under BICKERSTAFF), which have become famous, and his 'Description of a City Shower' and 'Description of the Morning', poems depicting scenes of London life, which were published in the *Tatler (1709). Disgusted at the Whig alliance with Dissent, he went over to the Tories in 1710, joined the Brothers' Club, attacked the Whig ministers in the *Examiner, which he edited, and in 1711 wrote The Conduct of the Allies and Some Remarks on the Barrier Treaty., pamphlets written to dispose the mind of the nation to peace. He became dean of St Patrick's in 1713. He had already begun his Journal to Stella, a series of intimate letters (1710-13) to Esther Johnson and her companion Rebecca Dingley, who had moved to Ireland in 1700/1; it is written partly in baby language, and gives a vivid account of Swift's daily life in London where he was in close touch with Tory ministers. Swift's relations with Estella remain obscure; they were intimate and affectionate, and some form of marriage may have taken place. Another woman, Esther Vanhomrigh (pro. "Vannumery") , entered his life in 1708; his poem *Cadenus and Vanessa suggests that she fell deeply in love with him ('She wished her Tutor were her lover') and that he gave her some encouragment. She is said to have died of shock in 1723 after his final rupture with her, inspired by her jealousy of Stella. Stella died in 1728.

Swift wrote various political pamphlets, notably The Importance of the Guardian Considered (1713) and The Public Spirit of the Whigs (1714), in reply to Steele's Crisis; and about the time of the queen's death in 1714 and the fall of the Tory ministry, several papers (published much later) in defence of the latter. In the same year he joined *Pope, *Arbuthnot, *Gay, and others in the celebrated *Scriblerus Club. He returned to Ireland in Aug. 17814 and occupied himself with Irish affairs, being led by his resentment of the policy of the Whigs to acquire a sense of their unfair treatment of Ireland.



to be continued...

—oOo—



Lunes 8 de diciembre de 2014

Uma iglesia portuguesa, con certeça

Uma iglesia portuguesa, con certeça

—oOo—




Mis mejores resultados en el SSRN

Iba a titularlo "tocando techo", pero quién sabe, ya no digo nada. Lo cierto es que termino este año con mis mejores resultados hasta la fecha desde que se uso el SSRN. El Social Science Research Network, aclaro, es uno de los principales repositorios académicos del mundo—el primero del mundo habitualmente, y siempre el primero para las ciencias sociales y humanidades, según la Ranking Web of Repositories. La sección de humanidades se abrió en 2007 y empecé a utilizarla inmediatamente. Y he ido mejorando los resultados constantemente, en visitas y en número de artículos—quiero decir en sentido tanto absoluto como relativo. No sólo tengo más visitas y artículos (raro sería que tuviese menos) sino que subo en proporción a otros usuarios, al menos en algunos parámetros. No destaco ni en citas ni en el Eigenfaktor ése que utilizan como un (atípico) índice de clasificación. Pero sí estoy bien posicionado por ejemplo en número de descargas recientes, quizá el principal parámetro que utilizan. Allí estoy en el puesto 729 (de entre 270.000 autores—lo cual viene a ser en el 0,27 % superior—puntuándome sobre 10, una nota de 9,9.  Si sólo contamos como indicativos los 30.000 autores más activos, allí salgo con un 9,6 más o menos. Resultados excelentes, internacionales y objetivos, qué les voy a decir.

Son resultados que no tienen nada que ver con las puntuaciones que me han dado estos últimos años aquí, close to home, las corruptas comisiones de evaluación dirigidas por nuestros catedráticos. A ellos, por cierto, no los busquen por aquí.

ssrn 2014 0

De posicionamiento general aquí aparece una cifra que es el 2230, y que es el índice de más autoridad.  Según él estoy bien de lleno en el 1% superior en descargas totales Alrededor del 0,8 % más bien. (Hay que decir que en Academia, otro repositorio multimillonario en número de usuarios, estoy en el 1por MIL superior). Este índice va actualizándose y es ligeramente diferente hoy en mi página del SSRN, en la que se me informa en su modo de visionado interno que "Jose Angel Garcia Landa Author Rank is 2,174 out of 268,046"—algo mejor, y subiendo—a estas alturas.


Si esto no está mal, y quiere decir que alguien va leyendo mis artículos allí, aunque sean cuatro gatos académicos, mejores resultados todavía obtengo según otros parámetros. Este cuadro que sigue muestra  la clasificación general (los 30.000 autores principales) clasificados por número de contribuciones subidas al SSRN. Muy trabajador he sido, y estoy en el puesto 25. Veinticinco de 30.000—o de 270.000, si prefieren. (Si abundo ahí más de lo que soy leído, ése es un triste parámetro en el que no voy a entrar—que lo haga Rita). Disfrutemos de la portada:

ssrn 2014 1

El siguiente gráfico presenta los resultados recientes (del último año se entiende) según el mismo parámetro, número de contribuciones. Ahí aún destaco más, pues ocupo el puesto 19, el más destacado que he logrado jamás en este repositorio. Ya sé que al 19 no le dan medalla en ningún pódium.... mais quand même!

ssrn 2014 3


Aquí otra visualización del mismo posicionamiento, con gráfica de Wall Street.   ESTE TORNEO, lo llaman aquí—y no salgo nada abollado del mismo:



ssrn 2014 2


Me doy por felicitado por estos resultados.  ¿Me creerán si les digo que menos da una piedra?

Seguimos en la Cima de la Cima



—oOo—



The Psychiatrist Is In - Clip from God Help the Girl



—oOo—





Domingo 7 de diciembre de 2014

Dicen - La Ronda de Boltaña en Biescas







—oOo—





Sábado 6 de diciembre de 2014

Patrullera frente a Sanxenxo



Patrullera de la Marina frente a Sanjenjo




—oOo—




La 'justicia' española excarcela a los mayores criminales

Tenemos a jueces en los puestos de más alta responsabilidad que literalmente pierden el culo por sacar de la cárcel a los asesinos más sanguinarios, en especial si son etarras.  El olor a tigre les puede y les derrite, a estos felones con puñetas. Lástima no los encierren a todos, etarras y jueces, en la misma celda, que es lo que merecen, y así disfrutarían—al menos los jueces. Hatajo de criminales, con y sin togas... 

Las indicaciones y apaños de los gobiernos de Zapatero y de Rajoy, indignos y traidores, son las que posibilitan que sucedan estas cosas: crean la atmósfera adecuada, y las leyes que lo permiten. Y la gente (quizá incluso vosotros) ahí votándoles. Luego no os quejéis.

Aquí lo comentan en EsRadio:





No a la negociación con bandas terroristas



—oOo—






En Tulsa

También me dedico al Far-West en ocasiones, como Mark Twain. Aquí aparezco (o subsisto desde hace varios años) en la Universidad de Tulsa:

tulsa


I (not me)

—oOo—









A nadie le interesan mis rollos


A nadie le interesan mis rollos, para qué escribir.


—oOo—



Liane Foly - Au fur et à mesure






—oOo—


Derrida, Limited Inc, Normativity



una publicación de Narratología evolucionista - Evolutionary Narratology.


—oOo—




Viernes 5 de diciembre de 2014

Bérénice Hamidi-Kim, "Théâtre, Savoir, Politique"





—oOo—




Saliendo de la trilogía: El final de The Unnamable


Seguimos subiendo capítulo a capítulo el libro sobre Beckett:

Samuel Beckett y la Narración Reflexiva
es un estudio en profundidad de la escritura experimental de Beckett, en especial de la trilogía novelística Molloy, Malone Dies, y The Unnamable, desde la perspectiva de la narratología estructuralista y las teorías estructuralistas sobre la enunciación. Resulta de allí no sólo una mejor comprensión de la técnica utilizada por Beckett para transmitir su peculiar visión de la realidad, sino también toda una nueva gama de significaciones en estos textos. En este capítulo examinamos la clausura de The Unnamable (El Innombrable) entendida como un experimento de representación metalingüística aplicado a la función misma de la clasura narrativa.


Saliendo de la trilogía: El final de The Unnamable

http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2527915

(Leaving the Trilogy: The Ending of The Unnamable)

Samuel Beckett and Reflexive Narrative is an in-depth study of Beckett's experimental writing, more specifically of the novelistic trilogy Molloy, Malone Dies and The Unnamable, from the standpoint of structuralist theories of narrative and of enunciation. An increased insight is thereby obtained into the technique used by Beckett to articulate his peculiar view of reality, and a new dimension of signification of these texts emerges. This chapter examines the ending of The Unnamable understood as an experiment in metalinguistic representation applied to the notion of narrative closure itself.

Reference Info: Samuel Beckett y la narración reflexiva. Zaragoza: Prensas Universitarias de Zaragoza, 1992.


eJournal Classifications - Date posted: November 21, 2014 
CSN Subject Matter eJournals
                          
LIT Subject Matter eJournals
             
PRN Subject Matter eJournals
             
PRN Subject Matter eJournals
             



El narrador impersonal

—oOo—



La ría en día gris


La ría en día gris

—oOo—





La maschera



Everybody's wearing a disguise 


Come sono belle queste maschere
Come sono brutte queste maschere
Si sono io le faccio io
Mi chiamano mascheraio
Metto pezzettini di carta
Comencio dal bordo
Dopo le sopracciglia, poi il naso e la bocca

Un giorno faccio una maschera che ride
Un giorno faccio una maschera che piange
Un giorno faccio una maschera bella
Un giorno faccio una maschera brutta

Come facile fare una maschera con diverse espressioni
Ma che peccato che non hanno il cuore
Che non hanno la circolazione del sangue
Che non sentono né fredo né caldo
Che non possono dire perché piangono o ridono

Ma con me sono diverse
Quando metto pezzettini di carta sugli occhi
mi guardano e mi danno i loro sentimenti
Quando metto pezzettini di carta sulla bocca
mi parlano e mi dicono tante cose
Quando metto pezzettini di carta sul naso
vedo che respirano
che sono vive

Ma allora, forse loro sono vere e noi siamo 
maschere


(H. —
Venezia - Primavera 1988)


A truth of masks


—oOo—


Jueves 4 de diciembre de 2014

Madres y niñas en la playa

Madres y niñas en la playa


—oOo—







Bibliografía sobre teatro inglés del renacimiento


3.Renaiss.english.drama by Taibur Rahaman




—oOo—






Miércoles 3 de diciembre de 2014

Flotando en el cielo, volando en el mar



Flotando en el cielo, volando en el mar

—oOo—



Much Ado About Nothing and its afterlife



From The Oxford Companion to English Literature, ed. Margaret Drabble:


Much Ado about Nothing,
a comedy by *Shakespeare, written probably 1598-9, first printed 1600. Its chief sources are a novella by *Bandello and an episode in Ariosto's *Orlando Furioso. The play has always been a popular one in performance.



The prince of Arragon, with Claudio and Benedick in his suite, visits Leonato, duke of Messina, father of Hero and uncle of Beatrice. The sprightly Beatrice has a teasing relationship with the sworn bachelor Benedick. Beatrice and Benedick are both tricked into believing the other in love, and this brings about a genuine sympathy between them. Meanwhile Don John, the malcontented brother of the prince, thwarts Claudio's marriage by arranging for him to see Hero apparently wooed by his friend Borachio on her balcony—it is really her maidservant Margaret in disguise. Hero is publicly denounced by Claudio on her wedding day, falls into a swoon, and apparently dies. Benedick proves his love for Beatrice by challenging Claudio to a duel. The plot by Don John and Borachio is unmasked by the 'shallow fools' Dogberry and Verges, the local constables. Claudio promises to make Leonato amends. Claudio promises to make Leonato amends for his daughter's death, and is asked to marry a cousin of Hero's; the veiled lady turns out to be Hero herself. Benedick asks to be married at the same time; Beatric, 'upon great persuasion; and partly to save your life, for I was told you were in a consumption', agrees, and the play ends with a dance.



From the Oxford Dictionary of Shakespeare, by Stanley Wells:



Much Ado about Nothing.
Shakespeare's comedy ws first printed in *quarto in 1600, probably from the author's manuscript. This edition was reprinted in the First *Folio (1623). The play was not mentioned by *Meres in 1598, and is usually dated 1598-1600. It is based on a traditional story which had been told by Ariosto in his Orlando Furioso (1516, translated 1591), and by Bandello, translated into French by *Belleforest. It was played at Court in 1613, and a poem by Leonard *Digges printed in 1640 suggests that it remained popular. William *Davenant adapted it as The Law Against Lovers (1662), with little success.


The original play was performed in 1721, and there were further revivals in 1739 and 1746, but it did not fully regain its popularity until David *Garrick first played Benedick, in 1748, after which he revived it regularly until he retired in 1776. His first, and greatest, Beatrice was Mrs. *Pritchard. 


During the later part of the century Frances Abington and Elizabeth Farren shone as Beatrice. Charles *Kemble succeeded as Benedick from 1803, and the play's popularity during the nineteenth century culminated in Henry Irving's *Lyceum revival of 1882, in which Ellen *Terry gave her legendary Beatrice, which she went on playing for a quarter of a century.


The most famous twentieth-century production is John *Gielgud's at Stratford-upon-Avon, first given in 1949, when he did not appear in it, but revived in 1950 with himself as Benedick and Peggy *Ashcroft as Beatrice, and repeated several times during the 1950s.


Much Ado about Nothing
has proved to be one of Shakespeare's most resilient plays. Twentieth-century productions have frequently updated the action. Hugh Hunt directed it in modern dress in 1947. Douglas Seale, at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1958, in costumes of about 1851, Franco *Zeffirelli, at the *Old Vic in 1965 in a farcical version set in late nineteenth-century Sicily, John *Barton at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1976 in a setting of nineteenth-century British india with Judi *Dench an unusually serious, and wholly credible, Beatrice, and Terry *Hands, also at Stratford-upon-Avon, in 1982. Susan Fleetwood and Roger Allam played Beatrice and Benedick in Bill *Alexander's production (Stratford, 1990) and Kenneth *Branagh directed a lively and successful film in 1993, playing opposite Emma Thompson as Beatrice. The play was enjoyable in all these varied interpretations. Critics have been troubled by the moral ambiguities of the Hero-Claudio plot, but theatrically the sub-plot characters of Beatrice and Benedick, along with Dogberry and the Watch, have always carried the play to success.





—oOo—


Martes 2 de diciembre de 2014

Cuadro de gaviotas 7

Cuadro de gaviotas 7




—oOo—







Lunes 1 de diciembre de 2014





El principio del Tiempo

El principio del tiempo: una nota sobre Stephen Hawking

principio del tiempo

 

 Comentario de la conferencia de Stephen Hawking "El principio del tiempo" sobre las implicaciones cosmológicas de la teoría de la relatividad y el Big Bang. Exponemos algunas implicaciones metafísicas y representacionales en relación a la existencia de singularidades, y notamos el problema conceptual planteado por la asimetría del Universo, inexplicable desde la teoría de un origen absolutamente simple.
 

http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2526670 

 

English abstract:

(The Beginning of Time: A Note on Stephen Hawking)

A commentary on Stephen Hawking's lecture "The Beginning of Time" on the cosmological implications of the theory of relativity and the Big Bang. The paper points out some metaphysical and representational implications as regards the existence of singularities, and notes the conceptual problem posed by the assymetry of the Universe, which cannot be derived from an absolutely simple origin.


Está ahora además en un par de revistas del SSRN, con fecha 19 Nov. 2014  


PRN Subject Matter eJournals
             
Added to eLibrary
PRN Subject Matter eJournals
             
Added to eLibrary



—oOo—









The Newly-Created Day

The Newly-Created Day


—oOo—







Notes on Ian Watt's The Rise of the Novel



 1: Realism and the Novel Form

The novel arises in the 18th c. becasuse of favourable social conditions. it's a new literary genre; we must define its characteristics.

Realism. This term has come to mean "fiction that portrays low life" (from Flaubert). But the novel's realism doesn't reside in the kind of life it presents, but in the way it presents it—a scientific scrutiny of life. Epistemological value: in the 18th ce. universals have been rejected; truth comes through the senses (Locke, Descartes). But the method is more important: for the realists, the individual investigator studies the particulars of experience. Importance is given to the relation between words and reality. Descartes followed an individualist method. For the novel, individual experience is always unique, new. It can't be analyzed by referring it to the accepted models. Traditional plots are rejected for the first time (Shakespeare, Milton, the Greeks, the Romans—all considered human life basically unchangeable adn complete). Plot, character and morals are still not perfectly interpenetrated in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding. Tradicional characters (universals) are also rejected (cf. Berkeley: "everything that exists is particular"). Shaftesbury still rejects particularity and the taste of the peculiar. But in Defoe and Richardson we find a particularity of descriptions of characters and environmnet. Individual identity is a matter of controversy to the philosophers of this time. Characters are given particular names and surnames, not generic or descriptive names. (Nevertheless, Richardson's and Fielding's characters still preserve msome of that tradition. But that is a secondary function already. In Amelia names are natural, assigned in a random manner.

Locke and Hume analyze personal identity, and identify it with the identity of consciousness through duration. Both ideas and characters become general by separating them from their particular circumstances of time and place.The novel uses stories set in time: past experience is the cause of present action; time scale is more minutely discriminated. Realism is associated to the slowness of virtual time (stream of consciousness carries it to an extreme). Also, a respect arises for a coherent time-scheme which didn't exist in the classics. Defoe's plots are rooted in time; in Richardson we find a date at the heading of each letter. Fielding mocks Richardson's exactitude, but uses a time-coherent scheme: the Jacobite rebellion in 1745 and the phases of the moon in Tom Jones, etc. Time and space are inseparable. Dfoe is the first writer to use a definite space and objects. In Richardson provides description of interiors: settings are, like in Balzac, a pervasive force. Fielding is more conventional, but gives an exact topography. Prose must be adapted to give an air of authenticity. Up to them, rhetoric ws used to embellish in an artificial way. Locke attacks the deceitfulness of rhetoric. Defoe and Richardson are often clumsy, because they want to be real. Fielding is more orthodox and polished But his stylistic virtues bring a selectiveness of vision which is far from the uncompromising application of the realist point of view in Richardson and Defoe. Like La Fayette and Laclos, he is too stylized to be authentic. The novel works more by exhaustive presentation than by selection—more so than other genres. It is also more translatable.

The formal realism of the novel is, too, a convention, but it allows a more immediate imitation of actual experience than other literary forms. It makes less demands on the audience. Predecessors of the novel: Homer, Chaucer, Apuleius's The Golden Ass, Aucassin et Nicolette... But this aesthetic had never been followed systematically. 

Chapter 2: The Reading Public and The Rise of the Novel

There is a gradual extension of the reading class. About 80,000 in the 1690s— unreliable figures? But it's still a progress. There weas a very limited distribution of literacy. School for the lower classes was intermittent and limited. It was not a necessity to learn. Books were very expensive: circulating libraries appear. The middle class grows, and there are more and more women readers. They read mostly religious works: readers of fiction are a different group. Readers of periodicals, too—a miscellaneous taste, a mixture of improvement and entertainment. Booksellers achieve a strong fiinancial standing, and can influence authors, who are their employees. Richardson was commissioned by them; Johnson was promoted by them. The commercial laws favour prose and copiousness rather than verse: this helps the novel. Writers are independent and not oriented to the Court asin France: there is a lesser force of tradition.











 To be continued....


Notes from Ian Watt's book 

 The Rise of the Novel: Studies in Defoe, Richardson and Fielding. (Berkeley: U of California P; London: Chatto & Windus, 1957) Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963.

Notes taken c. 1983.







Microblog de diciembre 2014





14 dic 14, 22:15
JoseAngel: ¿No es secreta una asociación cuya lista de miembros no es pública? Para mí que sí.
14 dic 14, 22:14
JoseAngel: Se prohíben las asociaciones secretas. Pues la de políticos que están secretamente asociados entre sí, ni les digo.http://t.co/pTqmOcnSUl
14 dic 14, 15:47
JoseAngel: Wandering Star:http://youtu.be/MQgivdo3c0E
13 dic 14, 19:37
JoseAngel: Michael Ruse, Are Humans Necessary?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hacbohWccdk
13 dic 14, 12:08
JoseAngel: Mi bibliografía de crítica sobre Vladimir Nabokov:http://smartsheep.org/a-bibliography-of-literary-theory-criticism-and-philology-v10
13 dic 14, 12:00
JoseAngel: Mi bibliografía sobre gays y homosexuales:http://smartsheep.org/a-bibliography-of-literary-theory-criticism-and-philology-v7
13 dic 14, 01:01
JoseAngel: A China llegó nuestro libro:http://scdz.chinajournal.net.cn/WKE/WebPublication/paperDigest.aspx?paperID=D3E9B6C0-0461-4F2A-BC69-70346A89EF8B
13 dic 14, 00:56
JoseAngel: Fin del Diario del Año de la Peste:http://www.elmundo.es/blogs/elmundo/1714-diario-del-ano-de-la-peste/2014/11/10/y-sin-embargo.html
12 dic 14, 16:07
JoseAngel: A los que "no investigamos" nos van a poner más horas de clase. Como si pudiese uno fiarse de los sinvergüenzas que acreditan "que no investigamos":http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1412/141211_z0_EP3
12 dic 14, 14:54
JoseAngel: The Scriblerus Club:http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p003k9cm
12 dic 14, 14:16
JoseAngel: Con estas malas bestias nunca se hace justicia. Como señal quizá de que no hay que esperarla en ningún caso en el mundo:http://www.libertaddigital.com/internacional/europa/2014-12-12/
12 dic 14, 11:28
JoseAngel: Aparece el volumen 50 de la MISCELÁNEA, dedicado a Francisco Javier Sánchez Escribano. Lástima que no lo leerá.
11 dic 14, 22:03
JoseAngel: Una atmósfera asfixiante en Cataluña:http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1412/141211_z0_HE_08-02.pdf
11 dic 14, 15:44
JoseAngel: Diario de una facultad terrorista:http://diariodeunafacultadterrorista.blogspot.com.es/
11 dic 14, 15:22
JoseAngel: Y cierra Google News, por los Zopencos. No, si estos querrían que Google les pagase cuando hacen una búsqueda. Tontos de baba.
11 dic 14, 08:49
JoseAngel: ¿Rajoy cobra menos que su secretario? Jetas—la desmostración PALMARIA de que la "transparencia" es PANTALLA DE HUMO—para engañar a los memos
10 dic 14, 20:32
JoseAngel: Lo mediocres que somos los profesores enseñando, etc.:http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1412/141209_z0_PA_08-portada.pdf
10 dic 14, 19:16
JoseAngel: I'm being quoted in POETICS TODAY, doi 10.1215/03335372-1375198
10 dic 14, 19:05
JoseAngel: Los bajos índices de los rectores... y de los que no somos rectores:http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1412/141210_z0_EM%20Campus.pdf
9 dic 14, 21:40
JoseAngel: Aplauso obligatorio a Mas, además. Hay que joderse.http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1412/141209_z0_H7-24.pdf
9 dic 14, 15:37
JoseAngel: 36 años de constitución (César Vidal):http://www.cesarvidal.com/index.php/Podcast/escuchar-podcast/editorial_8_11_14
8 dic 14, 22:33
JoseAngel: Qué musical tan BUENO, qué soltura y qué sprezzatura. http://www.imdb.com/title/tt2141751/
8 dic 14, 22:27
JoseAngel: Aparece en la página web del departamento el recordatorio de la vida y la muerte de Javier Sánchez:http://www.unizar.es/departamentos/filologia_inglesa/index.html
8 dic 14, 18:09
JoseAngel: 'El Gran Diseño' y 'Hacedor de Estrellas': Especulaciones sobre el multiverso y la única realidad:...http://fb.me/70rPlAxWs
8 dic 14, 18:08
JoseAngel: Pressed for Time:http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B00MU1B0J2/ref=pe_240370_128581420_nrn_title
8 dic 14, 17:14
JoseAngel: CNR Newsletter:https://centrefornarrativeresearch.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/cnr-autumn-newsletter-2014.pdf
8 dic 14, 15:29
JoseAngel: La 'hoja de ruta' (al guano) de Rajoy:http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-12-06/sin-complejos-cuantos-votos-ha-perdido-el-partido-popular-81856.html vía @esradio
8 dic 14, 13:21
JoseAngel: Nos vamos a ver God Help the Girl, musical estilo Belle and Sebastian:http://www.ociourbano.org/eventos/Cine/god-help-the-girl/54833abae4b025a05fb28867
8 dic 14, 11:52
JoseAngel: Dicen.
8 dic 14, 11:35
JoseAngel: Tenemos nuevo disco de la Ronda de Boltaña: "La huella que el tiempo deja" - ¡Enhorabuena, y gracias Montse, la del acordeón!
7 dic 14, 22:57
JoseAngel: Biescas and back.
7 dic 14, 00:34
JoseAngel: ¿Seguro que sabes dónde está Europa?http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europa_Island
6 dic 14, 21:50
JoseAngel: Radio Materialista - Sobre las propuestas económicas de ("Nos creemos que") Podemos:http://www.ivoox.com/radio-materialista-episodio-23-especial-sobre-las-audios-mp3_rf_3820081_1.html
6 dic 14, 15:58
JoseAngel: Las víctimas responden a la excarcelación de etarras: http://esradio.libertaddigital.com/fonoteca/2014-12-05/las-victimas-responden-a-la-excarcelacion-de-etarras-81830.html
6 dic 14, 15:47
JoseAngel: De constitución frágil:http://garciala.blogia.com/2006/120601-de-constitucion-fragil.php
6 dic 14, 13:45
JoseAngel: Bibliografía de Derrida, muerto hace 10 años ya. "We career graveward at a breakneck rate":https://es.scribd.com/doc/56022387/Derrida-J
6 dic 14, 11:59
JoseAngel: Abre un Facebook la Sociedad Internacional para el Estudio de la Narración... a ver si dura más que su blog: https://www.facebook.com/narrativesociety
5 dic 14, 18:21
JoseAngel: Mi ordenador se ha vuelto rosa. Tengo que llevarlo al taller, harto de ver la vie en rose.
5 dic 14, 17:48
JoseAngel: Derrida, Limited Inc, Normativity:https://www.academia.edu/9636162/
5 dic 14, 10:05
JoseAngel: Les faux soleils (2):http://garciala.blogia.com/2014/120501-les-faux-soleils-2-.php
4 dic 14, 23:54
JoseAngel: Nietzsche, Wittgenstein, Nihilism and Arbitrariness:https://www.academia.edu/9625553/Nietzsche_Wittgenstein_Nihilism_and_Arbitrariness
4 dic 14, 22:00
JoseAngel: Sensibility (IN OUR TIME):http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/p005487n
4 dic 14, 12:57
JoseAngel: La inicua red catalana:http://www.cesarvidal.com/index.php/Podcast/escuchar-podcast/editorial_la_inicua_red_catalana
4 dic 14, 11:36
JoseAngel: Una biblio sobre Byron:https://es.scribd.com/doc/249056707/Byron
3 dic 14, 15:18
JoseAngel: Richard III's back is back:http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1412/141203_z0_M%20Rey%20Ricardo.pdf
3 dic 14, 09:21
JoseAngel: Me citan en POLITISCHE NARRATIVE:http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-658-02581-6_13
2 dic 14, 21:19
JoseAngel: Sigue el lento desplome de nuestra Facultad:http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1412/141202_z0_HA6.pdf
2 dic 14, 21:16
JoseAngel: Aquí metiéndose con la casta universidad:http://prensa.unizar.es/noticias/1412/141201_z0_h18.pdf
2 dic 14, 20:40
JoseAngel: El irresponsable y delirante programa económico de Podemos—a la medida de la estúpida España:http://www.cesarvidal.com/index.php/Podcast/escuchar-podcast/editorial_01_12_14
2 dic 14, 10:02
JoseAngel: Tengo dos artículos en el Top Ten de Language, Culture & Power:http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/topten/topTenResults.cfm?groupingId=2135058&netorjrnl=jrnl
2 dic 14, 08:22
JoseAngel: Radio Nacional comentando con toda tranquilidad cómo avanza la independencia de Cataluña. Al guano nos llevan estas actitudes de traidores. Las grandes traiciones, y las pequeñas. Todas ayudan.
2 dic 14, 00:39
JoseAngel: La España Federal (receta):http://www.libertaddigital.com/opinion/fray-josepho/la-espana-federal-receta-65722/
1 dic 14, 21:48
JoseAngel: An unwanted insight: Social Life as a Poor Play staged by Poor Players.
1 dic 14, 14:01
JoseAngel: Robinson Crusoe (In Our Time)http://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b018flp4




Microblog de noviembre 2014
Microblog de noviembre 2014


—oOo—